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Background: Continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) monitoring is essential to diagnosing non-convulsive seizures (NCS), reported to occur in 7-46% of at-risk critically ill patients. However, cEEG is labour-intensive, and given scarcity of resources at most centres cEEG is feasible in only selected patients. We aim to evaluate the clinical utility of cEEG at our centre in order to optimize further cEEG allocation among critically ill patients. Methods: Using a clinical database, we identified critically ill children who underwent cEEG monitoring in 2016, 2017 and 2018. We abstracted underlying diagnoses, indication for cEEG monitoring, cEEG findings, and associated changes in management. Results: Over this three year period, 928 cEEGs were performed. Among the 100 studies analyzed to date, primary indications for monitoring were characterization of events of unclear etiology (32%), diagnosis of NCS (30%), and monitoring of therapy for seizures (17%). Seizures were captured in 31% of patients (22% subclinical only, 5% electroclinical only, 4% both), which resulted in a treatment change in 90% of cases. Non-epileptic events were captured in 26% of patients. Conclusions: cEEG yielded clinically meaningful information in 57% of cases, frequently resulting in management changes. Subgroup analyses by cEEG indication and ICU location will be presented.
Risk populations for HIV infections tend to neglect condom use, making alternative preventive approaches necessary. Accordingly, we modelled the risk of sexual HIV transmission for condom use vs. use of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) systems with subsequent exclusion of potential sexual partners with a correctly or falsely positive test from unprotected sex with and without the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a bio-statistical approach. We combined a previously described model of transmission risk for HIV-exposed individuals with a newly suggested model of risk of HIV exposure for sexually active HIV-negative individuals. The model was adapted for several stages of infection and different strategies of HIV infection prevention.
HIV prevention with RDTs can reduce the transmission risk by up to 97% compared with having sex without any prevention and up to 80% compared with condom use. Nevertheless, RDT-based prevention strategies demonstrate a lack of protection in several stages of infection; in particular, RNA-based RDT systems may fail under treatment. RDT-based pre-screening of potential sex partners prior to unprotected sexual contacts substantially reduces HIV transmission risk. Combination of different prevention strategies is advisable for high-risk groups.
A brief description is given of the Skylab ten color photoelectric photometer and the programs of measurements made during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3. Results obtained on the polarized brightness of zodiacal light at five points on the antisolar hemisphere are discussed and compared with other published data for the north celestial pole, south ecliptic pole, at elongation 90 degrees on the ecliptic, and at two places near the north galactic pole.
The GALLEX collaboration aims at the detection of solar neutrinos in a radiochemical experiment employing 30 tons of Gallium in form of concentrated aqueous Gallium-chloride solution. The detector is primarily sensitive to the otherwise inaccessible pp-neutrinos. Details of the experiment have been repeatedly described before [1-7]. Here we report the present status of implementation in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). So far, 12.2 tons of Gallium are at hand. The present status of development allows to start the first full scale run at the time when 30 tons of Gallium become available. This date is expected to be January, 1990.
In an earlier paper Sparrow et al. (1976) found the polarized brightness of zodiacal light to have solar color at five sky positions for which there were fixed-position observations from Skylab: north celestial pole, south ecliptic pole, vernal equinox, and two places near the north galactic pole. The brightness and degree of polarization of zodiacal light at these sky positions are derived using Pioneer 10 observations of background starlight from beyond the asteroid belt (Weinberg et al., 1974; Schuerman et al., 1976) and the assumption that the zodiacal light is also solar color in total light.
The Skylab flight spare 10-color photopolarimeter (Weinberg, et al., 1975; Sparrow, et al., 1977) is being refurbished for use in Space Shuttle mission STS-4, a test flight currently scheduled for October 1980. Observations will be made of zodiacal light, background starlight, and the Shuttle-induced atmosphere (spacecraft corona), with emphasis on regions of sky closer than 90° to the sun.
This paper gives a bird's-eye view of the various ingredients that make up a modern, model-checking-based approach to performability evaluation: Markov reward models, temporal logics and continuous stochastic logic, model-checking algorithms, bisimulation and the handling of non-determinism. A short historical account as well as a large case study complete this picture. In this way, we show convincingly that the smart combination of performability evaluation with stochastic model-checking techniques, developed over the last decade, provides a powerful and unified method of performability evaluation, thereby combining the advantages of earlier approaches.
Epistasis is an important feature of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, but the dynamics of epistatic interactions in natural populations and the relationship between epistasis and pleiotropy remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the effects of epistatic modifiers that segregate in a wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster population on the mutational effects of P-element insertions in Semaphorin-5C (Sema-5c) and Calreticulin (Crc), pleiotropic genes that affect olfactory behaviour and startle behaviour and, in the case of Crc, sleep phenotypes. We introduced Canton-S B (CSB) third chromosomes with or without a P-element insertion at the Crc or Sema-5c locus in multiple wild-derived inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and assessed the effects of epistasis on the olfactory response to benzaldehyde and, for Crc, also on sleep. In each case, we found substantial epistasis and significant variation in the magnitude of epistasis. The predominant direction of epistatic effects was to suppress the mutant phenotype. These observations support a previous study on startle behaviour using the same D. melanogaster chromosome substitution lines, which concluded that suppressing epistasis may buffer the effects of new mutations. However, epistatic effects are not correlated among the different phenotypes. Thus, suppressing epistasis appears to be a pervasive general feature of natural populations to protect against the effects of new mutations, but different epistatic interactions modulate different phenotypes affected by mutations at the same pleiotropic gene.
