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Functional impairment is a defining feature of psychotic disorders. A range of factors has been shown to influence functioning, including negative symptoms, cognitive performance and cognitive reserve (CR). However, it is not clear how these variables may affect functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. This 2-year follow-up study aimed to explore the possible mediating effects of CR on the relationship between cognitive performance or specific clinical symptoms and functional outcome.
A prospective study of non-affective FEP patients was performed (211 at baseline and 139 at follow-up). CR was entered in a path analysis model as potential mediators between cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning.
At baseline, the relationship between clinical variables or cognitive performance and functioning was not mediated by CR. At follow-up, the effect of attention (p = 0.003) and negative symptoms (p = 0.012) assessed at baseline on functioning was partially mediated by CR (p = 0.032 and 0.016), whereas the relationship between verbal memory (p = 0.057) and functioning was mediated by CR (p = 0.014). Verbal memory and positive and total subscales of PANSS assessed at follow-up were partially mediated by CR and the effect of working memory on functioning was totally mediated by CR.
Our results showed the influence of CR in mediating the relationship between cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning in FEP. In particular, CR partially mediated the relationship between some cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning at follow-up. Therefore, CR could improve our understanding of the long-term functioning of patients with a non-affective FEP.
This article assesses the nutritional status of Indigenous women from 14 to 49 years of age in Brazil.
Sample size was calculated for each region considering a prevalence of 50 % for all disease outcomes, a relative error of 5 % and a CI of 95 %. In the initial data analysis, the prevalence of excess weight and obesity was calculated according to independent variables. Multivariate multilevel hierarchical analyses were conducted based on a theoretical model of two ranked blocks.
The 2010 Indigenous population in Brazil was 896 000, with approximately 300 Indigenous ethnic groups, making Brazil one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the Americas and the world.
Of the total target sample of 6722 women evaluated by the National Survey, thirty did not participate, 939 were not eligible for analyses due to pregnancy or unknown pregnancy status, and thirty-nine were excluded due to missing anthropometric data.
The evaluation of nutritional status was completed for 5714 non-pregnant women (99·3 % of eligible participants for this outcome). High prevalence rates were encountered for both excess weight (46·2 %) and obesity (15·8 %) among the sampled women. In the multivariate analyses, higher socioeconomic indicators, market-integrated living conditions and less reliance on local food production, as well as increased age and parity were associated with excess weight and obesity.
Results point to distinct patterns of associations between socioeconomic indicators and the occurrence of excess weight and obesity among Indigenous women, which have potentially significant implications from a public policy perspective for Indigenous peoples in Brazil.
To assess the differences in comorbid lifetime substance use (tobacco, alcohol and drug use) between eating disorder (ED) patients and healthy controls.
Participants were a consecutive series of 779 ED cases, who had been referred to specialised ED units in five European countries. The ED cases were compared to a balanced control group of 785 healthy individuals. Assessment: Participants completed the Substance Use Subscale of the Cross Cultural Questionnaire (CCQ), a measure of lifetime tobacco, alcohol and drug use. In the control group, also the GHQ-28, the SCID-I interview and the EAT-26 were used.
ED patients had higher lifetime consumption of tobacco and drugs (p <0.01). The only insignificant result was obtained for alcohol (OR= 1.29; δ =0.157; N.S.) and cannabis use (OR= 1.21; δ = 0.037, N.S.). Significant differences across ED sub diagnoses also emerged for all of the assessed variables (p<0.01), with the BN and AN-BP patients generally presenting the highest prevalence rates. The only exception was detected for alcohol consumption where EDNOS patients demonstrated the highest values (p=0.008). Only a few cultural differences between countries emerged (p<0.05).
Lifetime tobacco and drug use but not alcohol consumption are more prevalent in ED patients than healthy controls. While alcohol appears to be more common in EDNOS, smoking and drug use are more frequent in patients with bulimic symptomatology. The differential risk observed in patients with bulimic features might be related to differences in temperament or might be the result of increased sensitivity to reward.
To examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence and the likelihood of developing an eating disorder (ED) later in life.
