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The giant Hii region W 31 hosts the populous star cluster W 31-CL and others projected on or in the surroundings. The most intriguing object is the stellar cluster SGR 1806-20, which appears to be related to a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV)—a luminous supergiant star. We used the deep VVV J-, H-, and
-band photometry combined with 2MASS data in order to address the distance and other physical and structural properties of the clusters W 31-CL, BDS 113, and SGR 1806-20. Field-decontaminated photometry was used to analyse colour–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and stellar radial density profiles, using procedures that our group has developed and employed in previous studies. We conclude that the clusters W 31-CL and BDS 113 are located at 4.5 and 4.8 kpc and have ages of 0.5 and 1 Myr, respectively. This result, together with the pre-main sequence distribution in the CMD, characterises them as members of the W 31 complex. The present photometry detects the stellar content, addressed in previous spectroscopic classifications, in the direction of the cluster SGR 1806-20, including the LBV, Wolf–Rayet, and foreground stars. We derive an age of
and a distance of
. The cluster is extremely absorbed, with
. The present results indicate that SGR 1806-20 is more distant by a factor 1.8 with respect to the W 31 complex, and thus not physically related to it.
The constant search for the improvement of the performance of materials of industrial application, evaluated under aspects of weight reduction, greater resistance, greater resistance to wear and better thermal stability, among others, associated with the search for the development of ecologically viable products, that convert the context of environmental degradation in preservation and sustainability, reflects the need to conduct research that results in new materials. The objective of this work is to obtain composites of the AA6061 aluminum alloy reinforced with different contents of coke coal blast-furnace slag by powder metallurgy. The processing of these materials was done by sieving, mixing and compacting powders of reinforced aluminum alloy with 5, 10 and 15% of blast-furnace slag. The cold uniaxial compaction was realized at a pressure of 500MPa. The obtained materials were sintered at 580°C for 3h under inert atmosphere. Unreinforced aluminum alloy samples were also produced. The characterization of the materials was realized by density and hardness measurements and three-point bending tests. The analysis of its microstructure was realized by scanning electron microscopy. As results, the composites presented a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcing particles and also a progressive improvement of the hardness and the bending strength with the increase of the slag content, producing an increase of 79% in hardness and 128% in flexural strength, when compared to the material without reinforcement obtained by the same process. Such results give the coke coal blast-furnace slag a new possibility of exploitation in the metal-mechanical sector, besides contributing with the environmental issue.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Cerrado sensu stricto (a physiognomy of the Cerrado domain, the Brazilian savanna) is subject to the annual occurrence of fire. Data on the epiphytic community in this physiognomy is scarce, as is evaluation of the influence of fire on its structure and composition. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of the vascular epiphyte community and its relationships with phorophytes in the Cerrado domain, Southeast Region of Brazil, after the passage of fire. We found the greatest abundance of epiphytes in the upper strata (65% of the individuals occurring above 3 m in height) and the dominance of three generalist species (Tillandsia streptocarpa, T. recurvata and Epiphyllum phyllanthus), suggesting that fire has an influence on the structure and composition of the epiphytic community.
The enrichment of meat with selenium is important to improve the intake of selenium by humans. The effects of supranutritional doses of sodium selenite or selenium-enriched yeast on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated using 63 Nellore cattle in a completely randomized design with two sources (sodium selenite and selenium-enriched yeast), three levels (0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 mg Se/kg DM) and control treatment (without addition of selenium). Final body weight (BW), average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain to feed ratio (G : F) at the end of 84 days of supplementation were not influenced by treatments (P>0.05). Values of pH, ribeye area, back fat thickness and marbling score were also not influenced by treatments (
P>0.05). Dressing percentage was greater (P=0.02) in Nellore cattle supplemented with organic Se (58.70%) compared to animals supplemented with inorganic Se (57.94%). Hot carcass weight increased (
P=0.05) with the increasing of Se levels in the diet. Colour, shear force (SF), cooking and drip loss remained unchanged (
P>0.05); however thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was 15.51% higher with inorganic Se compared with organic Se. The selenium concentration in the meat of animals receiving organic selenium was higher (
P<0.001) than that of animals receiving sodium selenite, at all levels (0.3; 0.9 and 2.7 mg/kg DM). The meat of animals receiving 2.7 mg of organic Se/kg of DM presented concentration of 372.7 μg Se/kg in the L.dorsi muscle, and the intake of 150 g of this meat by humans provides approximately 100% of the recommended Se intake (55 μg Se/day for adults). Therefore, the use of supranutritional doses of 2.7 mg Se/kg of DM, regardless of source, is a way of naturally producing selenium-enriched meat without compromising performance, carcass characteristics and quality of Nellore bovine meat.
