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The World Health Organization recently reported that maternal mental health is a major public health concern. As many as one in four women suffer from psychiatric disorders at some point during pregnancy or the first postpartum year. Furthermore, self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) represent one of the leading causes of death among women during this time. Thus, efforts to identify women at risk for serious forms of psychopathology and especially for SITBs are of utmost importance. Despite this urgency, current single-diagnostic approaches fail to recognize a significant subset of women who are vulnerable to perinatal stress and distress. The current study was among the first to investigate emotion dysregulation—a multilevel, transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology—and its associations with stress, distress, and SITBs in a sample of pregnant women (26–40 weeks gestation) recruited to reflect a range of emotion dysregulation. Both self-reported emotion dysregulation and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a biomarker of emotion dysregulation, demonstrated expected associations with measures of mental health, including depression, anxiety, borderline personality pathology, and SITBs. In addition, self-reported emotion dysregulation was associated with blunted respiratory sinus arrhythmia responsivity to an ecologically valid infant cry task. Findings add to the literature considering transdiagnostic risk during pregnancy using a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach.
Loess is widespread over Alaska, and its accumulation has traditionally been associated with glacial periods. Surprisingly, loess deposits securely dated to the last glacial period are rare in Alaska, and paleowind reconstructions for this time period are limited to inferences from dune orientations. We report a rare occurrence of loess deposits dating to the last glacial period, ~19 ka to ~12 ka, in the Yukon-Tanana Upland. Loess in this area is very coarse grained (abundant coarse silt), with decreases in particle size moving south of the Yukon River, implying that the drainage basin of this river was the main source. Geochemical data show, however, that the Tanana River valley to the south is also a likely distal source. The occurrence of last-glacial loess with sources to both the south and north is explained by both regional, synoptic-scale winds from the northeast and opposing katabatic winds that could have developed from expanded glaciers in both the Brooks Range to the north and the Alaska Range to the south. Based on a comparison with recent climate modeling for the last glacial period, seasonality of dust transport may also have played a role in bringing about contributions from both northern and southern sources.
There has been considerable speculation in recent years about the evolution of radio galaxies in clusters. The discovery of powerful X-ray emission with an apparently thermal spectrum from a considerable number of clusters has been attributed to a hot (108K) intracluster gas with an electron density of ∼ 10-3 cm -3 at the cluster centre (see e.g. McHardy 1978). Such a gas surrounding a radio galaxy may conceivably retard the expansion or diffusion of the relativistic electrons and thus allow the source to retain its identity for longer intervals than is the case for field galaxies.
Experiments reporting magnetic-field generation by the ablative nonlinear Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability are reviewed. The experiments show how large-scale magnetic fields can, under certain circumstances, emerge and persist in strongly driven laboratory and astrophysical flows at drive pressures exceeding one million times atmospheric pressure.
There is a general lack of knowledge regarding the absorption and tissue storage of the provitamin A carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin. The present study investigated the whole-body tissue distribution of β-cryptoxanthin in an appropriate small animal model, the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), for human provitamin A carotenoid metabolism. After 5 d of carotenoid depletion, five gerbils were euthanised for baseline measurements. The remaining gerbils were placed in three weight-matched treatment groups (n 8). All the groups received 20 μg/d of β-cryptoxanthin from tangerine concentrate, while the second and third groups received an additional 20 and 40 μg/d of pure β-cryptoxanthin (CX40 and CX60), respectively, for 21 d. During the last 2 d of the study, urine and faecal samples of two gerbils from each treatment group were collected. β-Cryptoxanthin was detected in the whole blood, and in twelve of the fourteen tissues analysed. Most tissues resembled the liver, in which the concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin were significantly higher in the CX60 (17·8 (sem 0·7) μg/organ; P= 0·004) and CX40 (16·2 (sem 0·9) μg/organ; P= 0·006) groups than in the CX20 group (13·3 (sem 0·4) μg/organ). However, in intestinal tissues, the concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin increased only in the CX60 group. Despite elevated vitamin A concentrations in tissues at baseline due to pre-study diets containing high levels of vitamin A, β-cryptoxanthin maintained those vitamin A stores. These results indicate that β-cryptoxanthin is stored in many tissues, potentially suggesting that its functions are widespread.