Participants were a consecutive series of 879 ED cases from five different European countries. The ED cases were compared to a control group of 785 healthy individuals. Assessment: Participants completed the Early Eating Environmental Subscale of the Cross-Cultural (Environmental) Questionnaire (CCQ), a retrospective measure, which has been developed to detect dimensions associated with EDs in different countries. In the control group, also the GHQ-28, the SCID-I interview and the EAT-26 were used.
Five individual CatPCA procedures revealed five predetermined dimensions which were labeled: 1.) food as individualization; 2.) control and rules about food; 3.) food as social glue; 4.) healthy eating and 5.) food neglect. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the domains with the strongest effects were: food used as individualization (p=0.001; OR=1.76) and control and rules about food (p=0.001; OR=1.76). Conversely, healthy eating was negatively related to a later ED (p=0.001; OR=0.629). The pattern of associated ED factors was found to very between countries. There was very little difference in early eating behavior on the subtypes of the ED.
The fragmentation of meals within the family and control and rules about food appears to be linked to the development of a subsequent ED. On the other hand mantaining a structured and balanced diet during infancy seems to protect from a later ED.
Poor insight has been associated to positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. However, the impact of antipsychotic treatment on insight in delusional disorder (DD) has not well defined.
Our purpose was to investigate the impact of long-acting atypical antipsychotics (PPLAI, RLAI) on insight in DD patients.
We conducted a prospective and observational study by including 60 consecutive cases of DD outpatients, which were followed up for at least 6 months. Outcome variables: Scores in the first three items of the SUMD for Insight, PANSS for psychopathology, HRSD-17 for depression and PSP for functionality. The sample was divided into two groups according to the treatment received: oral or long-acting atypical antipsychotics (RLAI or PPLAI). T and Chi-square tests were used. Insight differences between both groups were investigated by applying Analysis of Covariance.
At baseline, DD patients treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics had higher scores in awareness of social consequences. Although no statistically significant differences were found, after 6 months of treatment, patients receiving long-acting injectable antipsychotics showed a tendency of improvement of awareness of illness, awareness of the effects of medication and awareness of social consequences. Statistically significant treatment group*PANSS total score interactions were found for awareness for social consequences. After controlling for SUMD baseline and PANSS total scores, DD patients treated with long-acting antipsychotics showed an improvement of awareness of the effects of medications and social consequences.
Patients receiving long-acting injectable antipsychotics showed an improvement in psychotic symptoms and insight dimensions.
Recent meta-analysis in schizophrenia report that patients treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) show a significant improvement in hallucinations. However, little evidence supports their efficacy in non-prominent hallucinations in delusional disorder (DD) patients.
To examine treatment effectiveness of LAI antipsychotics (PPLAI and RLAI) with other oral antipsychotics in DD with non-prominent hallucinations.
A prospective and observational study was carried out by including 60 consecutive cases of DD outpatients, as part of the DEVCODEL Study. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Outcome variables: Scores in PANSS, HRSD-17 items, PSP for functionality, and C-SSRS for suicide. To investigate whether differences between treatment groups were biased by confounding variables, scores in assessment scales at 6 months served as dependent variables, and hallucinatory and treatment groups were included as between-subject factors when analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied.
24(40%) patients had non-prominent hallucinations. Although not statistically significant, when uncorrected for influencing factors, DD patients receiving PPLAI or RLAI (n=27;45.5%) were less frequently treated with antidepressants (32%vs.68%) and showed lower suicidality (44.4%vs.55.6%). Patients treated with PPLAI or RLAI had lower scores in psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation intensity, and higher functionality. After adjustment, patients with non-prominent hallucinations receiving PPLAI or RLAI showed a tendency of improvement in functionality, lower scores in PANSS positive (p=0.003) and negative (p=0.047) subscales, and suicidal ideation severity (p<0.001) compared to those treated with oral antipsychotics.
Non-prominent hallucinatory patients treated with PPLAI or RLAI showed a significant improvement in psychopathology and suicidal ideation.