Differences in forage nutritive value between morning and afternoon are related to patterns of dehydration and carbohydrate accumulation throughout the day. In this way, management strategies that maximize grazing time during the afternoon could increase forage nutritive value and consequently nutrient intake. The aim of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of the time of day (06.00 h [designated AM] or 15.00 h [PM]) that cattle are moved to a new paddock on forage nutritive value, grazing behaviour and animal performance of beef cattle on rotationally stocked Marandu palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu Syn. Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu) pastures. A spring and summer study was conducted in Pirassununga, SP, Brazil from October 2012 to March 2013 (182 days). Treatments were distributed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Herbage mass, morphological composition, herbage allowance and stocking rates were similar between treatments during spring and summer. Moving animals to a new paddock, regardless of the time of day – 06.00 h (AM) or 15.00 h (PM) – stimulated grazing, modifying the distribution of meals throughout the day. However, compensatory mechanisms among grazing time, bite rate and forage nutritive value throughout the day operated in order to generate similar performance between animals offered a new paddock in the morning or in the afternoon.
The clinical manifestation and course of Leishmania infections depend on factors such as species, virulence and host-immunity. Although trypanosomatids are considered to have clonal propagation, genetic hybridization has produced successful natural hybrid lineages. Hybrids displaying strong selective advantages may have an impact on pathogenesis and the eco-epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Thus, characterization of phenotypic properties of Leishmania hybrids could bring significant insight into the biology, infectivity, pathogenicity and transmission dynamics of these atypical strains. The present study focuses on phenotypic features and survival capacity of Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major hybrid isolates as compared with representative putative parental species, L. infantum and L. major. In vitro assays (growth kinetics, susceptibility to different conditions) and in vivo infection (parasite detection and histopathological alterations) showed that hybrids present higher growth capacity and decreased susceptibility to reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, evaluation of infected spleen tissue suggests that hybrids induce a stronger immune reaction than their putative parents, leading to the development of white pulp hyperplasia in B-lymphocyte compartments. Overall, these hybrids have shown high plasticity in terms of their general behaviour within the different phenotypic parameters, suggesting that they might have acquired genetic features conferring different mechanisms to evade host cells.
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane and maize silage mixture v. maize silage in diets of Holstein cows and investigate performance under two environmental conditions. The cows were placed in freestalls, with individuals and stalls assigned to one of four treatments according to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 20-day periods divided into 11 days of adaptation (wash-out period) and 9 days of collection. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design: total diets (maize silage (MS-based diet), the roughage mixture (RM-based diet, sugarcane : maize silage, 500 : 500 g/kg DM) plus concentrate); environmental conditions (with (W) and without (Wo) fan and nebulizers); and measurement times (09.40 and 14.00 h). The temperature and relative humidity was higher at 14.00 h and contributed to increased temperature-humidity index (76.6, W v. 75.9, Wo). Feed dry matter intake (DMI) was similar between diets (20.2 kg/day), but milk production and feed efficiency were lower with RM. Under W conditions, higher fat content and total solids of milk were observed with the RM-based diet, while crude protein and lactose were higher with MS. The Wo conditions increased body surface temperature (BS) in cows fed MS. The rectal temperature (RT) was higher with RM. The BS, RT and respiratory rate were higher at 14.00 h (34.9, 38.6 °C and 58.2 breaths/min) than at 09.40 h. The RM-based diet maintained DMI and milk composition, but not milk production. The use of the cooling system led to higher DMI and feed N efficiency use.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incubating semen for different periods (90, 270 or 450 min) with or without Trolox® (100 or 150 µM) on the quality of sperm from Saimiri collinsi. Sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) were evaluated in both fresh semen and semen incubated for different time periods, i.e. 90, 270 or 450 min of incubation. Supplementation of semen extender with Trolox® 100 µM improved sperm motility, vigour and PMI for up to 270 min of incubation.
Reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is still a public health priority. The development of effective control strategies relies on the quantification of the effects of prophylactic and therapeutic measures in disease incidence. Although several assays can be used to estimate HIV incidence, these estimates are limited by the poor performance of these assays in distinguishing recent from long-standing infections. To address such limitation, we have developed an assay to titrate p24-specific IgG3 antibodies as a marker of recent infection. The assay is based on a recombinant p24 protein capable to detect total IgG antibodies in sera using a liquid micro array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, the assay was optimised to detect and titrate anti-p24 IgG3 responses in a panel of sequential specimens from seroconverters over 24 months. The kinetics of p24-specific IgG3 titres revealed a transient peak in the 4 to 5-month period after seroconversion. It was followed by a sharp decline, allowing infections with less than 6 months to be distinguished from older ones. The developed assay exhibited a mean duration of recent infection of 144 days and a false-recent rate of ca. 14%. Our findings show that HIV-1 p24-specific IgG3 titres can be used as a tool to evaluate HIV incidence in serosurveys and to monitor the efficacy of vaccines and other transmission control strategies.