Geologic archives show that the Earth was dustier during the last glacial period. One model suggests that increased gustiness (stronger, more frequent winds) enhanced dustiness. We tested this at Loveland, Iowa, one of the thickest deposits of last-glacial-age (Peoria) loess in the world. Based on K/Rb and Ba/Rb, loess was derived not only from glaciogenic sources of the Missouri River, but also distal loess from non-glacial sources in Nebraska. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages provide the first detailed chronology of Peoria Loess at Loveland. Deposition began after ~ 27 ka and continued until ~ 17 ka. OSL ages also indicate that mass accumulation rates (MARs) of loess were not constant. MARs were highest and grain size was coarsest during the time of middle Peoria Loess accretion, ~ 23 ka, when ~ 10 m of loess accumulated in no more than ~ 2000 yr and possibly much less. The timing of coarsest grain size and highest MAR, indicating strongest winds, coincides with a summer-insolation minimum at high latitudes in North America and the maximum southward extent of the Laurentide ice sheet. These observations suggest that increased dustiness during the last glacial period was driven largely by enhanced gustiness, forced by a steepened meridional temperature gradient.
Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its β-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk–benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the feeding study were combined with African cassava consumption data to model the potential daily BC, VA and cyanide intakes of African women. If BC-enhanced cassava replaced white cassava in the diets, it could theoretically meet recommended VA intakes for the following percentages of individuals from six African countries that consume cassava as a staple crop: Angola (95 %), Central African Republic (95 %), Congo (about 100 %), Ghana (99 %), Mozambique (99 %) and Nigeria (92 %). Cyanide intake after minimal preparation of cassava could be thirteen to thirty-two times the reference dose (RfD), a toxicological exposure reference, but could be completely removed by extensive soaking. This study demonstrates that consumption of BC-enhanced cassava, processed to maintain BC and remove cyanide, theoretically increases VA intakes for African populations and other areas of the world where cassava is a staple crop.
Biofortification of cassava with the provitamin A carotenoid β-carotene is a potential mechanism for alleviating vitamin A deficiency. Cassava is a staple food in the African diet, but data regarding the human bioavailability of β-carotene from this food are scarce. The objective of the present study was to evaluate provitamin A-enhanced cassava as a source of β-carotene and vitamin A for healthy adult women. The study was a randomised, cross-over trial of ten American women. The subjects consumed three different porridges separated by 2 week washout periods. Treatment meals (containing 100 g cassava) included: biofortified cassava (2 mg β-carotene) porridge with added oil (15 ml peanut or rapeseed oil, 20 g total fat); biofortified cassava porridge without added oil (6 g total fat); unfortified white cassava porridge with a 0·3 mg retinyl palmitate reference dose and added oil (20 g total fat). Blood was collected six times from − 0·5 to 9·5 h post-feeding. TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analysed using HPLC with coulometric array electrochemical detection. The AUC for retinyl palmitate increased after the biofortified cassava meals were fed (P< 0·05). Vitamin A conversion was 4·2 (sd 3·1) and 4·5 (sd 3·1) μg β-carotene:1 μg retinol, with and without added oil, respectively. These results show that biofortified cassava increases β-carotene and retinyl palmitate TRL plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, suggesting that it is a viable intervention food for preventing vitamin A deficiency.
Evaluation of the traumatized patient frequently involves consideration of possible cervical spine injury. When neurological deficits, unconsciousness, alcoholic intoxication, severe maxillofacial or head trauma, or local neck pain are present, it is an easy decision to obtain cervical spine x-rays. The dilemma arises in the patient without neck pain who has mild to moderate scalp or facial injuries. Such a patient usually arrives in the emergency department with a cervical collar placed by pre-hospital personnel because of the mechanism of injury and the associated head or facial soft tissue trauma. Due to the association of cervical spine fractures with “significant” facial trauma, neck x-rays have been recommended. What, however, constitutes “significant” facial trauma To delineate such facial injuries, a retrospective analysis of 30 patients with cervicalspine fractures hospitalizedin a five year period at the University of Nebraska Medical Center was performed. Seventeen patients had head, scalp or facial injuries ranging from skull fractures and scalp hematomas to minor abrasions and lacerations. To determine if cervical spine films are being over utilized, a current prospective study of patients undergoing this evaluation will be presented, detailing the facial and head injuries, location, degree of severity, and detection of cervical spine injuries.
