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Are you ready to create an online course, but do not know where to start? Do your online learners seem isolated and disengaged? Are your online courses effective enough for the current, competitive market? Whether you are an instructor, instructional designer, or part of a team, this interactive workbook will help you create effective online courses to engage your learners. Key features of the workbook include integrating cognitive, social, and emotional aspects of learning; explaining the central role of self-reflection, dialogue, and realistic application; the incorporation of themes, scenarios, and characters to provide relevant and meaningful learning experiences; and the use of semiotics for inclusion of diverse learners. As you journey through the course creation process in this workbook, you will expand your ideas and discover new possibilities for the students taking your online course.
The success of new electronic materials has been due in part to the development of procedures that produce semiconductors of sufficient purity and perfection. These materials have been grown from the gas phase, solution, and melts. The Bridgman technique is one way semiconductor crystals are grown from the melt. In such furnaces the semiconductor material is usually sealed in an ampoule made of quartz or other suitable material, placed inside the tubular furnace, and heated to completely melt the sample. The ampoule with the molten material is slowly removed from the furnace by one of three ways.
It is well established that dicamba can cause severe injury to soybean that is not resistant to dicamba. Dicamba-resistant (DR) cotton became available in 2015, followed by DR soybean in 2016; in late 2016 came the release of new dicamba formulations approved for topical use in cotton and soybeans. Until this approval, use of dicamba was limited to primarily corn, small grains, range and pasture, and eco-fallow acres. Hence, studies were conducted in 2015 and 2016 to examine off-target movement of two dicamba formulations using non-DR soybean as a bio-indicator. Diglycolamine (DGA) and N,N-Bis(3-aminopropyl)methylamine (BAPMA) dicamba were applied simultaneously at 560 g ae ha–1 in the center of two side-by-side 8-ha fields to vegetative glufosinate-resistant soybean. On the same day, a rate response experiment was established encompassing nine different dicamba rates of each formulation. Results from the rate response experiment indicate that soybean is equally sensitive to DGA and BAPMA dicamba. In 2015, a rain event occurring 6 to 8 h after application of the large drift trial probably limited off-target movement by incorporating some of the herbicide into the soil. As a result, secondary drift was less in 2015 than in 2016. However, minimal secondary injury (<5%) occurred 12 m farther into DGA dicamba plots in 2015. In 2016, secondary movement was decreased by 72 m when BAPMA dicamba was used compared to DGA dicamba. Appreciable secondary movement of both DGA and BAPMA dicamba is possible following in-crop applications of either formulated product to soybean in early to mid-summer. Additionally, the risk for secondary movement of BAPMA dicamba is slightly less than for DGA dicamba.
It is well established that soybean that does not contain the dicamba-resistant (DR) trait is highly sensitive to off-target exposure to dicamba. However, there is limited information on the effect of low doses of dicamba plus glyphosate mixtures on dicamba-sensitive soybean—a mixture likely to be used on a vast acreage of dicamba/glyphosate-resistant soybean. The objective of this research was to examine leaf and pod malformation, along with height and yield effects, when dicamba, glyphosate, or a mixture of the two was applied to soybean sensitive to both dicamba and glyphosate at sublethal doses. Field applications were made at three growth stages (R1, R3, and R5) at multiple locations. Two glyphosate rates (1/64 and 1/256 of the labeled rate of 870 g ae ha−1) and two dicamba rates (1/64 and 1/256 of the labeled rate of 560 g ae ha−1) were used. Adding glyphosate to dicamba increased leaf malformation by 6% more than dicamba alone when applied at the R1 soybean growth stage. After R3 applications, pod malformation was 10% greater in treatments containing dicamba and glyphosate than dicamba alone. Applications at R5 showed minimal leaf and pod malformation. Seed from field trials was planted in the greenhouse to evaluate the offspring. The number of offspring plants showing dicamba-like symptomology was not increased with the addition of glyphosate to dicamba. Overall, injury to offspring was similar in dicamba alone and dicamba plus glyphosate treatments; however, the number of plants injured increased when parent plants were exposed to sublethal doses of dicamba at R3 and R5 compared with R1 growth-stage exposure. Vigor was reduced in dicamba-containing treatments, but not glyphosate-alone treatments. Glyphosate addition to dicamba had no effect on vigor of soybean offspring. Although there is increased injury to parent plants when glyphosate is added to dicamba, this research demonstrates that glyphosate does not contribute to the negative effects of dicamba on soybean offspring.
