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A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to compare particle drift of glyphosate using a fluorescent tracer dye applied with hooded and open sprayers at four spray qualities (Fine [F], Medium [M], Very-Coarse [VC], and Ultra-Coarse [UC]). F and M spray qualities exhibited up to 86% and 56% less drift, respectively, out to 31 m downwind with the hooded sprayer than with the open sprayer. Conversely, VC and UC spray qualities were not affected by sprayer type out to 31 m downwind. From 43 to 104 m downwind, hooded sprayer applications exhibited approximately 50% less drift than open sprayer applications, regardless of spray quality. From 43 to 89 m downwind, F spray qualities, regardless of sprayer type, exhibited higher drift than all other spray qualities. These data indicate that hooded sprayers considerably reduce drift of all spray qualities at short distances downwind. Additionally, at longer distances downwind, both larger spray qualities and sprayer hoods reduced drift independently.
To evaluate the effects of a polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplement on reproductive parameters of suckled beef cows, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, 60 primiparous cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: CTRL – 1.36 kg/day of corn gluten feed (CGF) and MEGR – 1.36 kg/day of CGF and 0.23 kg/day of calcium salts of soybean oil. Supplementation occurred from 30 days before fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) until 7 days post-TAI. The expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) was measured on days 18 and 21. Pregnancy rates were diagnosed on days 30 and 100. Treatment altered plasma fatty acid profile (P<0.05), however, did not change cow BW (P=0.52) or body condition score (BCS) (P=0.52). Treatment did not alter (P=0.12) pregnancy rates to TAI or final pregnancy rates (P=0.56). Treatments did not impact messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the ISG OAS1 or MX2 on days 18 (P=0.67; P=0.96, respectively) or 21 (P=0.72; P=0.17, respectively). Length of gestation was greater (P=0.02) for MEGR, however, treatments did not alter calf birth weight (P=0.20). In Exp. two, 66 multiparous cows were assigned to one of two treatments: MEG – 0.65 kg/day of CGF+0.23 kg/day of calcium salts of palm oil and MEGR – 0.65 kg/day of CGF+0.23 kg/day of Ca salts of soybean oil. Cows were supplemented from 30 days prepartum to 30 days postpartum. On day 35 after TAI, pregnancy status, embryo crown-to-rump length (CRL), and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-specific protein-B (PSPB) were evaluated. Treatment altered plasma fatty acid profile (P<0.05). In addition, cows from the MEG treatment had greater BW (P<0.01) and BCS (P<0.01) than those in the MEGR treatment, as well as heavier calves at weaning (P=0.03). Treatment did not affect resumption of estrous cycle (P=0.29). There were no differences in pregnancy rates to TAI (P=0.87) or final pregnancy rates (P=0.29). No differences between treatments were detected on CRL (P=0.24) and plasma concentrations of PSPB (P=0.46). Birth weight (P=0.12) and calving distribution (P=0.52) were not altered. We concluded that PUFA supplementation altered plasma fatty acid profile, however, did not impact the remaining reproductive parameters evaluated.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
We present preliminary analysis of new HST observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Photometric observations were obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), providing milli-mag precision and high time resolution (40 Hz). The FGS photometry allows us to derive precise stellar/orbital parameters (ephemeris, inclination, limb darkening) and planetary radius, and also allows a search for the presence of planetary rings and satellites. We discuss preliminary results and two approaches to modelling the observations.
Escherichia coli O157 are zoonotic bacteria for which cattle are an important reservoir. Prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 in British cattle for human consumption are over 10 years old. A new baseline is needed to inform current human health risk. The British E. coli O157 in Cattle Study (BECS) ran between September 2014 and November 2015 on 270 farms across Scotland and England & Wales. This is the first study to be conducted contemporaneously across Great Britain, thus enabling comparison between Scotland and England & Wales. Herd-level prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 did not differ significantly for Scotland (0·236, 95% CI 0·166–0·325) and England & Wales (0·213, 95% CI 0·156–0·283) (P = 0·65). The majority of isolates were verocytotoxin positive. A higher proportion of samples from Scotland were in the super-shedder category, though there was no difference between the surveys in the likelihood of a positive farm having at least one super-shedder sample. E. coli O157 continues to be common in British beef cattle, reaffirming public health policy that contact with cattle and their environments is a potential infection source.
