We typed 1801 males from 55 locations for the Y-specific binary markers YAP, DYZ3, SRY10831
and the (CA)n microsatellites YCAII and DYS413. Phylogenetic relationships of chromosomes with
the same binary haplotype were condensed in seven large one-step networks, which accounted for
95% of all chromosomes. Their coalescence ages were estimated based on microsatellite diversity.
The three largest and oldest networks undergo sharp frequency changes in three areas. The more
recent network 3.1A clearly discriminates between Western and Eastern European populations.
Pairwise Fst showed an overall increment with increasing geographic distance but with a slope
greatly reduced when compared to previous reports. By sectioning the entire data set according to
geographic and linguistic criteria, we found higher Fst-on-distance slopes within Europe than in
West Asia or across the two continents.