To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Large numbers of high quality graphene transistors were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition and packaged into a standard electronics assembly, enabling the readout of graphene properties on the benchtop. After chemical functionalization, these sensors demonstrate sensitivity into the pM range to inflammation (IL6) and Zika virus (ZIKV NS1) biomarkers. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of graphene biosensors is over an order of magnitude greater than established diagnostic and biophysical assays, namely ELISA and BLI respectively. High precision measurements of protein kinetics captured using this technology, commercially available as the AGILE R100, are comparable to both clinical diagnostic and state-of-the-art biomolecule characterization tools. These results demonstrate that graphene-based platforms are highly attractive biological sensors for next generation diagnostics.
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.
A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.
A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4–6.9], P=.006 and 50–64 years, 2.5 [1.3–4.9], P=.007; reference age 18–49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1–3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9–37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2–1.4], P<.001).
Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013–2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1251–1260
Fatty acids (FAs), tocopherols and retinoids were analysed in raw milk and cheese from six commercial sheep flocks monitored from early lactation in winter to late lactation in summer. In winter, animals received concentrate and forage indoors; in early spring, animals grazed part-time on cultivated or natural valley grasslands; and from mid spring on, animals were kept outdoors constantly on mountain natural pastures. Mountain grazing in late lactation significantly increased the amount of healthy desirable unsaturated FAs such as C18:1t11 (VA), C18:2c9t11 (RA), C18:2t11c13, C18:3c9c12c15 (ALA) and C20:5c5c8c11c14c17 (EPA), and those of α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol of milk and cheese. Stepwise discriminant analysis was applied to classify cheese samples according to seasonal feeding management. The multivariate approach was able to discriminate beyond doubt mountain cheeses from those of indoor feeding and part-time valley grazing.
To investigate an outbreak of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)–producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and determine interventions to interrupt transmission.
Design, Setting, and Patients.
Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of NDM-producing CRE among patients at a Colorado acute care hospital.
Case patients had NDM-producing CRE isolated from clinical or rectal surveillance cultures (SCs) collected during the period January 1, 2012, through October 20, 2012. Case patients were identified through microbiology records and 6 rounds of SCs in hospital units where they had resided. CRE isolates were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for blaNDM. Medical records were reviewed for epidemiologic links; relatedness of isolates was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Infection control (IC) was assessed through staff interviews and direct observations.
Two patients were initially identified with NDM-producing CRE during July–August 2012. A third case patient, admitted in May, was identified through microbiology records review. SC identified 5 additional case patients. Patients had resided in 11 different units before identification. All isolates were highly related by PFGE. WGS suggested 3 clusters of CRE. Combining WGS with epidemiology identified 4 units as likely transmission sites. NDM-producing CRE positivity in certain patients was not explained by direct epidemiologic overlap, which suggests that undetected colonized patients were involved in transmission.
A 4-month outbreak of NDM-producing CRE occurred at a single hospital, highlighting the risk for spread of these organisms. Combined WGS and epidemiologic data suggested transmission primarily occurred on 4 units. Timely SC, combined with targeted IC measures, were likely responsible for controlling transmission.
Today, stainless steel is widely used in automotive industry due to its high impact resistance, corrosion resistance and light weight. This paper present the research carried out to study the differences between microstructure and mechanical properties of 409 and 308 stainless steel sheets, each joints by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). For each of weldments, detailed analysis was conducted on the chemical composition, microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy were used to analyze microstructural changes and mechanical properties, including microhardness and tensile test. This study can be a practical guide in the selection of other materials in order to determine the important to use in structural automotive industry.
In this work, thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of roof tile ceramic samples previously exposed to beta radiation are reported for the very first time. TL measurements were carried out using powdered samples obtained by the the fine-grained method, with grain size ranged from 300 nm to 5 μm. Characteristic thermoluminescence glow curves showed a complex structure with a dosimetric maximum located at ~ 200 °C. TL response of roof tile samples increases as the radiation dose increases in the 25 Gy to 1.6 kGy range. One response showed a linear behaviour, with no evidence of saturation within the dose interval investigated. The entire TL glow curve exhibited a remarkable reusability during 10 consecutive irradiation-TL readout cycles. The total TL signal showed a very low fading and remained almost constant after 3 h of irradiation and the corresponding TL readout. TL dosimetry features of powdered roof tile place it as a promising material in retrospective dosimetry as well as in possible TL dating applications.
The objective of the present work was to study the differences in the fatty acid (FA) composition of raw sheep milk fat under commercial milk production conditions throughout lactation, in two consecutive years. Particular attention was placed on the C18:2cis-9,trans-11 isomer, C18:1trans-11 acid, and unsaturated FA as the feeding regimen of 10 commercial flocks of latxa dairy sheep changed from indoor feeding to part-time grazing conditions (from early spring) as traditionally practiced in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Farms located at an altitude of between 600 and 700 m, in two different geographical areas with different rainfall were selected. Milk samples were collected monthly from late January (indoor feeding) until mid-, or end of, June (outdoor feeding), during two consecutive years. In spite of some interannual variability (most likely due to large differences in rainfall), the evolution of individual FA throughout lactation was comparable between years, indicating that it was reproducible under commercial milk production conditions. The average concentrations of C18:2cis-9,trans-11 isomer and C18:1trans-11 acid in milk from the commercial flocks increased about 200% during the transition period (end of March or early April until May), from indoor feeding (late January or early February until the end of March) to the outdoor period (early May to mid-June), remaining constant during the outdoor period (27·53 ± 9·32 μmol/g fat and 71·58 ± 20·53 μmol/g fat, respectively). Non-atherogenic FA comprised approximately 50% of all saturated FA at any time during lactation, whereas the milk atherogenicity index decreased significantly during the outdoor period. The Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity of the water-soluble milk fraction did not appear to be influenced by feeding management. The FA composition of cheeses made during the second year with milk from the indoor or outdoor periods reflected those of the corresponding milks. A principal components analysis clearly showed that differences in the milk FA composition were primarily due to outdoor grazing, with very little contribution from the geographical zone or the year.
