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A semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometer has been constructed for the analysis of elements in air particulate specimens. The excitation radiation is provided, either directly or indirectly, using a low power (40 watts) Ag anode x-ray tube. Less than 100 ng for most of the elements in the range Mg → Zr, Pb are easily detected within two 1-minute counting intervals. A calibration technique for light element analysis and an experimental method which compensates for particle size effects will be discussed.
A survey for the molecules C2H and HC3N in a variety of interstellar clouds has been completed. Both molecules are very widespread, in cold dark clouds as well as in hot clouds. C2H emission has been mapped in L1534. In cold clouds the fractional abundance X(C2H) is found to be 2-6×10−9. The ratio of abundances X(C2H)/X(HC3N) falls in the range 6-10, consistent with some gas-phase reaction schemes for these molecules.
SiC has attracted great interest for high power microwave applications because of its superior intrinsic properties compared to Si and GaAs. Steady demonstrations of increasingly higher power handling capability have been achieved in recent years. However, SiC MESFETs still suffer from significant drain current degradation under RF operation or long-term DC stress. This degradation can be recovered after long periods of relaxation or immediately by illumination under UV light, which is indicative of a trapping effect. The origin of this effect has been attributed to either electron trapping at the device surface between the gate and drain or trapping at the epi-substrate interface due to the presence of electrically active contaminants in the bulk. Newly available “high purity” (non-vanadium compensated) bulk 4H semi-insulating SiC substrates were used in an effort to limit the effect of V-related deep level trapping at the substrate/epilayer interface. To investigate the effect of V on SiC MESFET performance, we compare similar devices fabricated on V compensated, and “high-purity” 4H-SiC substrates without intentional V doping. Presence or absence of V is confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis. Pulsed I-V measurements as well as current- and capacitance-based deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed to assess trapping activation energy and density. An assessment of device performance and stability for each substrate type is made using RF load-pull measurements and device long-term DC bias stressing at temperature.
We report the direct measurement of elastic strain effect on the electrical and magnetic properties of single domain epitaxial SrRuO3 thin films, using a lift-off technique. The as-grown films on vicinal (001) SrTiO3 substrates are subjected to elastic biaxial compressive strain within the plane and tensile strain normal to the plane. In contrast, the lift-off films prepared by chemical etching of SrTiO3 substrates, are completely strain free with bulk like lattice. Our measurements indicate that the elastic strain can significantly affect the electrical and magnetic properties of epitaxial ferromagnetic SrRuO3 thin films. For the strained films, the Curie temperature (Tc) was suppressed to 150K and the saturation magnetic moment (Ms) was decreased to 1.15μB/Ru atom as compared to a Tc of 160K and Ms of 1.45μB/Ru atom for the strain free films. These property changes are attributed to the structural distortion due to the elastic strain in the as-grown epitaxial thin films. Our results provide direct evidence of the crucial role of lattice strain in determining the properties of the perovskite epitaxial thin films.
Tantalum plate and rod materials that demonstrate mild-to-strong anisotropic plastic flow during large deformation are analyzed in terms of tensorial property symmetry. Texture interrogations of these materials reveal duplex orientation components that have implications with regard to the symmetry realized during plastic deformation; specifically these materials show less symmetry than one would expect from a cursory examination of the texture. Mesoscale polycrystal simulations are performed to probe a general shape for the yield surface function based on a discrete orientation distribution representation of the material texture and previously established single-crystal deformation modes. The yield surface shape is mathematically represented in terms of second and higher-order tensors. A plastic compliance analysis is presented and applied to graphically map the deformation symmetry contained in these tensors for both ideal and real materials. Compliance results are shown to be consistent with finite element simulations of r-value specimens loaded in uniaxial tension.
In this paper, we report the electrical and optical characteristics of Si delta-doped AlGaN cladding layers, p-cladding structure optimization and the impact on the efficiency of 340nm AlGaN UV LEDs. Compared to the uniformly doped n-AlGaN layer, adding Si Δ-doping layers reduced the sheet resistance by improving both the Hall mobility and carrier concentration. Increasing the number of Si Δ-doped layers further lowered the sheet resistance without cracking the material. The Δ-doped layers in n-Al0.3Ga0.7N improved the optical properties by enhancing near band edge emission as much as 2-fold relative to deep level emission. Additionally, Δ-doping in n-AlGaN layers had no detrimental effect on the optical transparency of the LEDs. The p-cladding layer was found to have a strong absorption at 340nm. Reducing the p-GaN cap layer from 35nm to 10nm tripled the light emission intensity. By optimizing the n- and p-AlGaN cladding layers, a highly efficient UV LED at 340nm was achieved with 1mW output under 800mA/mm2 DC drive current.
SN2007gr was an ordinary type Ic supernova, with a hint of asymmetric explosion seen in the optical polarization spectrum. This type of SNe is occasionally associated with long duration gamma-ray bursts which generate ultra-relativistic jets; no relativistic outflows have yet been found by direct imaging in SNe Ib/c explosions. High resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data and simultaneous total radio flux density measurements indicated that SN2007gr has expanded mildly relativistically. We performed late time Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) observations to measure the level of the underlying extended emission. Comparison of the VLBI and the background-subtracted WSRT and independent VLA data indicate an at least partially resolved source with an average expansion velocity of ≥0.4c, although the VLBI data could be consistent with a fainter source with an expansion velocity of ~0.2c as well.
