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Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P < 0.05) in embryos produced in vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P < 0.05) compared with their in vivo derived counterparts. In conclusion, this study reported only minor changes in the expression of developmentally important genes and satellite DNA methylation related to the in vitro embryo production system.
We describe recent advances in the development of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer applied to the study of the kinematics of the interstellar medium at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir, B.C. México.
The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers. Some of these species can be distinguished by bioassay; S. neurona and S. speeri are infective to gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus); whereas S. falcatula and S. lindsayi are infective to budgerigars but not to KO mice. The natural intermediate host of S. speeri is unknown. In the present study, development of sarcocysts of S. speeri in the KO mice is described. Sarcocysts were first seen at 12 days post-inoculation (p.i.), and they became macroscopic (up to 4 mm long) by 25 days p.i. The structure of the sarcocyst wall did not change from the time bradyzoites had formed at 50–220 days p.i. Sarcocysts contained unique villar protrusions, ‘type 38’. The polymerase chain reaction amplifications and sequences analysis of three nuclear loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and ITS1) and two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and cytb) of S. speeri isolate from an Argentinean opossum (D. albiventris) confirmed its membership among species of Sarcocystis and indicated an especially close relationship to another parasite in this genus that employs opossums as its definitive host, S. neurona. These results should be useful in finding natural intermediate host of S. speeri.
There is considerable confusion concerning Sarcocystis species in camels. Five species: Sarcocystis cameli, Sarcocystis ippeni, Sarcocystis camelicanis, Sarcocystis camelocanis and Sarcocystis miescheri were named with inadequate descriptions and no type specimens. Here, we review literature on sarcocystosis in camels worldwide and redescribe structure of S. cameli and S. ippeni sarcocysts by light- and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM). Eight sarcocysts from the oesophagi of two camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Egypt were studied. By LM, all sarcocysts were thin-walled with barely visible projections on the cyst walls. By TEM, two structurally distinct sarcocysts were recognized by unique villar protrusions (vp) not found in sarcocysts from any other host. Sarcocysts of S. cameli had vp of type 9j. The sarcocyst wall had upright slender vp, up to 3·0 µm long and 0·5 µm wide; the total thickness of the sarcocyst wall with ground substance (gs) layer was 3·5 µm. On each vp, there were rows of knob-like protrusions that appeared to be interconnected. The vp had microtubules that originated at midpoint of the gs and continued up to the tip; microtubules were smooth, without any granules or dense areas. Bradyzoites were approximately 14–15 × 3–4 µm in size with typical organelles. Sarcocystis ippeni sarcocysts had type 32 sarcocyst wall characterized by conical vp with an electron dense knob. The total thickness of the sarcocyst wall (from the base of gs to vp tip) was 2·3–3·0 µm. The vp were up to 1·2 µm wide at the base and 0·25 µm at the tip. Microtubules in vp originated at midpoint of gs and continued up to tip; microtubules were criss-crossed, smooth and without granules or dense areas. Bradyzoites were 12·0–13·5 × 2·0–3·0 µm in size. Sarcocystis camelicanis, S. camelocanis and S. miescheri are considered invalid.
Currently, the research team is systematically studying the oxide compounds present in the ternary system In2O3-TiO2-MgO in order to analyze its thermoluminescent (TL) response. The oxide Mg1.5InTi0.5O4 present in this system was synthesized by a solid state reaction at 1350 °C in air. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern showed a spinel-type structure for this compound. In this work, this spinel, as well as its TL properties when exposed to beta particles, are being reported for the first time. The glow curve is simple and wide with a TL maximum located at 203 °C at 21.33 Gy. The peak shows a shift to lower temperatures and it increases its intensity, as the irradiation dose increases. The lineal behavior was observed between 10.66 to 341 Gy, and no saturation signs were observed. The relative sensitivity variation was 2.7% and standard deviation after ten consecutive irradiation - TL readout cycles was 1 %. The minimum detectable dose was 5.65 Gy for this spinel-type oxide . These results suggest the possible application of Mg1.5InTi0.5O4 in dosimetry.
Transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild life animals plays an important role in epidemiology. Feral pig populations are increasing and expanding in the USA, and may constitute a risk to non-biosecure domestic pig facilities by serving as reservoirs for pathogens. We surveyed, for Sarcocystis infection, the myocardium of 1006 feral pigs (Sus scrofa) trapped or hunted in 29 states during the Comprehensive Feral Swine Disease Surveillance Program of the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services unit during 2012–2014. Sarcocysts were detected in histological sections of 25% (251/1006) of myocardium with an average parasitic load/intensity of infection of 3·03 sarcocysts/section (1·5×0·7 cm), and higher prevalence of myocarditis in severe infections. Microscopic examination of pepsin digests of 147 hearts revealed a higher prevalence of Sarcocystis bradyzoites (49%, 72/147) than when diagnosed by histology. A fragment of Sarcocystis 18S rRNA was amplified and digested with a restriction endonuclease, revealing a pattern consistent with Sarcocystis miescheriana in all 44 selected samples. Sequencing 31 of these 44 isolates confirmed their correspondence to S. miescheriana. Thus, S. miescheriana infection, but not the zoonotic parasite Sarcocystis suihominis, appears to be prevalent and widespread in feral pigs in the USA.
Four valid species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis buffalonis, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis dubeyi. Here, we redescribe structure of S. fusiformis sarcocysts by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). Twenty-one macroscopic sarcocysts from oesophagus of the water buffalo in Egypt were examined by light microscopy, SEM and TEM. The sarcocyst wall was up to 9 μm thick, depending on the section and the technique. In 5 μm paraffin-embedded sections, the sarcocyst wall was indistinct, 2–5 μm thick and appeared smooth. In 1 μm plastic-embedded sections stained with toluidine blue, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5–5·2 μm thick and had branched villar protrusions (vp)-like branches of a dead tree. By SEM, the sarcocyst wall had a mesh-like structure with irregularly shaped vp that were folded over the sarcocyst wall. On each vp there were uniform papillomatous structures that were 100 nm wide. By TEM, vp were up to 6 μm long and contained filamentous tubular structures, most of which were parallel to the long axis of the projections; granules were absent from these tubules. By TEM, bradyzoites within the same cyst varied from 11·2 to 16·8 μm in length. By TEM, bradyzoites had a very long (10 μm) convoluted mitochondrion, up to 12 dense granules, but only 2 rhoptries. This redescription should help to differentiate the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis from similar sarcocysts in domestic and wild ruminants.
In this work, thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of roof tile ceramic samples previously exposed to beta radiation are reported for the very first time. TL measurements were carried out using powdered samples obtained by the the fine-grained method, with grain size ranged from 300 nm to 5 μm. Characteristic thermoluminescence glow curves showed a complex structure with a dosimetric maximum located at ~ 200 °C. TL response of roof tile samples increases as the radiation dose increases in the 25 Gy to 1.6 kGy range. One response showed a linear behaviour, with no evidence of saturation within the dose interval investigated. The entire TL glow curve exhibited a remarkable reusability during 10 consecutive irradiation-TL readout cycles. The total TL signal showed a very low fading and remained almost constant after 3 h of irradiation and the corresponding TL readout. TL dosimetry features of powdered roof tile place it as a promising material in retrospective dosimetry as well as in possible TL dating applications.
This work describes the study of the surface reduction of ceria zirconia mixed oxides (CeZrO) as either thin films or powders, both with and without Pt present. XPS was used to measure the composition of the surface and the oxidation states of all metals contained within the material. The thin films of CeZrO showed little reactivity towards the reducing conditions used. Grazing incidence angle XRD showed the presence of Ce0.75Zr0.25O2. The thin films prepared with Pt showed that surface reduction of Ce4+ occurred under reducing conditions. The size of the Pt clusters was also determined from the data. The Pt was found to always exist in the metallic state. The Zr4+ was not seen to change during all treatments. For the powder samples the Ce4+ was readily reduced to approximately 60%. Pt was found to be initially oxidised with the % of metallic Pt increasing with reduction temperature. Again no change in the Zr was observed.
Thermoluminescence (TL) of La2O3 is reported for the first time. Novel La2O3 phosphor was obtained by solution combustion synthesis (SCS) in which a redox combustion process between lanthanum nitrate and urea at 500 °C is accomplished. The powder samples obtained were annealed at 900 °C during 2 h in air. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed the hexagonal phase of La2O3 for annealed powder samples. The TL glow curve obtained after exposure to beta radiation of these samples, displayed two maxima located at ˜ 101 °C and ˜ 200 °C, and a shoulder at ˜ 247 °C. Results from experiments such as dose response and fading showed that annealed La2O3 powder obtained by SCS is a promising material for radiation dosimetry applications.