This paper presents a comprehensive investigation into flow past a circular cylinder where compressibility and rarefaction effects play an important role. The study focuses on steady subsonic flow in the Reynolds-number range 0.1–45. Rarefaction, or non-equilibrium, effects in the slip and early transition regime are accounted for using the method of moments and results are compared to data from kinetic theory obtained from the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Solutions obtained for incompressible continuum flow serve as a baseline to examine non-equilibrium effects on the flow features. For creeping flow, where the Reynolds number is less than unity, the drag coefficient predicted by the moment equations is in good agreement with kinetic theory for Knudsen numbers less than one. When flow separation occurs, we show that the effects of rarefaction and velocity slip delay flow separation and will reduce the size of the vortices downstream of the cylinder. When the Knudsen number is above 0.028, the vortex length shows an initial increase with the Reynolds number, as observed in the standard no-slip continuum regime. However, once the Reynolds number exceeds a critical value, the size of the downstream vortices decreases with increasing Reynolds number until they disappear. An existence criterion, which identifies the limits for the presence of the vortices, is proposed. The flow physics around the cylinder is further analysed in terms of velocity slip, pressure and skin friction coefficients, which highlights that viscous, rarefaction and compressibility effects all play a complex role. We also show that the local Knudsen number, which indicates the state of the gas around the cylinder, can differ significantly from its free-stream value and it is essential that computational studies of subsonic gas flows in the slip and early transition regime are able to account for these strong non-equilibrium effects.
Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
From just five industries in the United Kingdom — brewing, distilling, milling, sugar extraction and potato processing — at least 2.7 × 106 mega joules (MJ) of metabolizable energy (ME) and 4 × 105 tonnes of crude protein (CP) are available annually to livestock farming as by-products. This is equivalent to 1.6 × 106 tonnes of barley and 4.7 × 105 tonnes of soya bean meal, although in some cases nutrient density may differ somewhat from that found in barley or soya.
A large proportion of the by-products available is already used in animal feeds, either djrectly by the farmer or through inclusion in compound feeds which are then used as components of balanced rations.
The materials available are potentially alternative feedstuffs to conventional forages or concentrates. As such they will only form part of a balanced ration and it is in this context that their relative value and usefulness can be judged. In many investigations there has been a tendency to consider particular by-products in isolation and as a consequence any nutrient imbalance has been highlighted to the detriment of the material as an alternative feed. Very few straight feedstuffs contain ratios of nutrients balanced for particular levels of animal production and invariably rations for livestock consist of blends of different materials. Whilst extremes of nutrient imbalance may be identified in individual by-products they are, none the less, wholly suited to blending with other by-products or feeds of contrasting nutrient content in order to produce a completely balanced ration.
In sacco studies are at present the most practical way of estimating the rumen degradability of feeds. The commonly adopted procedure (Standard Method = SM) has a number of disadvantages, including night work and the need to select bags at each sampling time. The Complete Exchange Method (CEM), described here, has been developed to meet the need for a convenient routine procedure.
Early finished lambs are able to command a higher premium at slaughter. Improvement in growth rate can increase the profitability of the enterprise. The use of yeast cell wall preparations, in particular the mannan oligosaccharide portion, has been shown to improve intestinal tract health and thus growth rates in other species (Uni & Smirnov, 2006; Rosen, 2006). Farm studies have suggested that the inclusion of mannan oligosaccharides have the greatest effect in young animals prior to weaning. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of feeding a mannan oligosaccharide on the growth rates of early finished lambs reared indoors on a commercial farm from birth until weaning.
The shortwave albedo is a major component in determining the surface energy balance and thus the evolution of the spring melt cycle. As the melt commences, the ice is partitioned into multiple surface types ranging from highly reflective white ice to absorptive blue ice. The reflectance from these surfaces shows significant spatial and temporal variability. Spectral albedo measurements were made at six different sites encompassing these two surface types, from 19 March to 3 May 2005, on 1.5 m thick landfast sea ice in southwestern Hudson Bay, Canada (58˚ N). Furthermore, the broadband albedo and the surface energy balance were continuously recorded at a nearby site during the 1 month period. Rapid changes in the albedo were found to relate to typical subarctic climate conditions, i.e. frequent incursions of southerly air, resulting snow and rain events and the generally high maximum solar insolation levels. Subsequently, diurnal variations in snow surface temperature were evident, often causing daytime melting and night-time refreezing resulting in the formation of ice lenses and superimposed ice. After rain events and extensive melting, the snowpack was transformed throughout into melt/freeze metamorphosed snow and superimposed ice. The integrated (350–1050 nm) albedo varied between 0.52 and 0.95 at the blue-ice sites, while it varied between 0.73 and 0.91 at white-ice sites. Variability on the order of ±10% in the white-ice broadband albedo resulted from the diurnal freeze–thaw cycle, but also synoptic weather events, such as snowfall and rain events, could rapidly change the surface conditions.