The species and genera of the family Trogositidae in America north of Mexico are revised. Two subfamilies are recognized: Peltinae and Trogositinae. The Peltinae include: Calitys Thomson (2 species), Eronyxa Reitter (3 species), Ostoma Laicharting (3 species), Grynocharis Thomson (2 species), Lophocateres Olliff (1 species), and Thymalus Latreille (1 species). The Trogositinae include: Nemosoma Latreille (5 species), Cylidrella Sharp (1 species), Corticotomus Sharp (6 species), Euschaefferia Leng (2 species), Airora Reitter (3 species), Temnochila Westwood (10 species), and Tenebroides Piller and Mitterpacher (18 species). Pseudocotomus Schaeffer is placed in synonymy with Euschaefferia Leng and Parafilumis Casey with Corticotomus Sharp. New species are Temnochila omolopha from Arizona and New Mexico and Temnochila rhyssa from California and Idaho. Synonymies, keys, descriptions, collecting and locality data, and illustrations are included. A checklist places all the species and genera in the proposed classification. Interpretation of relationships of the genera and species is included. The North American taxa are associated with the trogositid taxa from other parts of the world, and with groups within the other families of Cleroidea. Relationships among the taxa are postulated. The inclusion of peltines and trogositines in a single family is upheld.
A new model for the provenance, depositional environment and tectonic setting of the Northern Belt of the Southern Uplands is presented. This turbiditic sandstone-dominated sequence was deposited in a sand-rich submarine fan environment, overlying sparse hemipelagic mudstones. The oldest sandstones are rich in juvenile ophiolitic material and record the first clastic input into the Southern Uplands basin. The bulk of the Northern Belt sedimentary sequence, however, is dominated by relatively quartzose sandstones derived from a Proterozoic continental/metamorphic source represented by the Midland Valley terrane of Scotland and Ireland. The quartzose-dominated succession was punctuated by the input of fresh volcanic detritus shed from an oceanic/continental island-arc situated to the W/NW of the Northern Belt basin, with sediment dispersal turning to the NE along the axis of the basin in Scotland. The tectonic setting of the Northern Belt basin remains uncertain. The complex provenance of the sandstones and recognition of major olistostrome units within the Northern Belt succession suggest that it was tectonically active. The onset of clastic deposition within the Southern Uplands terrane broadly corresponds to uplift and erosion of earlier obducted ophiolite in both Scotland and Ireland, possibly in response to collision of Cambrian–early Ordovician island-arc systems with the Laurentian continental margin. If this interpretation is correct, then the possibility arises that the Southern Uplands–Midland Valley terranes record the dismembering of this oceanic/continental island-arc complex within an overall transpressional regime.
The dielectric constant of a material is strongly dependent on both the polarizability and the density of the material through the Clausius Mossotti equation. While the atomic polarizability depends on the stoichiometry of the constituent atoms, the molecular polarizability is a function of the atoms’ short range bonding structure and hence can be strongly dependent on processing conditions. Since the density of the material also depends on the thermally activated diffusivity of atoms during processing, varying the processing temperatures has an effect on both the molecular polarizability and the density. The dielectric constant of Zr0.2Sn0.2Ti0.6O2 is shown to be a strong function of the substrate temperature during sputter deposition with the highest value ∼55 at 200 °C and lower values at both higher and lower process temperatures. We have investigated the bonding structure and density of the oxide dielectric deposited at a variety of substrate temperatures in order to elucidate the relative effects of each.
Substituted β-diketonate complexes of barium have limited volatility even at reduced pressures. The addition of nitrogen Lewis bases to the CVD carrier gas allows barium β-diketonates, even those with no reported volatility, to be transported in the vapor phase at temperatures as low as 70°C (atmospheric pressure) with no decomposition. No increase in volatility is observed, however, for barium carboxylate complexes.
Carbon fiber tows have been impregnated by ethanolic solutions of organo-silicon chlorides, and fired at temperatures up to 900°C to form silicon based coatings. Fired tows were subsequently examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the coated material. A uniform silicon oxycarbide is formed at temperatures upwards of 400°C, which provides an oxidation barrier in carbon fiber reinforced metals.
Reaction of boehmite, [AI(O)(OH)]n, with an excess of carboxylic acid (HO2CR) results in the formation of the carboxy substituted alumoxanes, [AI(O)x(OH)y(O2CR)z)]n where 2x + y + z = 3 and R = alkyl substituents. The alumoxanes have been fully characterized by SEM, elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The physical properties of the alumoxanes are highly dependent on the identity of R, and range from insoluble crystalline powders, e.g. R = CH3, to powders which readily form solutions or gels in hydrocarbon solvents, e.g. R = C5H11. All of the alumoxanes decompose under mild thermolysis to yield γ-alumina.