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We introduce CRYSTAL, a multi-agent AI system for crystal-structure phase mapping. CRYSTAL is the first system that can automatically generate a portfolio of physically meaningful phase diagrams for expert-user exploration and selection. CRYSTAL outperforms previous methods to solve the example Pd-Rh-Ta phase diagram, enabling the discovery of a mixed-intermetallic methanol oxidation electrocatalyst. The integration of multiple data-knowledge sources and learning and reasoning algorithms, combined with the exploitation of problem decompositions, relaxations, and parallelism, empowers AI to supersede human scientific data interpretation capabilities and enable otherwise inaccessible scientific discovery in materials science and beyond.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing different amounts of daidzein in a diet on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of finishing beef cattle. Thirty finishing Xianan steers were distributed in three groups equilibrated by weight and fed three different dietary treatments (concentrate ratio = 80%): (1) control; (2) 500 mg/kg daidzein and (3) 1000 mg/kg daidzein, respectively. Steers were slaughtered after an 80-day feeding trial. Results showed that daidzein supplementation had no effect on the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate of steers. Steers fed with 1000 mg/kg daidzein had greater dry matter intake than those fed with control diets. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group had a higher fat thickness, lower shear force and lightness. The pH, drip loss, cooking loss, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), moisture, ash, crude protein and intramuscular fat of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were unaffected by daidzein supplementation. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentrations of insulin, free fatty acid and Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The 500 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentration of tetraiodothyronine compared with the control group. Supplemental daidzein did not affect the blood antioxidant ability and blood immune parameters in serum. In conclusion, daidzein supplementation above 500 mg/day modifies feed intake and metabolic and hormonal profile, with positive and negative effects on meat quality.
Evidence in support of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis has reached the level where it can appropriately be used to inform practice. DOHaD informed interventions supporting primary noncommunicable disease risk reduction should target the pre- and periconceptional periods, pregnancy, lactation, childhood and adolescence. Such interventions are dependent on a health workforce (including dietitians, nurses, midwives, doctors, and nutrition teachers), that has a deep understanding of DOHaD concepts. This study assessed development of awareness of DOHaD concepts during undergraduate health professional training programs. Using a cross-sectional design, a standardized questionnaire was completed by Year 1–4 undergraduate students studying nutrition in Japan (n=309) and Year 1–3 nursing students in New Zealand (n=151). On entry to undergraduate study, most students had no awareness of the terms ‘DOHaD’ or ‘First 1000 Days’. While awareness reached 60% by Year 3 in courses that included DOHaD-related teaching, this remains inadequate. More than 95% of Year 1 undergraduates in both countries demonstrated an appreciation of associations between maternal nutrition and fetal health. However, awareness of associations between parental health status and/or nutritional environment and later-life health was low. While levels of awareness increased across program years, overall awareness was less than optimal. These results indicate evidence of some focus on DOHaD-related content in curricula. We argue that DOHaD principles should be one pillar around which health training curricula are built. This study indicates a need for the DOHaD community to engage with faculties in curriculum development.
In this paper, the occurrence of the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and its effects on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) pulse compression in FC-40 are investigated. As the experimental medium, the characteristics of FC-40 are suitable for pulse compression. Firstly, the frequency shifts and the threshold of SRS in FC-40 are studied with a mode-locked laser system as pump source, without taking the SBS effect into account. On the basis of the experimental results, the competition between SRS and SBS as well as its effect on pulse compression is investigated. Results show that SRS gets higher gain and grows rapidly with the increase of the laser intensity by pump effect, which will result in decreasing of SBS energy reflection.
The present study investigated alteration of brain resting-state activity induced by antidepressant treatment and attempted to investigate whether treatment efficacy can be predicted at an early stage of pharmacological treatment.
Forty-eight first-episode medication-free patients diagnosed with major depression received treatment with escitalopram. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was administered prior to treatment, 5 h after the first dose, during the course of pharmacological treatment (week 4) and at endpoint (week 8). Resting-state activity was evaluated in the course of the 8-week treatment and in relation to clinical improvement.