With the recent introductions of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant crops, such as soybean and cotton, there will be an increase in POST-applied tank-mixtures of these two herbicides. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate drift from dicamba applications. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dicamba with and without glyphosate sprayed through standard and air induction flat-fan nozzles on droplet spectrum and drift potential in a low-speed wind tunnel. Two standard (XR and TT) and two air induction (AIXR and TTI) 110015 nozzles were used. The applications were made at 276 kPa pressure in a 2.2 ms−1 wind speed. Herbicide treatments evaluated included dicamba alone at 560 gaeha−1 and dicamba+glyphosate at 560+1,260 gaeha−1. The droplet spectrum was measured using a laser diffraction system. Artificial targets were used as drift collectors, positioned in a wind tunnel from 2 to 12 m downwind from the nozzle. Drift potential was determined using a fluorescent tracer added to solutions, quantified by fluorimetry. Dicamba droplet spectrum and drift depended on the association between herbicide solution and nozzle type. Dicamba alone produced coarser droplets than dicamba+glyphosate when sprayed through air induction nozzles. Drift decreased exponentially as downwind distance increased and it was reduced using air induction nozzles for both herbicide solutions.
The spatial distribution of interstellar dust is clearly important in understanding not only galactic dynamics but also the processing of the dust and the interstellar medium in general. Probably the best spectral region for investigating interstellar dust is the infrared (IR), where the cool dust is likely to radiate. Indeed, one of the most prominent features of the IRAS sky is the ubiquitous cirrus emission, thought to be due to interstellar dust heated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF), seen at 60 and 100 μm (Low 1984). However, it is difficult to use the cirrus to probe the dust distribution, both because we have no depth information and also because the cirrus, due to its low temperatures (~20 K), is a probe of high-density dust regions. A far more sensitive search could be made if the dust were hotter, that is, in the presence of a greater ultraviolet (UV) flux. We have made use of this fact to search for dust in the vicinity of hot, bright stars, where even a small amount of dust will dominate the total emission along that line of sight.
Many studies have shown associations between a history of childhood trauma and more severe or complex clinical features of bipolar disorders (BD), including suicide attempts and earlier illness onset. However, the psychopathological mechanisms underlying these associations are still unknown. Here, we investigated whether affective lability mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and the severe clinical features of BD.
A total of 342 participants with BD were recruited from France and Norway. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Affective lability was measured using the short form of the Affective Lability Scale (ALS-SF). A history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Mediation analyses were performed using the SPSS process macro.
Using the mediation model and covariation for the lifetime number of major mood episodes, affective lability was found to statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma experiences and several clinical variables, including suicide attempts, mixed episodes and anxiety disorders. No significant mediation effects were found for rapid cycling or age at onset.
Our data suggest that affective lability may represent a psychological dimension that mediates the association between childhood traumatic experiences and the risk of a more severe or complex clinical expression of BD.
Older people with dementia are at increased risk of physical decline and falls. Balance and mood are significant predictors of falls in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a tailored home-based exercise program in community-dwelling older people with dementia.
Forty-two participants with mild to moderate dementia were recruited from routine health services. All participants were offered a six-month home-based, carer-enhanced, progressive, and individually tailored exercise program. Physical activity, quality of life, physical, and psychological assessments were administered at the beginning and end of the trial.
Of 33 participants (78.6%) who completed the six-month reassessment ten (30%) reported falls and six (18%) multiple falls during the follow-up period. At reassessment, participants had better balance (sway on floor and foam), reduced concern about falls, increased planned physical activity, but worse knee extension strength and no change in depression scores. The average adherence to the prescribed exercise sessions was 45% and 22 participants (52%) were still exercising at trial completion. Those who adhered to ≥70% of prescribed sessions had significantly better balance at reassessment compared with those who adhered to <70% of sessions.
This trial of a tailored home-based exercise intervention presents preliminary evidence that this intervention can improve balance, concern about falls, and planned physical activity in community-dwelling older people with dementia. Future research should determine whether exercise interventions are effective in reducing falls and elucidate strategies for enhancing uptake and adherence in this population.
The temperature of a planetary nebula central star (CPN) may be determined by observing the nebular flux in an H I or He II recombination line and the stellar flux in a continuum band. The former measures the integrated UV stellar continuum blueward of the ionization edge of the recombined ion. By assuming a continuum shape (usually a blackbody), the ratio of these two fluxes yields an effective temperature for the CPN. This particular method, first introduced by Zanstra (1931), has an advantage over others in that the observables are relatively straightforward to obtain. However, this method also carries a troublesome ambiguity with it: CPN temperatures determined using He II recombination lines. This Zanstra discrepancy is reviewed by Kaler (1985) and Henry and Shipman (1986). Examples of He II and H I temperatures for numerous CPNs are given in Pottasch (1984), where it is shown that the He II Zanstra temperature often exceeds the H I temperature by several times 104K.