Depressive and anxiety disorders (common mental disorders) are the most common psychiatric condition encountered in primary healthcare.
To test the effectiveness of an intervention led by lay health counsellors in primary care settings (the MANAS intervention) to improve the outcomes of people with common mental disorders.
Twenty-four primary care facilities (12 public, 12 private) in Goa (India) were randomised to provide either collaborative stepped care or enhanced usual care to adults who screened positive for common mental disorders. Participants were assessed at 2, 6 and 12 months for presence of ICD-10 common mental disorders, the severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety, suicidal behaviour and disability levels. All analyses were intention to treat and carried out separately for private and public facilities and adjusted for the design. The trial has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00446407).
A total of 2796 participants were recruited. In public facilities, the intervention was consistently associated with strong beneficial effects over the 12 months on all outcomes. There was a 30% decrease in the prevalence of common mental disorders among those with baseline ICD-10 diagnoses (risk ratio (RR) = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.92); and a similar effect among the subgroup of participants with depression (RR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.59–0.98). Suicide attempts/plans showed a 36% reduction over 12 months (RR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.42–0.98) among baseline ICD-10 cases. Strong effects were observed on days out of work and psychological morbidity, and modest effects on overall disability. In contrast, there was little evidence of impact of the intervention on any outcome among participants attending private facilities.
Trained lay counsellors working within a collaborative-care model can reduce prevalence of common mental disorders, suicidal behaviour, psychological morbidity and disability days among those attending public primary care facilities.
The randomized controlled trial has become the standard basis for the evaluation of new therapeutic agents and procedures (and for measuring the protective efficacy of new vaccines or for assessing the value of screening procedures). Patients, who have met the criteria for eligibility and have agreed to participate in the trial, are allocated on a random basis to the alternative therapies under consideration. In order to avoid possible bias in the handling or assessment of these groups, a double blind procedure is preferred; the therapy given is not known to those who administer it, to those who assess the course of the disease thereafter, nor to the patients themselves. There is an extensive literature on clinical trials covering their logic and history, modern developments and the many complex, often controversial, issues that such trials have provoked. Not all issues have been fully resolved but by and large the principle, the practice and the ethical concerns of clinical trials are worked out and firmly established.
β-Carotene (BC), β-cryptoxanthin (CX) and α-carotene (AC) are common carotenoids that form retinol. The amount of retinol (vitamin A) formed from carotenoid-rich foods should depend chiefly on the bioavailability (absorption and circulation time in the body) of carotenoids from their major food sources and the selectivity and reactivity of carotene cleavage enzymes towards them. The objective of the present study was to estimate the apparent bioavailability of the major sources of provitamin A (AC, BC and CX) from the diet by comparing the concentrations of these carotenoids in blood to their dietary intakes. Dietary intakes were estimated by FFQ (three studies in this laboratory, n 86; apparent bioavailability calculated for six other studies, n 5738) or by food record (two studies in our laboratory, n 59; apparent bioavailability calculated for two other studies, n 54). Carotenoid concentrations were measured by reversed-phase HPLC. Apparent bioavailability was calculated as the ratio of concentration in the blood to carotenoid intake. Then apparent bioavailabilities for AC and CX were compared to BC. Eating comparable amounts of AC-, CX- and BC-rich foods resulted in 53 % greater AC (99 % CI 23, 83) and 725 % greater CX (99 % CI 535, 915) concentrations in the blood. This suggests that the apparent bioavailability of CX from typical diets is greater than that of BC. Thus, CX-rich foods might be better sources of vitamin A than expected.