Oestrogens may be a protective factor in psychosis. Women with schizophrenia have a later age of menarche, fewer pregnancies and earlier age of menopause. However, little information is available focusing on delusional disorder (DD).
To evaluate gynaecological variables and psychopathology in women with DD.
To investigate the relationship between age of menarche and onset, and psychopathology in DD.
Forty-five outpatients with DD (DSM-IV-TR) were recruited at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty-five females underwent a demographic and gynaecological questionnaire. HRSD-17 for depression, PANSS for psychopathology, PSP for functionality and C-SSRS for suicide were assessed. The sample was divided into two groups according to the age of menarche: 12 years or less and more than 12.
Mean age of menarche (SD) was 12.6(1.4) years, mean age of menopause 49.1(3.15), mean age at onset of DD was 49.9(12.58). 33.3% of the sample did not receive gynaecological service in the last 3 years. The group with the earliest age of menarche was older [67.33(11.67) vs.56(9.6); p=0.026], presented an earlier age of menopause [46.80(2.84) vs.50.71(2.29) p=0.018] and latest onset of DD (53.50(14.32) vs.47.44(11.5); p=NS], than those with later age of menarche. No differences were found regarding psychopathology, suicidal behaviour or functionality.
Although a small sample size, this is the first study to specifically examine gynaecological variables in DD. A low compliance rate in gynaecological service use was found. An earlier age of menarche was associated to an earlier age of onset of DD.
Suicide is one of the leading causes of premature death among people with psychotic disorders. However, little is known about treating suicide in delusional disorder.
To investigate effectiveness of PPLAI in delusional disorder (DD) patients.
To compare effectiveness of PPLAI vs,other atypical antipsychotics (OAA) in psychopathology and suicidality.
Prospective observational study including 45 DD outpatients (DSM-IV-RT) attended at the Department of Psychiatry (Hospital Clinic- BCN) from 2008 to 2012 and followed up for 6 months. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HRSD-17), PANSS for psychopathology, Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. The sample was divided into four groups according to which treatment they received: oral risperidone, Risperidone Long Acting Injection (RLAI), OAA and PPLAI. For comparisons, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests were used.
Eighty-two per cent were women. Mean age (SD) at onset: 46.9(11.8) years. 6 patients received oral risperidone, 23 OAA, 7 RLAI and 9 were treated with PPLAI. No statistically significant differences were found regarding demographic features, motives leading for consultation, depressive comorbidity and antidepressant prescription. After 6 months, patients treated with PPLAI presented lower frequency of ideation (0% vs.11.1%;p=0.027) and suicidal behaviour (0% vs.2.2%;p=NS). The group receiving PPILD presented a significant increase in functionality (PSP) (p=0.046) and an improvement in PANSS negative subscale scores (p=0.017).
Patients receiving PPLAI showed a decrease in suicidality, an improvement in psychotic symptoms and functionality.
Some classical authors reported that 1/3 of psychotic women suffer from gynecological diseases. Thus, in recent years, special attention has been paid to the gynaecological health of women with chronic psychosis.
To study gynaecological conditions (oestrogen and non-oestrogen dependent disease) and to investigate clinical correlates in delusional disorder (DD).
90 DD women of a sample of 115 DD patients were attended at our Department of Psychiatry, from 2000 until 2013. Outcome variables: presence/absence of inflammatory and non-inflammatory gynaecological disorders or related-conditions according to ICD-10 criteria. Sociodemographic and clinical data were secondary variables. For comparisons, T and Chi-square tests were performed. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to investigate multivariate differences.
Thirty-six(40%) women had a gynaecological disease (oestrogen dependent disorders: 92%). A tendency to lower rates of affective comorbidity and less antidepressant prescription was shown in women with a gynaecological disease, and had higher unemployment rates than those without gynaecological conditions (p=0.030). Within the gynaecological group, the most common illness was leiomyoma of uterus (n=9;25%), followed by misscarriage (n=6;17%). Histerectomy (n=7;19.4%) was the most common surgical treatment. Patients without gynaecological disorders had a later age at first psychiatric appointment and were more frequently admitted (p=0.001). After controlling for age at first appointment and admissions, differences in affective comorbidity remained significant (p=0.020), however, differences in antidepressant prescription and employment status were no longer significant.