Sprayer applicator-controlled variables, such as nozzle selection and spray volume, will become increasingly important for making labeled POST applications of dicamba in next-generation cropping systems. A field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Northeast Research and Extension Center in Keiser, AR. Tank mixtures of Engenia (a new form of dicamba), glyphosate, glufosinate, and S-metolachlor were applied with TeeJet AIXR, AITTJ60, and TTI nozzles. Two nozzle sizes, 11003 and 11006, were used to vary spray volume from 94 L ha−1 to 187 L ha−1, respectively. For barnyardgrass, a significant decrease in control was observed when spray volume was reduced for glyphosate + dicamba in 2013. In 2014, an overall decrease in control was observed for the TTI nozzle when spray volume was reduced to 94 L ha−1, averaged across all herbicide treatments. The addition of the product S-metolachlor to glyphosate + glufosinate + dicamba significantly reduced the droplet spectra for all nozzle types. For example, adding S-metolachlor into the tank-mix decreased the volume median diameter (Dv50) for the TTI nozzle at 187 L ha−1 spray volume from 789 μm to 570 μm. The results from this research demonstrate that using low spray volume and coarser nozzles could reduce efficacy of the herbicides on the weed species evaluated. Nozzle selection and spray volume have key roles in maximizing efficacy of POST applications in dicamba-resistant crops. Additionally, evaluating droplet spectra of potential dicamba-containing tank-mixtures is critical for producing the desired droplet size to minimize off-target movement.
Sprayer applicator–controlled variables, such as nozzle selection and ground speed, will become increasingly important for making labeled POST applications of dicamba in next-generation cropping systems. Typically, nozzle orifice sizes and ground speeds differ greatly between small-plot research applications, from which efficacy recommendations are made, and commercial field applications. However, little research has been conducted to compare applications made with backpack sprayers and tractor sprayers. Thus, a field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Northeast Research and Extension Center in Keiser, AR. Tank mixtures of Engenia™ (N, N-Bis-(aminopropyl) methylamine form of dicamba), Liberty (glufosinate-ammonium), and Liberty + Engenia were applied with TeeJet XR, TT, AIXR, AI, and TTI nozzles at 5 km h−1 and 20 km h−1. Two nozzle sizes (110015 and 11006 rated at 0.58 L min−1 and 2.27 L min−1 at 276 kPa, respectively) were used to keep spray volume constant at 141 L ha−1, whereas ground speed was varied. Weed control ratings were typically lower at 5 km h−1 than at 20 km h−1. For example, Palmer amaranth control 4 WAT in 2013 with glufosinate and the TTI nozzle was 89% at 5 km h−1 and 96% at 20 km h−1. More differences between speeds were observed for the coarser nozzles, such as the TTI and AI, as opposed to finer nozzles, such as the XR and TT. Results from this research suggest increasing orifice size increases droplet size and that other factors related to applications at faster speeds (e.g., higher droplet velocity, disruption of the crop canopy) may influence the efficacy of herbicide applications. However, increasing ground speed is not a recommended means for increasing efficacy of herbicide applications.
The efficacy of three sources of vitamins A and D supplements was tested in an experiment with fattening pigs involving the following four treatments :
(1) Control—basal meal.
(2) As control, but at one week of age the pigs had been given a single intramuscular injection of a commercial preparation, supplying 500,000 i.u. of vitamin A and 100,000 i.u. of vitamin D3.
(3) Basal meal + 1 % cod-liver oil (containing 500 i.u./g. of vitamin A and 68 i.u./g. of vitamin 3), supplying 2,270 i.u. of vitamin A and 309 i.u. of vitamin D3 per lb. of diet.