Advances in contemporary perinatal care including antenatal steroids and neonatal intensive care have resulted in continued improvement in survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (< 1000 g) infants in the 1990s [1, 2–4] which has been most significant among infants at the limits of viability (23–24 weeks and < 750 g) birth weight [2, 4–8]. Approximately 40 000 ELBW infants (1% of the live births) are born annually in the United States. The goal of healthcare professionals in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) caring for these vulnerable preterm infants is not only to assure survival, but to continually improve the neonatal and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of these high-risk infants. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Network indicate survival rates for ELBW infants 501–750 g improved from 41% to 55%, and for ELBW infants 750–1000 g from 81% to 86% between 1990–1 and 1997–2000 . However, the number of infants with serious neonatal complications including intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), also increased during the study period. Concurrent with the increase in the total number of ELBW infant survivors, and the number of survivors with serious neonatal morbidities, there has been an increase in the total number of infants with a spectrum of post-discharge adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes requiring long-term support and intervention services.
A comparison was made of beef cooked in conventional and moist air (Rapidaire) ovens. In both large (ca. 4·5 kg.) and small (ca. 2·7 kg.) joints, spores of Clostridium welchii survived after cooking but vegetative cells, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, did not, regardless of the type of oven used
Cooling at room temperature after cooking permitted growth of Cl. welchii. Although some multiplication also occurred in the centre of large roasts cooled under refrigeration, the viable counts were considered too low to constitute a potential health risk
Details of confirmed outbreaks of food poisoning due to heat-sensitive Cl. welckii are given. In 4/5 incidents heat-sensitive Cl. welckii were isolated in large numbers from the majority of the faeces. In the remaining outbreak the faecal samples were not collected until 7–9 days after the illness. The causative organism was isolated from the food in 3/5 instances.
In addition four outbreaks of food poisoning in which both heat-sensitive and heat-resistant Cl. welckii were isolated are described.
The role of heat-sensitive Cl. welckii in food poisoning outbreaks is discussed and a suggested method of examining faeces for Cl. welchii is given.
We are indeed grateful for the assistance given in collecting faecal specimens and obtaining detailed information on the food preparation, etc., by Drs G. C. Turner, J. Epsom, J. G. Wallace, P. J. Wormald, H. D. Holt, D. G. Fleck, J. M. Graham, E. Tanner and J. D. Abbott. We would also like to thank Mrs I. Batty of the Wellcome Research Laboratory for carrying out toxicological examinations for us.
One of us (R.G.A.S.) is attached to the Commonwealth Department of Health, Australia, and is at present the holder of a Public Service Board Postgraduate scholarship.
Total body fat mass (TBFM) and total body lean mass (TBLM) are the major components of the human body. Although these highly correlated phenotypic traits are frequently used to characterize obesity, the specific shared genetic factors that influence both traits remain largely unknown. Our study was aimed at identifying common quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to both TBFM and TBLM. We performed a whole genome-linkage scan study in a large sample of 3255 subjects from 420 Caucasian pedigrees. Bivariate linkage analysis was carried out in both the entire sample and gender-specific subsamples. Several potentially important genomic regions that may harbour QTLs important for TBFM and TBLM were identified. For example, 20p12-11 achieved a LOD score of 2·04 in the entire sample and, in the male subsample, two genomic regions, 20p12 (LOD=2·08) and 3p26-25 (LOD=1·92), showed suggestive linkage. In addition, two-point linkage analyses for chromosome X showed suggestive linkages on Xp22 in the entire sample (LOD=2·14) and significant linkage on Xp22 in the female subsample (LOD=3·05). Complete pleiotropy was suggested for 20p12 and 3p26-25 in males. Our results suggest that QTLs on chromosomes 20p12, 3p26-25 and Xp22 may jointly influence TBFM and TBLM. Further fine mapping and gene identification studies for these pleiotropic effects are needed.
Perspectives from 22 countries on aspects of the legal environment for selection are presented in this article. Issues addressed include (a) whether there are racial/ethnic/religious subgroups viewed as “disadvantaged,” (b) whether research documents mean differences between groups on individual difference measures relevant to job performance, (c) whether there are laws prohibiting discrimination against specific groups, (d) the evidence required to make and refute a claim of discrimination, (e) the consequences of violation of the laws, (f) whether particular selection methods are limited or banned, (g) whether preferential treatment of members of disadvantaged groups is permitted, and (h) whether the practice of industrial and organizational psychology has been affected by the legal environment.