Women with DD might be at particularly risk of non-inflammatory oestrogen dependent gynaecological disorders and attended earlier at our outpatient clinic.
Recent evidence supports an association between oestrogen levels and severity of psychopathology in women with schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated differences in the psychopathology of premenopausal and postmenopausal female delusional disorder (DD).
To investigate whether men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women differ in age at onset and psychopathology.
Psychopathological symptoms were assessed in 64 outpatients with DD (DSM-IV-TR), as part of the Study on the Development and Course of Delusional Disorder in mean-age and the Elderly (DEVCODEL Study), at baseline and after 6 months. Scores in the PANSS scale, PSP for functionality, HRSD-17 items, C-SSRS for suicide and the first three items of the SUMD Scale were outcome variables. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were performed. Psychopathological differences between groups were investigated by applying Analysis of Covariance.
68.8% of the sample were postmenopausal women. When compared to premenopausal women and men, postmenopausal women had a lateonset disease (p<0.001) and attended later our outpatient clinic (p<0.001). Furthermore, postmenopausal women showed lower scores in awareness of mental disorder and awareness of the achieved effects of medication, a tendency of higher scores in depressive symptoms and higher severity of suicidal ideation at baseline. After 6 months, men and premenopausal women had lower scores in the positive PANSS subscale (p=0.041) than postmenopausal women. These findings in psychopathology held significant after adjustment for age and accumulated years of disease.
Our results support the notion that postmenopausal DD women have higher severity in psychopathology in comparison with premenopausal women and men.
Although gender differences in schizophrenia are well known, this topic in delusional disorder (DD) has been poorly studied. Previous studies have shown an earlier mean age at onset in men than in women, and in those with depressive co-morbidity.
To examine demographic and clinical differences by gender in DD.
To compare depressive co-morbidity and suicidality between men and women.
Ninety-seven patients with delusional disorder (DSM-IV-RT), attended at the Department of Psychiatry (Hospital Clinic-BCN) from 2000 to 2012, were included and followed up for one year. Demographic and clinical features at index admission, pharmacological treatment, compliance, presence of depressive co-morbidity and suicidal behaviour at follow-up were recorded. For comparisons, T, Chi-square tests and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used.
Seventy-six per cent were women and the most common delusional idea was delusion of persecution (74.2%). Gender differences regarding demographic features and depressive co-morbidity were not found. 22.7% of the sample presented suicidal ideation and 12.4% attempted suicide during follow-up. Women became ill later than men (50.07 vs.44.57 years), but when ANCOVA model is used with age at onset as dependent variable, sex as factor, and depressive co-morbidity and suicidal behaviour as covariates, this difference was not significant for sex effect. Women attempted suicide more often than men (13.5% vs. 8.7%) and showed less compliance during the evaluation period.
No gender differences in age at onset, types of DD, presence of depression and severity of global functioning were found. Women showed higher suicidal behaviour.
The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) was developed for assessing disability. This study provides data on the validity and utility of the Spanish version of the WHODAS II in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia.
The sample included 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. They completed a comprehensive assessment battery including measures of psychopathology, functionality and quality-of-life. A sub-sample of 36 patients was retested after six months to assess its temporal stability.
Participation in society (6.3%) and Life activities (4.0%) were the domains with the highest percentage of missing data. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the total scale was 0.94, and the test-retest stability reached an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.92. It became apparent that the six primary factor model represents a better fit with reality than other competing models. Relationships between the WHODAS and measures of symptomatology, social and work-related functionality, and quality-of-life were in the expected direction and the scale was ultimately found to be able to differentiate among patients with different degrees of disease severity and different work status.
Assessment of disability using appropriate tools is a crucial aspect in the context of mental health and, in this regard, the Spanish version of the WHODAS II shows ample evidence of validity in patients with schizophrenia. The most important contribution of this study is that it is the first analysing the Spanish version of the WHODAS II (36-item version) in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia.
