To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The introduction of 2,4-D–resistant soybean and cotton provided growers a new POST active ingredient to include in weed management programs. The technology raises concerns regarding potential 2,4-D off-target movement to sensitive vegetation, and spray droplet size is the primary management factor focused on to reduce spray particle drift. The objective of this study was to investigate the droplet size distribution, droplet velocity, and particle drift potential of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline pre-mixture (Enlist Duo®) applications with two commonly used venturi nozzles in a low-speed wind tunnel. Applications with the TDXL11004 nozzle had larger DV0.1 (291 µm), DV0.5 (544 µm), and DV0.9 (825 µm) values compared with the AIXR11004 nozzle (250, 464, and 709 µm, respectively), and slower average droplet velocity (8.1 m s−1) compared with the AIXR11004 nozzle (9.1 m s−1). Nozzle type had no influence on drift deposition (P = 0.65), drift coverage (P = 0.84), and soybean biomass reduction (P = 0.76). Although the TDXL11004 nozzle had larger spray droplet size, the slower spray droplet velocity could have influenced the nozzle particle drift potential. As a result, both TDXL11004 and AIXR11004 nozzles had similar spray drift potential. Further studies are necessary to understand the impact of droplet velocity on drift potential at field scale and test how different tank solutions, sprayer configurations, and environmental conditions could influence the droplet size and velocity dynamics and consequent drift potential in pesticide applications.
Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that prenatal exposure to stress impairs the development of the offspring brain and facilitates the emergence of mental illness. This study aims to describe the impact of prenatal restraint stress on cognition and exploration to an unfamiliar environment at adulthood in an outbred strain of mice.
Late pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress and adult offspring (60 days of age) behaviours were assessed in the object recognition task and open field test.
Prenatal stress (PNS) impaired new object recognition in male and female mice. Importantly, the learning deficits in female PNS mice were linked to their estrous cycle. Actually, PNS females in metestrus/diestrus but not in proestrus/estrus phases displayed recognition deficits compared to controls. Concerning locomotion in an unfamiliar environment, male but not female PNS mice displayed significant increase, but showed no differences in the distance travelled within the centre zone of the arena.
Present findings support the view that maternal restraint-stress during late pregnancy impairs recognition memory in both male and female offspring, and in females, this cognitive deficit is dependent on the estrous cycle phase. Ultimately, these data reinforce that PNS is an aetiological component of psychiatric disorders associated with memory deficits.
Femoral vein access is the first choice for percutaneous atrial septal defect closure, and when it cannot be used due to anatomic reasons, the alternative sites should be considered, frequently increasing the complexity of the procedure. Here we report the case of a 3-year-old boy, with situs inversus and dextrocardia, electively referred for percutaneous closure of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect. During the procedure, agenesis of the infra-hepatic segment of the inferior caval vein was diagnosed, and no double inferior caval vein or right superior caval vein were identified by ultrasound or angiography. Therefore, we opted to perform the procedure through the left internal jugular vein, with fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Catheters were navigated through a hydrophilic guidewire, and a Stiff guidewire was positioned in the left ventricle for better support. An Amplatzer septa occluder 19 was successfully deployed without major difficulties and the patient was discharged after 24 hours in good clinical condition. Percutaneous atrial septal defect closure through alternative access sites, especially in the presence of situs inversus, may pose significant challenges to the interventional team. In this case, the left internal jugular vein has shown to be a feasible option, allowing the navigation and manipulation of devices without complications. Provided the expertise of the interventional team, and awareness of the risks involved, alternative access sites can be successfully used for paediatric structural interventions.
The savannah enclaves (i.e. patches) in the southern Brazilian Amazonia are among the most threatened and poorly surveyed sites in Amazonia. As part of an extensive mammal survey, we set camera traps in three of these savannah enclaves. We obtained 23 independent records of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus, a medium sized Neotropical cervid that is strongly associated with open habitats and categorized as Vulnerable on the Brazilian Red List of threatened species. These savannah enclaves with confirmed populations of pampas deer lie outside the species’ previously presumed historical range and are at least 350 km from any known extant population. Together, these savannah enclaves add c. 4,000 km2 to the pampas deer's currently known range. The small pampas deer populations in these enclaves are probably isolated by a matrix of Amazon forest, raising questions about spatial genetic structure and meta-population dynamics, and making them vulnerable to local extinction. We highlight the need for further studies, particularly genetic, to assess the conservation status of these populations, the results of which could potentially inform management decisions in other areas of the heavily fragmented range of this species.