Minerals are limiting factors in animal production, and the knowledge of mineral requirements for livestock is crucial to the success of a commercial enterprise. Hair sheep may have different mineral requirements than those presents by the international committees. A study was carried to evaluate the net calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) requirements for the growth and maintenance of Brazilian Somali lambs. A total of 48 hair lambs (13.5±1.8 kg) aged 60±15 days were allocated to individual pens. Eight animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to serve as a reference group to estimate initial empty BW (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining lambs (n=40) were assigned to a completely randomized design with eight replications in five levels of metabolizable energy (ME; 4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg DM). When the lambs of a given treatment reached an average BW of 28 kg, they were slaughtered. Initial body composition was used to calculate the retention of minerals. Mineral body composition was fit using a logarithmic equation in the form of a nonlinear model. The maintenance requirements were estimated from regressions of mineral retention in the empty body on mineral intake. The body mineral concentration decreased in lambs with a BW ranging from 15 to 30 kg. The net mineral requirements (100 g/day of average daily gain (ADG)) decreased from 0.52 to 0.51 g for Ca, 0.28 to 0.23 g for P, 0.02 to 0.02 g for Mg, 0.09 to 0.08 g for Na, 0.11 to 0.09 g for K, 1.30 to 1.08 mg for Zn, 3.77 to 3.22 mg for Fe, 0.08 to 0.06 mg for Mn and 0.09 to 0.08 mg for Cu when BW increased from 15 to 30 kg. The daily net requirements for maintenance per kilogram of BW were 30.13 mg of Ca, 27.58 mg of P, 1.26 mg of Mg, 4.12 mg of Na, 8.11 mg of K, 0.133 mg of Zn, 0.271 mg of Fe, 0.002 mg of Mn and 0.014 mg of Cu. The results of this study indicate that the net mineral requirements for weight gain and maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs are different than the values that are commonly recommended by the main evaluation systems for feed and nutritional requirements for sheep. These results for the nutritional requirements of minerals may help to optimize mineral supply for hair sheep.
Forage is the primary feed source for livestock in tropical regions and energy is one of the most important nutrients for ruminant nutrition. The effects of harvest management of Marandu palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu Syn. Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu) on non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations were evaluated. A plot (Experiment 1) and a greenhouse study (Experiment 2) were conducted in 2013–14. In Experiment 1, treatments were the factorial arrangement of two harvest times and two vertical canopy layers (upper and intermediate), distributed in a completely randomized design with five replicates. In Experiment 2, treatments were the factorial arrangement of six harvest times and two morphological fractions (leaf blade and pseudostem). In both experiments, NSC concentration increased during the day. Upper and intermediate canopy layers had greater NSC concentration at 15.00 than 06.00 h during spring and summer. In addition, the magnitude of NSC increase was greater in the upper than intermediate canopy layer and in spring than summer. Marandu palisade grass shows greater digestibility in the afternoon than morning, representing an opportunity to optimize energy concentration through harvest management.
Acinetobacter spp. are important healthcare pathogens, being closely linked to antibiotic resistance and outbreaks worldwide. Although such species are rarely observed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), we describe the characteristics of 53 strains of Acinetobacter spp. isolated from the sputum of 39 Brazilian patients with CF. The species distribution was A. baumannii (n = 29), A. pittii (n = 13), A. nosocomialis (n = 8), A. seifertii (n = 1), A. soli (n = 1) and A. variabilis (n = 1) determined by partial rpoB gene sequencing. Sixteen strains (10 A. baumannii, 3 A. pittii and 3 A. nosocomialis) were multidrug-resistant (MDR) by disk diffusion test (30%) and eight MDR carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains harboured the blaOXA-23-like oxacillinase gene. Thirty-three sequence types (STs) were identified by multilocus sequence typing of which eight were novel (A. baumannii: 843, 844, 845, 847, 848; A. pitti: 643; A. nosocomialis: 862 and A. seifertii: 846); six STs (2 A. baumannii, 3 A. pittii and 1 A. nosocomialis) were found in more than one patient. Four strains of A. baumannii were assigned to two common clonal complexes (CCs), namely, CC1 (ST1, ST20 and ST160), and CC79 (ST79). This study underlines the extensive species diversity of Acinetobacter spp. strains in CF lung infections which may present difficulties for therapy due to significant antimicrobial resistance.