Psychomotor agitation is the most common behavioural disorder observed in emergency and psychiatry departments. This syndrome is characterized by excessive or inappropriate motor or verbal activity and important emotional tension. Psychomotor agitation may be associated with medical conditions, substance intoxication/withdrawal and in a significant number of cases with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder.
The objective of this protocol was to provide up-to-date guidance to identify, manage and treat patients with an episode of acute agitation, considering the consensus clinical knowledge, current ethical standards and available therapies. This protocol is aimed to be a patient-centric tool helping to anticipate and prevent the escalation of agitation symptoms.
The method followed to elaborate this document was through a combination of comprehensive bibliographical review (complied in the article “Assessment and management of agitation in psychiatry: expert consensus” by Garriga M. et al. (World J Biol Psychiatry, 2016), interaction with patients, and the clinical experience in our centre.
The elaboration of this protocol resulted in a document that contains guidelines to identify, manage and treat patients efficiently, ethically and safely. One of the novelties of the protocol is the addition of dichotomies based on the patients’ willingness to cooperate. The information is summarized in easy-to-use algorithms for non-specialized healthcare professionals.
This protocol may provide the basis of a new standardized treatment paradigm for psychomotor agitation which may help improve the patient's experience and therapeutic alliance with the healthcare professional and optimize resources in healthcare centres.
Disclosure of interest
COI: The preparation of the protocol was funded by an unrestricted grant from Ferrer International. The company had no say on protocol content. Dr Vieta has received funding for research projects and/or honoraria as a consultant or speaker for from the following companies and institutions: AB-Biotics, Allergan, AstraZeneca, Bial, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Elan, Eli Lilly, Farmaindustria, Ferrer, Forest Research Institute, Gedeon Richter, Glaxo-Smith-Kline, Janssen, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi-Aventis, Servier, Shire, Solvay, Sunovion, Takeda, Telefónica, Institute of Health Carlos III [Instituto de Salud Carlos III], Séptimo Programa Marco (ENBREC), Brain and Behaviour Foundation (NARSAD) and Stanley Medical Research Institute.
A functional polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) Val66Met has been associated with cognitive function and symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that the Val66Met polymorphism has a role as a modulator in a range of clinical features of the illness, including symptoms severity, therapeutic responsiveness, age of onset, brain morphology and cognitive function. However, little work has been done in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on cognitive function and clinical symptomatology in FES patients.
Using a cross-sectional design in a cohort of 204 patients with FES or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and 204 healthy matched controls, we performed BDNF Val66Met genotyping and tested its relationship with cognitive testing (attention, working memory, learning/verbal memory and reasoning/problem-solving) and assessment of clinical symptom severity.
There was no significant influence of the BDNF allele frequency on cognitive factor scores in either patients or controls. An augmented severity of negative symptoms was found in FES patients that carried the Met allele.
The results of this study suggest that in patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not exert an influence on cognitive functioning, but is associated with negative symptoms severity. BDNF may serve as suitable marker of negative symptomatology severity in FES patients within the schizophrenia spectrum.
Pro/antiinflammatory imbalance has been found in first-episode psychotic (FEP) patients, even 12 months later. Current research is every time more focused in the need to find biomarkers to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this severe illness.
To assess peripherical levels of neurotrophins and their receptors and their correlation with inflammation, clinical symptomatology and response to antipsychotic treatment, over the time.
Ninety-four FEP patients and 80 matched healthy controls were included. Blood samples were taken at baseline to measure BDNF and NGF and their receptor levels (TrkB-full, TrkB-truncated and TrkA) and pro/antiinflammatory parameters (NFkB, COX-2, iNOS, PPARgamma, 15d-PG12). Patients were followed-up during 12 months.