The electricity sector is in the midst of a structural change driven by new technologies. In Brazil, the electricity sector regulation has mechanisms to foster innovation, including investments in R&D. Recently, the regulatory agency and the industry have been calling for approaches to increase the rate at which R&D departments generate solutions that end up being adopted. As a result, novel approaches to R&D project management have entered the agenda. In this context, the objective of this paper is to characterise Agile Product Development and its application in a highly regulated sector. The paper presents a systematic literature review with the debates about Agile and new product development. Then, a case study exploring an early adoption of the Agile approach in R&D project management in the Brazilian electricity sector is presented. Results include the identification of the Agile features most frequently mentioned in the literature. Moreover, the case study explores the Agile features that were more easily absorbed in early adoption, such as iterative patterns, and discusses implementation challenges in team structure, feedback loops, and communication.
Raman spectroscopy is a fundamental tool for the characterization of two-dimensional materials. It provides insights into the electronic and vibrational properties of these materials and is particularly rich in features when the incident laser energy approaches the electronic energy transition of the material. Among these features, the double resonance Raman process provides important information on the electron, phonon, and electron–phonon properties. It was on the study of carbon-related materials that the double resonance bands sparkled showing their potential and, since then, have been deeply searched in the study of novel 2D materials. Here, the authors review the double resonance Raman process in 2D materials focusing on graphene and semiconducting MoS2 highlighting the origin of the bands mediated by the two-phonon and phonon–defect processes. The authors discuss the observed properties of the double resonance bands and compare the processes for graphene and MoS2 to find guiding principles for the appearance of double resonance bands. The authors also discuss the new findings of the intervalley scattering process in transition metal dichalcogenides. A brief discussion of the defect-induced bands in both materials is also presented.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Previous research suggests that weight loss during early TB treatment (first two months of anti-TB therapy) is a predictor of poor tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes among HIV-negative populations, but the relationship has not been well studied in the context of HIV. We examined the association between HIV and weight change during the first two months of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and also assessed the effects of HIV and early weight change on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Adults with culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible, pulmonary TB, regardless of HIV status, were enrolled into the Regional Prospective Observational Research for Tuberculosis (RePORT)-Brazil cohort and followed on standard anti-TB therapy. For the primary analysis, we compared weight change in persons living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative patients between baseline and two months using multivariable bootstrapped quantile regression and modified Poisson regression. For secondary analysis, we examined the separate effects of HIV and weight change on poor TB treatment outcome (treatment failure, TB recurrence, or death) using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 323 participants, 45 (14%) were HIV-positive. On average, PLWH lost 0.7% (interquartile range (IQR): −5.1%, 4.4%) of their baseline body weight between baseline and two months; those without HIV gained 3.5% (IQR: 0.8%, 6.7%). After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline BMI, PLWH lost 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): −6.5%, −1.6%) more weight during the first two months of anti-TB treatment than HIV-negative individuals. HIV infection was associated with weight loss ≥5% (adjusted odds ratio = 9.3; 95% CI: 4.2-20.6). Regarding the secondary analysis, 14 patients had a poor TB treatment outcome: 2 treatment failures, 4 cases of recurrent TB, and 8 deaths. PLWH and patients who lost ≥5% weight had significantly increased risk of poor TB treatment outcome with hazard ratios of 8.77 (95% CI: 2.96-25.94) and 4.09 (95% CI: 1.11-15.14), respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our results suggest that HIV is associated with weight loss during early TB treatment, and both HIV and early weight loss were associated with poor treatment outcome. Future research should examine the potential etiologies of these findings and identify the types of interventions that would best promote weight gain during TB treatment, especially among PLWH, in order to prevent poor TB treatment outcomes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: More men than women develop urinary stones and their prevalence alters in women with menopause suggesting a steroidal influence. In men the incidence of stones is highest during July and August suggesting that environmental factors such as Vitamin D (VitD), a steroid, may affect stone formation. Previous studies have found differences in the development of stones between men and women; however, the reasons for sex differences in stone formation and type remain unclear. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We examined VitD levels in men and women (n = 18,753) that had no diseases based on a lack of an ICD-9 or ICD-10 code in their electronic medical record. We found that normal, healthy women had significantly higher levels of sera VitD compared to men (p = 6x10-6). We then examined whether sex differences existed for key endpoints/data from the Mayo Clinic Urinary Stone Disease (USD) Registry, which has around 1,600 urinary stone patients that are well-phenotyped according to sex, age and stone type. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Control women were found to have higher sera VitD levels than men, but the sex difference no longer exists in kidney stone disease patients. When we further separated by race, we found that differences in VitD levels reappeared; this suggests that race also plays a role in sera VitD variances. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are developing a disease severity score, which we will use to correlate to sera VitD levels in patients according to sex, age and race. Future analyses will take into account whether subjects had VitD and calcium supplementation. This project begins to explore the mechanism behind the sex differences known to exist in urinary stone disease, which is critically needed to provide improved diagnosis and therapy for this debilitating disease.
Waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] is a troublesome weed occurring in cropping systems throughout the U.S. Midwest with an ability to rapidly evolve herbicide resistance that could be associated with competitive disadvantages. Little research has investigated the competitiveness of different A. tuberculatus populations under similar environmental conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate: (1) the interspecific competitiveness of three herbicide-resistant A. tuberculatus populations (2,4-D and atrazine resistant [2A-R], glyphosate and protoporphyrinogen oxidase [PPO]-inhibitor resistant [GP-R], and 2,4-D, atrazine, glyphosate, and PPO-inhibitor susceptible [2AGP-S]) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and (2) the density-dependent response of each A. tuberculatus population within a constant soybean population in a greenhouse environment. Amaranthus tuberculatus competitiveness with soybean was evaluated across five target weed densities of 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 plants pot−1 (equivalent to 0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 plants m−2) with 3 soybean plants pot−1 (equivalent to 300,000 plants ha−1). At the R1 soybean harvest time, no difference in soybean biomass was observed across A. tuberculatus populations. At A. tuberculatus densities <8 plants pot−1, the 2AGP-S population had the greatest biomass and stem diameter per plant. At the R7 harvest time, the 2AGP-S population caused the greatest loss in soybean biomass and number of pods compared with the other populations at densities of <16 plants pot−1. The 2AGP-S population had greater early-season biomass accumulation and stem diameter compared with the other A. tuberculatus populations, which resulted in greater late-season reduction in soybean biomass and number of pods. This research indicates there may be evidence of interspecific competitive fitness cost associated with the evolution of 2,4-D, atrazine, glyphosate, and PPO-inhibitor resistance in A. tuberculatus. Focus should be placed on effectively using cultural weed management practices to enhance crop competitiveness, especially early in the season, to increase suppression of herbicide-resistant A. tuberculatus.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Resistance to atrazine (a photosystem II [PSII] inhibitor) is prevalent in waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] across the U.S. Midwest. Previous research suggests that target-site mutation or rapid metabolism of atrazine mediated by glutathione S-transferase (GST) conjugation confers resistance in A. tuberculatus from Illinois. The distribution and mechanism of resistance to atrazine in A. tuberculatus populations from Nebraska (NE) are unknown. In this research we (1) evaluated the response and frequency of resistance in NE A. tuberculatus to soil-applied PSII (metribuzin and atrazine) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (sulfentrazone) inhibitors, as well as POST-applied atrazine; and (2) determined the mechanism of atrazine resistance in NE A. tuberculatus. The chloroplastic psbA gene, coding for a D1 protein (the target site of atrazine) was sequenced in 85 plants representing 27 populations of A. tuberculatus. Furthermore, 24 plants selected randomly from four atrazine-resistant (AR) populations were used to determine the metabolism of atrazine via GST conjugation. Results from the soil-applied herbicide evaluation suggest that metribuzin (0.56 kg ai ha−1) and sulfentrazone (0.28 kg ai ha−1) were effective on A. tuberculatus management. PRE and POST screenings against atrazine in the greenhouse indicate that atrazine (1.345 kg ai ha−1) was not effective on 39% and 73% of the A. tuberculatus populations evaluated (total of 109 and 85 populations, respectively), suggesting the prevalence of atrazine resistance in A. tuberculatus in NE. Sequence analysis of the psbA gene found no known point mutations conferring atrazine resistance. However, the AR plants conjugated atrazine via GST activity faster than the known atrazine-susceptible A. tuberculatus. Overall, the outcome of this study demonstrates the predominance of metabolism-based resistance to atrazine in A. tuberculatus from NE, which may predispose this species to evolve resistance to other herbicides. The use of integrated management strategies for A. tuberculatus is crucial for the control of this troublesome species.