Escitalopram dynamically modified resting-state activity in depression during the treatment. After 5 h the antidepressant induced a significant decrease in the signal in the occipital cortex and an increase in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and middle cingulate cortex. Furthermore, while remitters demonstrated more obvious changes following treatment, these were more modest in non-responders suggesting possible tonic and dynamic differences in the serotonergic system. Changes after 5 h in the caudate, occipital and temporal cortices were the best predictor of clinical remission at endpoint.
This study revealed the possibility of using the measurement of resting-state neural changes a few hours after acute administration of antidepressant to identify individuals likely to remit after a few weeks of treatment.
We report that the tail modulation of Stokes pulses in the high-energy stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse compression can be suppressed by controlling effective pulse width of the pump. It is shown through numerical simulations and validated experimentally that the effective pulse width is an appropriate parameter, which determines the generation of tail modulation. The effective pulse width broaden as the increase of energy. This mechanism leads to the amplification of Stokes tail edge and it is the cause of tail modulation.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
To determine the effects of dietary Fe concentration on Mn bioavailability in rats fed inorganic or organic Mn sources, fifty-four 22-d-old male rats were randomly assigned and fed a basal diet (2·63 mg Fe/kg) supplemented with 0 (low Fe (L-Fe)), 35 (adequate Fe (A-Fe)) or 175 (high Fe (H-Fe)) mg Fe/kg with 10 mg Mn/kg from MnSO4 or Mn–lysine chelate (MnLys). Tissues were harvested after 21 d of feeding. Serum Mn was greater (P<0·05) in MnLys rats than in MnSO4 rats, and in L-Fe rats than in A-Fe or H-Fe rats. Duodenal divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) mRNA was lower (P<0·05) in H-Fe rats than in A-Fe rats for the MnSO4 treatment; however, no significant difference was observed between them for MnLys. Liver DMT1 mRNA abundance was greater (P<0·05) in MnSO4 than in the MnLys group for H-Fe rats. The DMT1 protein in duodenum and liver and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) protein in liver was greater (P<0·05) in the MnSO4 group than in the MnLys group, and in L-Fe rats than in H-Fe rats. Duodenal FPN1 protein was greater (P<0·05) in L-Fe rats than in A-Fe rats for the MnLys treatment, but it was not different between them for the MnSO4 treatment. Results suggest that MnLys increased serum Mn concentration as compared with MnSO4 in rats irrespective of dietary Fe concentration, which was not because of the difference in DMT1 and FPN1 expression in the intestine and liver.
A 3D direct numerical simulation (DNS) study of the evolution of a self-propagating interface in forced constant-density statistically stationary homogeneous isotropic turbulence was performed by solving Navier–Stokes and level-set equations under a wide range of conditions that cover various (from 0.1 to 2.0) ratios of the interface speed
to the r.m.s. turbulent velocity
and various (50, 100 and 200) turbulent Reynolds numbers
. By analysing computed data, the following issues were addressed: (i) dependence of the speed and thickness of the fully developed statistically planar mean front that envelops the interface on
, (ii) dependence of the fully developed mean turbulent flux of a scalar
that characterizes the state of the fluid (
and 1 ahead and behind the interface respectively) on
, (iii) evolution of the mean front speed, its thickness, and the mean scalar flux during the front development after embedding a planar interface into the forced turbulence and (iv) relation between canonical and conditioned moments of the velocity, velocity gradient and pressure gradient fields.
Few studies have investigated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, reporting inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether 10 Hz stimulation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during 3 weeks enhances treatment effects.
A multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed in 32 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, and moderate to severe negative symptoms [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale ⩾15]. Patients were randomized to a 3-week course of active or sham rTMS. Primary outcome was severity of negative symptoms as measured with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the PANSS negative symptom score. Secondary outcome measures included cognition, insight, quality of life and mood. Subjects were followed up at 4 weeks and at 3 months. For analysis of the data a mixed-effects linear model was used.