Field and pot studies were conducted in Central New York to determine the
potential weed-management benefits of a buckwheat cover crop grown before
winter wheat. Specific objectives were to determine buckwheat residue
effects on (1) emergence and growth of winter annual weeds; (2) wheat
establishment and yield; and (3) emergence of summer annual weeds in the
spring following overwinter seed burial. In a field study, buckwheat was
sown at two timings (July or August), mowed, and either incorporated or left
on the soil surface. Winter wheat was drilled into buckwheat residue in
September and weed and crop growth were monitored. In a complementary pot
study, four winter annual weeds were sown in soil removed from buckwheat and
bare-soil plots at 0 or 15 d after incorporation and monitored for emergence
and early growth. To assess buckwheat residue effects on spring emergence
from overwintering seeds, seeds of three weed species were buried in
buckwheat residue and bare-soil plots in the fall, exhumed in April, and
evaluated for emergence. To investigate the mechanism for possible effects
of buckwheat residue on overwintering seeds, two levels each of seed
treatment (none or fungicide) and fertilization (none or 170 kg
ha−1) were applied before burial. Buckwheat residue had no
negative effect on wheat yields but suppressed emergence (22 to 72%) and
growth (0 to 95%) of winter annual weeds, although effects were often small
and inconsistent. Buckwheat residue had no effect on the emergence of buried
weed seeds in spring. However, fungicide treatment enhanced the emergence of
Powell amaranth seeds by 12.5 to 25.5% and of barnyardgrass seeds by 0 to
12%. Our results suggest that buckwheat residue can contribute to weed
management in wheat cropping systems, but that further studies investigating
the mechanistic basis for the inconsistent selective effects of buckwheat
residue on weeds are needed before buckwheat use can be optimized.
We present the first report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes parotid abscesses complicated by facial nerve palsy. Facial nerve palsy secondary to parotid gland abscess is rare, with only eight previously reported cases.
Case reports and literature review concerning parotid abscess and facial nerve palsy presentation and management.
Within two months, two female patients presented with parotid gland abscess complicated by unilateral facial paralysis. Both were treated with intravenous antibiotics and surgery. In the first case, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was cultivated, in the other, Propionibacterium acnes was found. In the first case, facial nerve function did not recover.
Parotid gland abscess can lead to facial paralysis. Both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes may be involved. Ultrasonography or computed tomography is recommended to exclude a parotid abscess in patients presenting with suppurative parotitis.
In this work, we report optical and structural properties of vertical aligned self-assembled InAs quantum dots multilayers. The InAs quantum dots samples were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Employing Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Gracing Incident X-ray Diffraction we have studied the structural properties of samples with different number of periods of the multiplayer structure, as well as different InAs coverage. The optical properties were studied using Photoluminescence spectroscopy.
Nanometer-sized bismuth has successfully been prepared using a high-temperature organic reducing system by presence of proper capping/stabilizing agents. Self-assembly of bismuth was, at the first time, obtained using size-selected nanoparticles (15nm in size). Various synthetic conditions, which may significantly affect the formation of self-assembled nanocrystalline bismuth, have been optimized and discussed in this paper. The as-prepared nanocrystallites exist in a single rhombohedral phase with high crystallinity, and oxidation problem has been efficiently overcome within limited period by employing this method.
Multi-pathogen biosensors that take advantage of sandwich immunoassay detection schemes usually rely on spatial resolution patterns of capture antibodies on a detector plate for pathogen recognition, and typically utilize fluorescent, organic dyes as optical labels to identify captured pathogens. An immunoassay-based, fiber optic detector that utilizes varying sized fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as the reporter labels for different antibodies would have the ability to detect multiple pathogens within a single fiber, using a single excitation source. Such a detector requires that QDs be attached to antibody proteins, such that the specificity of the antibody is maintained. We have been involved in efforts to develop a reproducible method for attaching QDs to antibodies for use in such a biosensor.
We synthesized CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs of differing size, functionalized their surfaces with several types of organic groups for water solubility, and covalently attached these functionalized QDs to rabbit anti-ovalbumin antibody protein. We also demonstrated that these labeled antibodies exhibit selective binding to ovalbumin antigen. We characterized the QDs at each step in the overall synthesis by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and by picosecond (psec) transient photoluminescence (TPL) spectroscopy. TPL spectroscopy measurements indicate that QD lifetime depends on the size of the QD, the intensity of their optical excitation, and whether or not they are functionalized and conjugated to antibody. We describe details of these experiments and discuss the impact of our results on our biosensor program.
Metal-organic and hybrid metal-organic/metal nanoparticle inkswere evaluated for use in the inkjet printing of copper and silver conducting lines. Pure, smooth, dense, highly conductive coatings were produced by spray printing with (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(I)-vinyltrimethylsilane Cu(hfa)·VTMS) and (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene) (Ag(hfa)COD) metal-organic precursors on heated substrates. Good adhesion to the substrates tested, glass, Kapton tape and Si, has been achieved without use of adhesion promoters. The silver metal-organic ink has also beenused to print metal lines and patterns with a commercial inkjet printer. Hybrid inks comprised of metal nanoparticles mixed with the metal-organic complexes above have also been used to deposit Cu and Ag films by spray printing.This approach gives dense, adherent films that are much thicker than those obtained using the metal-organic inks alone. The conductivities of the silvercoatings obtained by both approaches are near that of bulk silver (2 μΩ·cm). The copper coatings had conductivities at least an order ofmagnitude less than bulk.