Recent open-label trials show that psychedelics, such as ayahuasca, hold promise as fast-onset antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression.
To test the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca, we conducted a parallel-arm, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in 29 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Patients received a single dose of either ayahuasca or placebo. We assessed changes in depression severity with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating scale at baseline, and at 1 (D1), 2 (D2), and 7 (D7) days after dosing.
We observed significant antidepressant effects of ayahuasca when compared with placebo at all-time points. MADRS scores were significantly lower in the ayahuasca group compared with placebo at D1 and D2 (p = 0.04), and at D7 (p < 0.0001). Between-group effect sizes increased from D1 to D7 (D1: Cohen's d = 0.84; D2: Cohen's d = 0.84; D7: Cohen's d = 1.49). Response rates were high for both groups at D1 and D2, and significantly higher in the ayahuasca group at D7 (64% v. 27%; p = 0.04). Remission rate showed a trend toward significance at D7 (36% v. 7%, p = 0.054).
To our knowledge, this is the first controlled trial to test a psychedelic substance in treatment-resistant depression. Overall, this study brings new evidence supporting the safety and therapeutic value of ayahuasca, dosed within an appropriate setting, to help treat depression. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02914769).
The cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an important technique that allows genetic material to be preserved, even post mortem. However, cryopreservation leads to increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may improve certain sperm characteristics, but it also makes sperm more susceptible to oxidative stress, therefore adding antioxidants that counteract oxidative stress has become an option. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the interaction between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and antioxidants on the quality after the cryopreservation of epididymal bull sperm. Twenty epididymides were collected after slaughter, and epididymal sperm was cryopreserved with bovine extender supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). We verified an improvement in motility in the group that was treated only with DHA 5 µM and a concentration-dependent effect on susceptibility to lipid peroxidation that was associated with DHA concentration (1 µM, 5 µM or 10 µM). Moreover, treatment with DHA (5 µM) and SOD (20 IU/ml) resulted in higher sperm motility. Thus, the association between DHA (5 µM) and SOD (20 IU/ml) appears to be an option for increased epididymal sperm features in bulls.
Goats have played a key role as source of nourishment for humans in their expansion all over the world in long land and sea trips. This has guaranteed a place for this species in the important and rapid episode of livestock expansion triggered by Columbus’ arrival in the Americas in the late 1400s. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive perspective on genetic diversity in American goat populations and to assess their origins and evolutionary trajectories. This was achieved by combining data from autosomal neutral genetic markers obtained in more than two thousand samples that encompass a wide range of Iberian, African and Creole goat breeds. In general, even though Creole populations differ clearly from each other, they lack a strong geographical pattern of differentiation, such that populations of different admixed ancestry share relatively close locations throughout the large geographical range included in this study. Important Iberian signatures were detected in most Creole populations studied, and many of them, particularly the Cuban Creole, also revealed an important contribution of African breeds. On the other hand, the Brazilian breeds showed a particular genetic structure and were clearly separated from the other Creole populations, with some influence from Cape Verde goats. These results provide a comprehensive characterisation of the present structure of goat genetic diversity, and a dissection of the Iberian and African influences that gave origin to different Creole caprine breeds, disentangling an important part of their evolutionary history. Creole breeds constitute an important reservoir of genetic diversity that justifies the development of appropriate management systems aimed at improving performance without loss of genomic diversity.
Composite of PZT (lead zirconate titanate) and PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) along an organic, renewable, conductive, and flexible matrix have been developed. The conductive paper was obtained through the reaction between the cellulose extracted from banana stem and functionalized MWCNT. This reaction was made in the presence of hydrogen (from H2SO4), which reduced the size of the cellulose by acid hydrolysis and promotes the interaction between its hydroxyls and the carboxyl groups of nanotubes. Afterward, the PZT particles were synthesized and grown up on the conductive paper by microwaves-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MHS). The composite material was characterized by structure and morphology. Moreover, gas-sensing in the presence of methanol and electrical resistance as a function of temperature were also investigated. In this way, a simple, low-cost and successful synthesis was reported. Also, a promising flexible was obtained using a chemical transformation process from banana residue as source of cellulose.
