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Large field-of-view (FOV) particle image velocimetry experiments are conducted in the vicinity of a shock wave boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) at Mach 2. The current FOV covers up to 30 boundary layer thicknesses (
), comprising of upstream and downstream regions relative to the SWBLI, thereby allowing the turbulent boundary layer and shock to be simultaneously captured. The relationship between the boundary layer features and the instantaneous shock location is directly quantified, with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms responsible for oscillation of the reflected shock. The results show that the reflected shock location is clearly influenced by the instantaneous state of the incoming boundary layer. It is found that passage of low-/high-momentum very-large-scale turbulent features through the SWBLI region causes the reflected shock to move upstream/downstream of the mean location. Moreover, interaction with the shock is found to introduce additional velocity fluctuations across a range of spanwise length scales within the boundary layer. The spanwise scales smaller than one
recover within one
downstream of the SWBLI region. However, at larger spanwise wavelengths, two persistent modes at approximately one and six
are observed, where they remain correlated for a longer streamwise extent (
) than the other spanwise modes. The wall pressure measurements indicate that the low-frequency fluctuations arising from the oscillating shock foot are due to dampening of high-frequency contents beyond the critical frequency associated with the unstable global mode. Thus, the results suggest that low-frequency pressure oscillations are not necessarily an independent phenomenon from the turbulent features entering the SWBLI region and interacting with the shock. Instead, a large scale separation between their dominant time scales is due to the critical frequency of the unstable global mode occurring at frequencies that are orders of magnitudes slower than the dominant frequency of the very-large-scale features.
Streamwise velocity and wall-shear stress are acquired simultaneously with a hot-wire and an array of azimuthal/spanwise-spaced skin friction sensors in large-scale pipe and boundary layer flow facilities at high Reynolds numbers. These allow for a correlation analysis on a per-scale basis between the velocity and reference skin friction signals to reveal which velocity-based turbulent motions are stochastically coherent with turbulent skin friction. In the logarithmic region, the wall-attached structures in both the pipe and boundary layers show evidence of self-similarity, and the range of scales over which the self-similarity is observed decreases with an increasing azimuthal/spanwise offset between the velocity and the reference skin friction signals. The present empirical observations support the existence of a self-similar range of wall-attached turbulence, which in turn are used to extend the model of Baars et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 823, p. R2) to include the azimuthal/spanwise trends. Furthermore, the region where the self-similarity is observed correspond with the wall height where the mean momentum equation formally admits a self-similar invariant form, and simultaneously where the mean and variance profiles of the streamwise velocity exhibit logarithmic dependence. The experimental observations suggest that the self-similar wall-attached structures follow an aspect ratio of
in the streamwise, spanwise and wall-normal directions, respectively.
This study presents findings from a first-of-its-kind measurement campaign that includes simultaneous measurements of the full velocity and vorticity vectors in both pipe and boundary layer flows under matched spatial resolution and Reynolds number conditions. Comparison of canonical turbulent flows offers insight into the role(s) played by features that are unique to one or the other. Pipe and zero pressure gradient boundary layer flows are often compared with the goal of elucidating the roles of geometry and a free boundary condition on turbulent wall flows. Prior experimental efforts towards this end have focused primarily on the streamwise component of velocity, while direct numerical simulations are at relatively low Reynolds numbers. In contrast, this study presents experimental measurements of all three components of both velocity and vorticity for friction Reynolds numbers
ranging from 5000 to 10 000. Differences in the two transverse Reynolds normal stresses are shown to exist throughout the log layer and wake layer at Reynolds numbers that exceed those of existing numerical data sets. The turbulence enstrophy profiles are also shown to exhibit differences spanning from the outer edge of the log layer to the outer flow boundary. Skewness and kurtosis profiles of the velocity and vorticity components imply the existence of a ‘quiescent core’ in pipe flow, as described by Kwon et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 751, 2014, pp. 228–254) for channel flow at lower
, and characterize the extent of its influence in the pipe. Observed differences between statistical profiles of velocity and vorticity are then discussed in the context of a structural difference between free-stream intermittency in the boundary layer and ‘quiescent core’ intermittency in the pipe that is detectable to wall distances as small as 5 % of the layer thickness.
A combination of cross-wire probes with an array of flush-mounted skin-friction sensors are used to study the three-dimensional conditional organisation of large-scale structures in a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer. Previous studies have documented the amplitude modulation of small-scale motions in response to conditionally averaged large-scale events, but the data are largely restricted to the streamwise component of velocity alone. Here, we report results based on all three components of velocity and find that the small-scale spanwise and wall-normal fluctuations (
) and the instantaneous Reynolds shear stress (
) are modulated in a very similar manner to that previously noted for the streamwise fluctuations (
). The envelope of the small scale fluctuations for all velocity components is well described by the large-scale component of the
fluctuation. These results also confirm the conditional existence of roll modes associated with the very large-scale or ‘superstructure’ motions.
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