Light curve analysis by MDW of the photometry and RV data accumulated to date on HD 209458 has made use of a simulations database created for an 8-day HST observing project led by RLG to look for transits in 47 Tuc. We report progress in developing a consistent set of parameters obtained with our versions of the Wilson-Devinney program, WD98 and wd98k93, specially modified to treat large grid sizes, corresponding to objects with radii exceeding 0.7RJ and masses greater than 0.1 MJ.
This work is supported in part by grants to EFM by Canadian NSERC and by the Univ. of Calgary Research Grants Committee.
White dwarf stars provide important boundary conditions for the understanding of stellar evolution. An adequate understanding of even these simple stars is impossible without detailed knowledge of their interiors. PG1346+082, an interacting binary white dwarf system, provides a unique opportunity to view the interior of one degenerate as it is brought to light in the accretion disk of the second star as the primary strips material from its less massive companion (see Wood et at. 1987).
PG1346+082 is a photometric variable with a four magnitude variation over a four to five day quasi-period. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the light curve shows a complex, time-dependent structure of harmonics. PG1346+082 exhibits flickering – the signature of mass transfer. The optical spectra of the system contain weak emission features during minimum and broad absorption at all other times. This could be attributed to pressure broadening in the atmosphere of a compact object, or to a combination of pressure broadening and doppler broadening in a disk surrounding the compact accretor. No hydrogen lines are observed and the spectra are dominated by neutral helium. The spectra also display variable asymmetric line profiles.
Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were measured for carbonate in samples of hadrosaurid tooth enamel and dentine, and gar scale ganoine and dentine from five geologically “contemporaneous“ (two-million-year resolution) and geographically distant late Campanian formations (Two Medicine, Dinosaur Park, Judith River, Kaiparowits, and Fruitland) in the Western Interior Basin. In all cases, isotopic offsets were observed between enamel and dentine from the same teeth, with dentine being characterized by higher and more variable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios. Isotopic offsets were also observed between gar ganoine and hadrosaur enamel in all sites analyzed. Both of these observations indicate that diagenetic overprinting of enamel isotope ratios did not entirely obfuscate primary signals. Decreases in carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were observed in hadrosaur enamel from east to west, and overlap in isotope ratios occurred only between two of the sampled sites (Dinosaur Park and Judith River Formations).
The lack of isotopic overlap for enamel among localities could be due to diagenetic resetting of isotope ratios such that they reflect local groundwater effects rather than primary biogenic inputs. However, the large range in carbon isotope ratios, the consistent taxonomic offsets for enamel/ganoine data, and comparisons of enamel-dentine data from the same teeth all suggest that diagenesis is not the lone driver of the signal. In the absence of major alteration, the mostly likely explanation for the isotopic patterns observed is that hadrosaurids from the targeted formations were eating plants and drinking waters with distinct isotopic ratios. One implication of this reconstruction is that hadrosaurids in the Late Cretaceous of the Western Interior did not migrate to an extent that would obscure local isotopic signatures.
We confirm and extend our previous detection of a population of intergalactic globular clusters in Abell 1185, and report the first discovery of an intergalactic globular cluster in the nearby Virgo cluster of galaxies. The numbers, colors and luminosities of these objects can place constraints on their origin, which in turn may yield new insights to the evolution of galaxies in dense environments.
A survey of soft X-ray background observations in the 0.1–10 keV range is presented. In the region above 1 keV, recent results on point X-ray sources are discussed and their integrated contribution to the diffuse background is estimated. However, the average luminosity of various classes of extragalactic X-ray sources is still not sufficiently well known to permit this estimate to be made with any certainty. A discussion is given of recent observations at energies below 1 keV where the effects of interstellar absorption are important. It is argued that although some fraction of the background radiation in the 0.1–1 keV range must be galactic in origin, there is still substantial evidence for an extragalactic component. Proposed theories for generating both the galactic and extragalactic X-ray background are briefly reviewed.
Solar System dust particles reflect sunlight, producing the so-called zodiacal light (Leinert 1975). The spectrum of the zodiacal light in the far ultraviolet has been a matter of controversy in the past, and remains a subject of great interest.