An experiment was carried to evaluate the energy and protein requirements for the growth and maintenance of lambs of different sex classes. In all, 38 hair lambs (13.0±1.49 kg initial BW and 2 months old) were allocated in a factorial design with diet restriction levels (ad libitum, 30% and 60% feed restriction) and sex classes (castrated and non-castrated males). Four animals from each sex class were slaughtered at the beginning of the trial as a reference group to estimate the initial empty BW and body composition. The remaining lambs were weighed weekly to calculate BW gain (BWG), and when the animals fed ad libitum reached an average BW of 30 kg, all of the experimental animals were slaughtered. Before slaughter, fasted BW (FBW) was determined after 18 h without feed and water. Feed restriction induced reductions in body fat and energy concentration, whereas water restriction showed the opposite effect, and the protein concentration was not affected. The increase in BW promoted increases in body fat and energy content, and these increases were greater in castrated lambs, whereas the protein content was similar between classes tending to stabilize. The net energy required for gain (NEg) and the net protein required for gain (NPg) were not affected by sex class; therefore, an equation was generated for the combined results of both castrated and non-castrated lambs. The NEg varied from 1.13 to 2.01 MJ/day for lambs with BW of 15 and 30 kg and BWG of 200 g. The NPg varied from 24.57 to 16.33 g/day for lambs with BW of 15 and 30 kg and BWG of 200 g. The metabolizable energy efficiency for gain (kg) was 0.37, and the metabolizable protein efficiency for gain (kpg) was 0.28. The net energy required for maintenance (NEm) and the net requirement of protein for maintenance (NPm) did not differ between castrated and non-castrated lambs, with values of 0.241 MJ/kg FBW0.75 per day and 1.30 g/kg FBW0.75 per day, respectively. The metabolizable energy efficiency for maintenance (km) was 0.60, and the efficiency of metabolizable protein use for maintenance (kpm) was 0.57. Nutritional requirements for growth and maintenance did not differ between castrated and non-castrated lambs. This study emphasizes the importance of updating the tables of international committees and of including data obtained from studies with sheep breeds raised in tropical conditions, with the purpose of improving the productive efficiency of the animals
Mineral requirements of pregnant dairy goats are still not well defined; therefore, we investigated the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy and for maintenance during pregnancy in two separate experiments. Experiment 1 was performed to estimate the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements in goats carrying single or twin fetuses from 50 to 140 days of pregnancy (DOP). The net mineral requirements for pregnancy were determined by measuring mineral deposition in gravid uterus and mammary gland after comparative slaughter. In total, 57 dairy goats of two breeds (Oberhasli or Saanen), in their third or fourth parturition, were randomly assigned to groups based on litter size (single or twin) and day of slaughter (50, 80, 110 and 140 DOP) in a fully factorial design. Net mineral accretion for pregnancy did not differ by goat breed. The total daily Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy were greatest in goats carrying twins (P<0.05), and the requirements increased as pregnancy progressed. Experiment 2 was performed to estimate net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for dairy goat maintenance during pregnancy. In total, 58 dairy goats (Oberhasli and Saanen) carrying twin fetuses were assigned to groups based on slaughter day (80, 110 and 140 DOP) and feed restriction (ad libitum, 20% and 40% feed restriction) in a randomized block design. The net Ca, P and Mg requirements for maintenance did not vary by breed or over the course of pregnancy. The daily net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for maintenance were 60.4, 31.1 and 2.42 mg/kg live BW (LBW), respectively. The daily net Na requirement for maintenance was greater in Saanen goats (11.8 mg/kg LBW) than in Oberhasli goats (8.96 mg/kg LBW; P<0.05). Daily net K requirements increased as pregnancy progressed from 8.73 to 15.4 mg/kg LBW (P<0.01). The findings of this study will guide design of diets with adequate mineral content for pregnant goats throughout their pregnancy.