A significant improvement of the SANS in the active group compared with sham up to 3 months follow-up (p = 0.03) was found. The PANSS negative symptom scores did not show a significant change (p = 0.19). Of the cognitive tests, only one showed a significant improvement after rTMS as compared with sham. Finally, a significant change of insight was found with better scores in the treatment group.
Bilateral 10 Hz prefrontal rTMS reduced negative symptoms, as measured with the SANS. More studies are needed to investigate optimal parameters for rTMS, the cognitive effects and the neural basis.
Active control of a turbulent boundary layer has been experimentally investigated with a view to reducing the skin-friction drag and gaining some insight into the mechanism that leads to drag reduction. A spanwise-aligned array of piezo-ceramic actuators was employed to generate a transverse travelling wave along the wall surface, with a specified phase shift between adjacent actuators. Local skin-friction drag exhibits a strong dependence on control parameters, including the wavelength, amplitude and frequency of the oscillation. A maximum drag reduction of 50 % has been achieved at 17 wall units downstream of the actuators. The near-wall flow structure under control, measured using smoke–wire flow visualization, hot-wire and particle image velocimetry techniques, is compared with that without control. The data have been carefully analysed using techniques such as streak detection, power spectra and conditional averaging based on the variable-interval time-average detection. All the results point to a pronounced change in the organization of the perturbed boundary layer. It is proposed that the actuation-induced wave generates a layer of highly regularized streamwise vortices, which acts as a barrier between the large-scale coherent structures and the wall, thus interfering with the turbulence production cycle and contributing partially to the drag reduction. Associated with the generation of regularized vortices is a significant increase, in the near-wall region, of the mean energy dissipation rate, as inferred from a substantial decrease in the Taylor microscale. This increase also contributes to the drag reduction. The scaling of the drag reduction is also examined empirically, providing valuable insight into the active control of drag reduction.
To evaluate the presence of a new type of reovirus (designated R4) in humans, we determined the prevalence of specific antibodies using a neutralization assay and ELISA. The sera from 97 healthy people and 219 patients in our hospital with measles, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, liver diseases, and diarrhoea were investigated. Although the study population was limited, our data suggested that R4 is widespread in the human population. A significantly higher level of R4-specific antibody in patients than in healthy people is worthy of consideration, since it poses a risk for aggravation of the extant illness by the reovirus.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presents a major health problem with its steadily increasing incidence in Western countries, and persistent high fatality rates worldwide. The well-recognized complexity and toxicity of its treatment as well as inadequate care and limited resources in mainland China exacerbate the difficulty of maintaining quality of remaining life of patients living with this illness. The goal of this comprehensive literature review was to identify promising clinical interventions for improving quality of life (QOL) of people with advanced HCC in mainland China.
A comprehensive literature review was performed in China Academic Journals (CAJ), Cochrane, and PubMed databases. The review was confined to studies of randomized controlled trials (RCT) for adults, in Chinese and English, from 1980 to 2012.
A total of 676 studies in Chinese and 391 studies in English were identified. Eighteen RCTs were selected for the final review, among which three were conducted in mainland China.
Significance of results:
Nurse-led home-based comprehensive interventions using a collaborative care approach addressing multiple dimensions of QOL show promise for enhancing clinical outcomes for people with advanced HCC in mainland China. Education and psychosocial support combined with symptom management early in the illness trajectory and ongoing close attention to physical symptoms, emotional distress, as well as spiritual well-being are crucial for maintaining QOL of people with advanced HCC. Telephone monitoring appears to be a feasible way in rural as well as urban areas. Families are advised to be part of overall interventions. It is warranted that promising interventions aiming at improving QOL for advanced cancer patients reported in Western literature be further tested in mainland China.