Echocardiographic screening represents an opportunity for reduction in the global burden of rheumatic heart disease. A focussed single-view screening protocol could allow for the rapid training of healthcare providers and screening of patients.
The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a focussed single-view hand-held echocardiographic protocol for the diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease in children.
A total of nine readers were divided into three reading groups; each interpreted 200 hand-held echocardiography studies retrospectively as screen-positive, if mitral regurgitation ⩾1.5 cm and/or any aortic insufficiency were observed, or screen-negative from a pooled study library. The performance of experts receiving focussed hand-held protocols, non-experts receiving focussed hand-held protocols, and experts receiving complete hand-held protocols were determined in comparison with consensus interpretations on fully functional echocardiography machines.
In all, 587 studies including 76 on definite rheumatic heart disease, 122 on borderline rheumatic heart disease, and 389 on normal cases were available for analysis. The focussed single-view protocol had a sensitivity of 81.1%, specificity of 75.5%, negative predictive value of 88.5%, and a positive predictive value of 63.2%; expert readers had higher specificity (86.1 versus 64.8%, p<0.01) but equal sensitivity. Sensitivity – experts, 96% and non-experts, 95% – and negative predictive value – experts, 99% and non-experts, 98% – were better for definite rheumatic heart disease. False-positive screening studies resulting from erroneous identification of mitral regurgitation and aortic insufficiency colour jets increased with shortened protocols and less experience (p<0.01).
Our data support a focussed screening protocol limited to parasternal long-axis images. This holds promise in making echocardiographic screening more practical in regions where rheumatic heart disease remains endemic.
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of nutritional regimens such as adequate feeding, restricted feeding, and underfeeding–refeeding on the follicle growth and development from caprine ovaries. Goats were divided into three different groups (n = 5 per group). For 24 weeks, goats received elephant grass plus concentrate to provide 1.5 (n = 5) and 0.72 (n = 10) times the energy requirements for maintenance of live weight. Underfed goats were subsequently refed for 6 weeks with the diet of the nourished group (1.5 times the energetic requirements of maintenance). Follicular morphology and morphometry, as well as granulosa cells mitotic index were assessed. Ovarian follicles were classified as small or large preantral follicles, or as small or large antral follicles. Ovarian volume was smaller in animals from both underfed and refed groups than in those animals from fed group. Although no difference in the total number of normal follicles was observed among the nutritional groups, underfed animals presented higher percentages of atretic preantral and small antral follicles when compared with fed animals. Large antral follicles from underfed and refed goats presented a lower mitotic index when compared with fed ones. In conclusion, ovaries from goats challenged with prolonged undernutrition will be functionally compromised, which is characterized by atresia of preantral and small antral follicles and decreased mitotic index of large antral follicles. Refeeding those animals will not recover ovarian function to a same level experienced by goats fed a diet with adequate energy requirements.
With the recent introductions of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant crops, such as soybean and cotton, there will be an increase in POST-applied tank-mixtures of these two herbicides. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate drift from dicamba applications. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dicamba with and without glyphosate sprayed through standard and air induction flat-fan nozzles on droplet spectrum and drift potential in a low-speed wind tunnel. Two standard (XR and TT) and two air induction (AIXR and TTI) 110015 nozzles were used. The applications were made at 276 kPa pressure in a 2.2 ms−1 wind speed. Herbicide treatments evaluated included dicamba alone at 560 gaeha−1 and dicamba+glyphosate at 560+1,260 gaeha−1. The droplet spectrum was measured using a laser diffraction system. Artificial targets were used as drift collectors, positioned in a wind tunnel from 2 to 12 m downwind from the nozzle. Drift potential was determined using a fluorescent tracer added to solutions, quantified by fluorimetry. Dicamba droplet spectrum and drift depended on the association between herbicide solution and nozzle type. Dicamba alone produced coarser droplets than dicamba+glyphosate when sprayed through air induction nozzles. Drift decreased exponentially as downwind distance increased and it was reduced using air induction nozzles for both herbicide solutions.