Introduction: The use of personal mobile devices to record patient data appears to be increasing, but remains poorly studied. We sought to determine the magnitude and purposes for which Canadian emergency physicians (EPs) and residents use their personal mobile devices (PMDs) to record patient data in the emergency department (ED). Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to EPs and residents in the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) database between 27/02/17 and 23/03/17. The survey captured demographic information and information on frequency and purpose of PMD use in the ED, whether consent was obtained, how the information was secured, and any possible implications for patient care. Participants were also asked about knowledge of, and any perceived restrictions from, current regulations regarding the use of PMDs healthcare settings. Results: The survey response rate was 23.1%. Of 415 respondents, 9 surveys were rejected for incomplete demographic data, resulting in 406 participants. A third (31.5%, 128/406, 95% CI 27.0-36.3) reported using PMDs to record patient data. Most (78.1%) reported doing so more than once a month and 7.0% reported doing so once every shift. 10.9% of participants indicated they did not obtain written or verbal consent. Reasons cited by participants for using PMDs to record patient data included a belief that doing so improves care provided by consultants (36.7%), expedites patient care (31.3%), and improves medical education (32.8%). 53.2% of participants were unaware of current regulations and 19.7% reported feeling restricted by them. Subgroup analysis suggested an increased frequency of PMD use to record patient data among younger physicians and physicians in rural settings. Conclusion: This is the first known Canadian study on the use of PMDs to record patient data in the ED. Our results suggest that this practice is common, and arises from a belief that doing so enhances patient care through better communication, efficiency, and education. Our findings also suggest current practices result in risk of both privacy and confidentiality breaches, and thus support arguments for both physician education and regulation reform.