BDNF TrkB-full receptor and NFG TrkA receptor levels increased during the follow-up whereas BDNF TrkB-truncated form receptor decreased. After adjusting for confounding variables, baseline levels of proinflamatory variables were significantly related to TrkB-full/TrkB-truncated ratio (FL/T), suggesting that a higher proinflammatory status is related to a higher FL/T ratio expression. Furthermore, baseline FL/T ratio could have a predictor role of patient's functionality 1 year after the illness onset, depending on whether patient is treated or not with antipsychotic drugs.
Inflammatory processes, neurotrophic pathways and functional status of FEP patients seem to be related which is of great traslational relevance. Specific, the expression of the 2 isoforms of BDNF receptor should be taken into account before starting an antipsychotic drug treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Large ground-dwelling Neotropical gamebirds are highly threatened by habitat loss and hunting, but conservationists rarely attempt to distinguish between these two threats in the management of populations. We used three different types of species records to determine the status (i.e. persistence level) of the Endangered red-billed curassow Crax blumenbachii in 14 forest remnants in north-east Brazil, as either persistent, precarious or extirpated. We related these persistence levels to variables measured in a 2-km buffer radius, including variables associated with habitat quality (proportion of forest cover, length of rivers, patch density, distance from rivers) and hunting pressure (proportion of cacao agroforests and farmlands, length of roads, total area occupied by settlements, distance from roads and from settlements). Curassows were more persistent in forest patches located (1) more distant from settlements, (2) in landscapes with few settlements, (3) in landscapes with a high incidence of roads, (4) in a mosaic with a high proportion of forest, shaded cacao agroforest and farmland, and (5) more distant from other forest patches. Hunting pressure potentially exerts more influence on persistence than habitat quality: (1) hunting pressure submodels had a higher explanatory power than habitat quality submodels, (2) final models comprised four hunting pressure variables but only two habitat quality variables, and (3) hunting pressure variables appeared in all models whereas habitat quality variables appeared in only one final model. If hunting pressure is driving declines in curassows, regions with low human presence and a high proportion of forest cover are recommended for establishing new reserves.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Biogeography, phylogeography and ecology of the diverse assemblage that inhabits the south-east Pacific along the Humboldt Current system (HCS) has received increasing attention. Regions separated by biogeographic break evidence changes in the functional structure of consumer assemblages, likely related to a replacement from tropical to temperate species. The deep temporal signature of coastal oceanography on coastal biogeography and phylogeography is underpinned by the spatial structure of bottom-up effects of ecological processes, which also influence the strong top-down regulation of consumers on the structure of rocky shore communities. Uncertainties still remain about how coastal oceanographic processes regulate species range expansion/contraction and how biotic interactions and environmental filtering define dynamic biogeographic patterns along marine environments. Explicit predictions should be made regarding the persistence and dynamics of species ranges, and changing ecological interactions among species in the face of intensified human harvesting (e.g., kelps) and global change. Clear cooling trends are observed across the HCS, human harvesting is intensifying and presence of coastal artificial infrastructure could trigger species range shift. Aquaculture expansion and the introduction of exotic non-native species have the potential to alter community structure and functioning. Hence, ecosystem services should be managed, and necessary interventions carefully planned to ensure sustainability of use of natural marine resources and coastal ecosystem integrity.
The rate of deforestation in the Amazon is increasing. Predictive models estimate that as a result of agricultural expansion 40% of these forests will be lost by 2050. As a consequence the habitat of forest-dwelling species such as the Endangered black-faced black spider monkey Ateles chamek is being lost, particularly along the arc of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We used species distribution modelling to (1) define the distribution of this spider monkey, using environmental predictors, (2) calculate the area of this distribution covered by the protected area network, and (3) calculate the expected loss of the species’ habitat under future scenarios of deforestation. We found that the species occupies only c. 28% of its extent of occurrence. Only 32% of the species’ area of occupancy is legally protected, and the modelling suggests that 31–40% of the species’ habitat will be lost by 2050. We highlight three unprotected regions with extensive forest cover that are predicted to become severely deforested by 2050 as priority regions for expanding the protected area network. We also propose landscape management and restoration in three human-modified regions. Our study provides an example of how species distribution modelling can be applied to assess threats to species and support decision makers in implementing conservation actions.