Economic losses due to an increase of leg disorders in broilers have become a major concern of the poultry industry. Despite the efforts to reduce skeletal abnormalities in chickens, insufficient progress has been made. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is one of the main disorders that affect bone integrity in broilers. However, the genetic pathways and genes involved in most bone problems, including BCO, remains unclear. In this study, femoral samples from male broilers with 45 days of age affected or not with BCO were used to compare the relative expression with a reverse transcription real time PCR approach of 13 candidate genes: SPP1 (osteopontin), TNFRSF11B (osteoprotegerin), SPARC (osteonectin), CALB1 (calbidin 1), CALM (Calmodulin 2), IBSP (sialoprotein), COL1A2 (collagen, type I, α 2), BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2), BMP3 (bone morphogenetic protein 3), RANKL (κ-B nuclear factor ligand), SMAD1 (SMAD family member 1), LEPR (leptin receptor) and RUNX2 (related transcription factor Runt 2). Differential expression test between affected and non-affected groups was performed using the REST software. The RUNX2 and SPARC genes were downregulated (P<0.05) in the affected group, with reduced expression of fourfold when compared with the non-affected group. This result indicates that the downregulation of RUNX2 and SPARC can contribute to an increased incidence of BCO in broilers.
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered a neglected parasitic infection of the human central nervous system. Its pathogenesis is due to the host immune response, stage of evolution and location of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ and systemic immune response through cytokines dosage (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ) as well as the local inflammatory response of the experimental NCC with Taenia crassiceps. The in situ and systemic cellular and inflammatory immune response were evaluated through the cytokines quantification at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days after inoculation and histopathological analysis. All cysticerci were found within the cerebral ventricles. There was a discrete intensity of inflammatory cells of mixed immune profile, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, at the beginning of the infection and predominance of mononuclear cells at the end. The systemic immune response showed a significant increase in all the analysed cytokines and predominance of the Th2 immune profile cytokines at the end of the infection. These results indicate that the location of the cysticerci may lead to ventriculomegaly. The acute phase of the infection showed a mixed Th1/Th17 profile accompanied by high levels of IL-10 while the late phase showed a Th2 immune profile.
Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values within 1 day. Milk composition and SCC were affected transiently. Increased milking frequency did not influence udder health. Post-biopsy recovery was rapid and the procedure proved effective without damaging the cows’ health.
Episodes of depression and anxiety (D&A) during the transition from late adolescence to adulthood, particularly when persistent, are predictive of long-term disorders and associated public health burden. Understanding risk factors at this time is important to guide intervention. The current objective was to investigate the associations between maternal symptoms of D&A with offspring symptoms during their transition to adulthood.
Data from a large population-based birth cohort study, in South Brazil, were used. Prospective associations between maternal D&A and offspring risk of these symptoms during the transition to adulthood (18/19, 24 and 30 years) were estimated.
Maternal D&A in adolescence was associated with offspring symptoms across the transition to adulthood, associations were consistently stronger for females than for males. Daughters whose mothers reported D&A were 4.6 times (95% confidence interval 2.71–7.84) as likely to report D&A at all three time-points, than daughters of symptom-free mothers.
Maternal D&A is associated with persistent D&A during the daughter's transition to adulthood. Intervention strategies should consider the mother's mental health.
The non-ferrous shape memory alloys have, normally, two problems that hinder its use in industrial scale: the natural aging and grains growth. The first degrades the memory effect, while the second, observed during the processing of alloy, modifies the temperatures which the transformations occur. Thus, the study of kynetic of recrystallization is important for enabling the control of hardened state in function of treatment time, without causing excessive grain growth. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the kinetics of recrystallization of Cu-14Al-4Ni shape memory alloy, based on an empirical law of the formation of Jonhson-Mehl-Avrami, as well as their activation energies for grain growth process according to the empirical Arrhenius law. The alloy was vacuum melted in an induction furnace. After casting, the bulk samples of the alloy were homogenized for 24 hours, solubilized and hot rolled followed by water-quenching to initiate the recrystallization. Then, different samples were annealed at temperatures close to the peak, start and end of the DSC curve. Following the heat treatments, the samples were submitted to mechanical tests and the values of the properties were correlated to the fraction transformed for determination of recrystallization’s kinetic. For the characterization of the grain growth process, analyses in optical microscopy were accomplished and all annealed samples were examined by statistical metallography and the grain sizes were measured. After measurements, the ln[-ln(1-Yrec)] x ln(t) and the ln [D-Do] x 1/T diagrams were plotted to determine the parameters of Jonhson-Mehl-Avrami equation and the activation energy of the process, respectively. The results showed that the equation of the recrystallized fraction follows the empiric law of the formation of Jonhson-Mehl-Avrami for the considered property, as well as, also showed that the alloy Cu-14Al-4Ni is extremely sensitive to temperature variation in which the alloy is treated, having a dual kinetics of grain growth. In the first domain, between 670 and 710°C, the diagram provides a value for the activation energy equal to 39.32 KJ/mol, in the second domain, between 710 and 790°C, the diagram provides a value for the activation energy equal to 9.01 KJ/mol.