(4) Basal meal + synthetic vitamins A and D concentrate (containing 50,000 i.u./g. of vitamin A and 5,000 i.u./g. of vitamin D3), added to supply 2,250 i.u. of vitamin A and 300 i.u. of vitamin D3 per lb. of diet.
The basal meal which was the standard fattening diet used at Shinfield consisted of: fine miller’s offal 50, barley meal 30, flaked maize 10, white fish meal 10, all parts by weight. It should be noted that the diet contained a precursor of vitamin A, and it was calculated that this would provide about one-third of the recommended allowance of vitamin A for fattening pigs.
As auxin-type herbicide-resistant crops become commercially available, nozzle selection will become a highly important variable for maintaining efficacy of herbicide solutions while minimizing off-target movement. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Keiser, AR, to evaluate interactions among the N,N-bis-(aminopropyl)methylamine form of dicamba formulated as Engenia™, the potassium salt of glyphosate formulated as Roundup PowerMax®, and glufosinate formulated as Liberty® applied with three different nozzle types. Three TeeJet nozzles with an 11004 orifice (Turbo TeeJet [TT], Air Induction Extended Range [AIXR], and Turbo TeeJet Induction [TTI]) were used. To supplement the field data, droplet spectra for each nozzle and tank mixture combination were determined at the West Central Research and Extension Center in North Platte, NE. For most herbicide treatments and nozzle combinations, Palmer amaranth control 4 wk after treatment was > 95% both years. In 2013, TT nozzles provided 96% control of barnyardgrass and TTI nozzles provided 89% control, averaged across herbicides, except for Engenia alone. A similar effect of nozzle selection was observed in 2014. When treatments were applied to 20-cm-tall barnyardgrass in 2014, compared with 8-cm-tall plants in 2013, an antagonistic effect was observed when Engenia was tank-mixed with Roundup PowerMax. The weed control data correlated with the droplet spectrum analysis such that as volume median diameter (Dv50) increased from TT nozzles to the TTI nozzles, efficacy decreased for most tank mixtures. Results from the droplet analysis showed that Dv50 relative to water decreased for Liberty alone and not when tank-mixed with Engenia or Roundup PowerMax. These results suggest that nozzle selection will play a key role in maximizing efficacy of POST applications in dicamba-resistant crops. Additionally, evaluating droplet spectra of potential dicamba-containing tank mixtures is critical for producing desired droplet size to minimize off-target movement.
Field studies were conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee during 2010 and 2011 to determine the effect of glufosinate application rate on LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton. Glufosinate was applied in a single application (three-leaf cotton) or sequential application (three-leaf followed by eight-leaf cotton) at 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 kg ai ha−1. Glufosinate application rate did not affect visual injury or growth parameters measured in LibertyLink cotton. No differences in LibertyLink cotton yield were observed because of glufosinate application rate; however, LibertyLink cotton treated with glufosinate yielded slightly more cotton than the nontreated check. Visual estimates of injury to WideStrike cotton increased with each increase in glufosinate application rate. However, the injury was transient, and by 28 d after the eight-leaf application, no differences in injury were observed. WideStrike cotton growth was adversely affected during the growing season following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and greater; however, cotton height and total nodes were unaffected by glufosinate application rate at the end of the season. WideStrike cotton maturity was delayed, and yields were reduced following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and above. Fiber quality of LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton was unaffected by glufosinate application rate. These data indicate that glufosinate may be applied to WideStrike cotton at rates of 0.6 kg ha−1 without inhibiting cotton growth, development, or yield. Given the lack of injury or yield reduction following glufosinate application to LibertyLink cotton, these cultivars possess robust resistance to glufosinate. Growers are urged to be cautious when increasing glufosinate application rates to increase control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in WideStrike cotton. However, glufosinate application rates may be increased to maximum labeled rates when making applications to LibertyLink cotton without fear of reducing cotton growth, development, or yield.
In this work results are presented regarding carbon composites produced by high energy mechanical milling and consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The involved energy input in such a processing method has been used to develop composite materials and to synthesize effective in-situ reinforcement. In the as milled and sintered composites various dispersions of graphene, graphitic carbon, and diamonds in an amorphous matrix are found. The graphene, graphitic carbon and diamond phases are synthesized primarily during milling. The TEAM-05 microscope has been used for characterization that is complemented with Raman results. The spark plasma sintering method enhances the presence of graphene, graphitic carbon and diamonds.