We use Virtual Observatory methods to investigate the association between radio and X-ray emission at high redshifts. Fifty-five of the 92 HDF(N) sources resolved by combining MERLIN+VLA data were detected by Chandra, of which 18 are hard enough and bright enough to be obscured AGN. The high-z population of μJy radio sources is dominated by starbursts an order of magnitude more active and more extended than any found at z < 1 and at least a quarter of these simultaneously host highly X-ray-luminous obscured AGN.
Salivary fluid secretion is dependent upon reflex stimuli mediated by autonomic nerves. In order to determine if immunoglobulin A (IgA) and salivary proteins are secreted in the absence of nerve stimulation, small volumes (< 2 µl) of saliva were consecutively collected from the submandibular duct of anaesthetised rats following rest pauses in order to sample the protein contents of the ductal system. Within the first 5 µl of such saliva collected by parasympathetic nerve stimulation, IgA and other salivary proteins reached peak concentrations that were over 20-fold greater than levels in parasympathetically stimulated saliva subsequently collected during a 5 min period of stimulation. Confocal microscopy of TRITC-labelled IgA added to live, acutely isolated submandibular acini indicated that it did not enter the lumina by paracellular leakage. IgG is thought to enter saliva by paracellular leakage but did not accumulate in luminal saliva in the present study. Electrophoresis suggested that the major proteins secreted in the absence of stimulation were the same as those present in subsequently stimulated saliva. It can be concluded that IgA and other major submandibular proteins are secreted into glandular lumina in the absence of nerve stimulation. The functional significance of such unstimulated protein secretion is at present unclear. Experimental Physiology (2003) 88.1, 7-12.
Secretion of fluid and proteins by salivary cells is under the control of
parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nerves. In a recent study we have shown
that, in the rat submandibular gland, autonomic nerves can also increase the
secretion of IgA, a product of plasma cells secreted into saliva as SIgA (IgA bound to
Secretory Component, the cleaved poly-immunoglobulin receptor). The present study
aimed to determine if parotid secretion of SIgA is increased by autonomic nerves and
to compare SIgA secretion with other parotid proteins stored and secreted by acinar
and ductal cells. Assay of IgA in saliva evoked by parasympathetic nerve stimulation
immediately following an extended rest period under anaesthesia indicated that it had
been secreted into intraductal saliva in the absence of stimulation during the rest
period. The mean rate of unstimulated IgA secretion (2.77 ± 0.28 µg min-1 g-1) and
the 2.5-fold increase in IgA secretion evoked by parasympathetic stimulation were
similar to results found previously in the rat submandibular gland. Sympathetic
nerve stimulation increased SIgA secretion 2.7-fold, much less than in the
submandibular gland. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis with anti-IgA and
anti-Secretory Component antibodies confirmed that SIgA was the predominant
form of IgA in saliva. Acinar-derived amylase and ductal-derived tissue kallikrein
were more profoundly increased by parasympathetic and particularly sympathetic
stimulation than SIgA. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that SIgA
forms a prominent component of unstimulated parotid salivary protein secretion and
that its secretion is similarly increased by stimulation of either autonomic nerve
supply. The secretion of other parotid salivary proteins that are synthesized and
stored by acinar or ductal cells is upregulated to a much greater extent by
parasympathetic and particularly sympathetic stimulation. Experimental Physiology
(2000) 85.5, 511-518.
Salivary secretion of proteins from rat submandibular glands was studied using graded stimulation of the parasympathetic nerve in isolation, and then at a fixed rate in combination with graded sympathetic nerve stimulation. Increasing the frequency of parasympathetic nerve stimulation per se caused a gradual increase in the secretion of peroxidase (from acini) but only small increases in proteinase (from ductal cells) and IgA outputs. Dual stimulations, with an increasing frequency of sympathetic nerve stimulation on a background of low frequency parasympathetic nerve stimulation, showed that maximal acinar secretion of peroxidase required only a low frequency of additional sympathetic stimulation, whereas ductal secretion of kallikrein was greatest with the highest frequency of additional sympathetic stimulation (20 Hz in bursts). IgA secretion also required high frequency additional sympathetic stimulation in bursts for greatest output. Although a synergism occurred with parasympathetic plus sympathetic nerve stimulation for the secretion of both peroxidase and kallikrein it was not evident for the secretion of IgA. This presumably reflects a difference for exocytosis of proteins stored in granules (e.g. peroxidase and kallikrein) compared to those proteins continuously transported across the plasma membrane in vesicles by transcytosis. This work confirms that vesicular movement of secretory IgA can be increased by both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve stimulation, but the frequency parameters differ for each nerve. Experimental Physiology (2000) 85.3, 281-286.
The enzymic activity and immunoreactivity of rat tissue kallikrein (rK1) secreted at rest by granular duct cells of unstimulated submandibular glands has been compared with that secreted on autonomic nerve stimulation. Although a direct vesicular, constitutive secretory pathway operates for rK1 secretion from granular duct cells of unstimulated and parasympathetically stimulated glands the rK1 was not present in a pro-form and actually showed a greater enzymic activity per unit immunoreactive protein than the granule-derived rK1 in sympathetically evoked saliva. Constitutively secreted rK1 was found to be in a single chain molecular form by reducing SDS gel electrophoresis. In contrast rK1 secreted from the storage granule pool of granular duct cells on sympathetic nerve stimulation was present in much higher amounts and occurred in both one-chain and two-chain forms as revealed by SDS gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The lower enzymic potential of rK1 in sympathetically evoked saliva might be accounted for by its conversion to a two-chain form.
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