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Simeone v. Simeone is an ideal case for inclusion in this volume because of its breadth and its timing. The overarching question presented by Simeone was whether courts should treat signatories to prenuptial agreements (notably women) just like any other contracting parties or whether courts should scrutinize prenuptial agreements more carefully than ordinary contracts. In considering this question, the case addressed the intersections of women’s relative rights and status within both private contracts and intimate relationships, and also public economic, social, and political systems.
To assess the accuracy of government inspection records, relative to ground observation, for identifying businesses offering foods/drinks.
Agreement between city and state inspection records v. ground observations at two levels: businesses and street segments. Agreement could be ‘strict’ (by business name, e.g. ‘Rizzo’s’) or ‘lenient’ (by business type, e.g. ‘pizzeria’); using sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for businesses and using sensitivity, PPV, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV) for street segments.
The Bronx and the Upper East Side (UES), New York City, USA.
All food/drink-offering businesses on sampled street segments (n 154 in the Bronx, n 51 in the UES).
By ‘strict’ criteria, sensitivity and PPV of government records for food/drink-offering businesses were 0·37 and 0·57 in the Bronx; 0·58 and 0·60 in the UES. ‘Lenient’ values were 0·40 and 0·62 in the Bronx; 0·60 and 0·62 in the UES. Sensitivity, PPV, specificity and NPV of government records for street segments having food/drink-offering businesses were 0·66, 0·73, 0·84 and 0·79 in the Bronx; 0·79, 0·92, 0·67, and 0·40 in the UES. In both areas, agreement varied by business category: restaurants; ‘food stores’; and government-recognized other storefront businesses (‘gov. OSB’, i.e. dollar stores, gas stations, pharmacies). Additional business categories – ‘other OSB’ (barbers, laundromats, newsstands, etc.) and street vendors – were absent from government records; together, they represented 28·4 % of all food/drink-offering businesses in the Bronx, 22·2 % in the UES (‘other OSB’ and street vendors were sources of both healthful and less-healthful foods/drinks in both areas).
Government records frequently miss or misrepresent businesses offering foods/drinks, suggesting caveats for food-environment assessments using such records.
Without the dissent by Justice Thurgood Marshall and the historic context, the reader of Rostker v. Goldberg might wonder why this opinion was selected for a feminist re-envisioning. The U.S. Supreme Court in Rostker upheld Congress's Military Selective Service Act (MSSA) determination that only men must register for military service. Based on its strong deference to Congress's war powers, the majority opinion defined the constitutional standard for review of gender equality almost entirely out of the case. The reader must read ten pages into the Rostker majority before finding the acknowledgement that the Constitution prohibits the state from denying men or women equal protection of the laws. Yet everything about the case's political, legal, and social context positioned gender equality at the center of the issue presented, rather than as merely an incidental byproduct of a question about military readiness.
THE ORIGINAL OPINION
Perhaps the centrality of gender equality was lost in Rostker because it began as a class action filed by men fighting against the Vietnam War itself, not by litigants fighting for gender equality. The male plaintiffs alleged that the male-only registration requirement violated the Equal Protection Clause, leveraging Reed v. Reed's iconic shift in constitutional review of gender classifications. A year earlier, in Reed, the Court had struck down a mandatory male preference in an estate administration hierarchy. Although the Reed opinion did not explicitly define a heightened standard of review, the Court's striking down the statute despite its administrative convenience appeared to signal a new era of heightened scrutiny.
While Rostker was pending for many years, the Court's equal protection review of sex classifications became increasingly clear and vigorous throughout the 1970s. The Rostker class action was dormant after President Ford revoked the draft in 1975, returning to an All-Volunteer Force and pushing for a rigorous review of the selective service program. In 1980, President Carter reinstated the draft and asked Congress to include women in registration.
The registration requirement reinvigorated the Rostker class action and positioned it squarely within the context of recent equal protection cases establishing heightened standards of review for sex-based classifications. In Frontiero v. Richardson, a Court plurality struck down a statute treating male and female dependent allowances differently based on a presumption that women were economically dependent on their spouses, but men were not.
Catalyst development is needed to enable the use of renewable electricity to chemically convert carbon dioxide (CO2) and water into fuels and chemicals, a more sustainable, lower-carbon alternative to conventional processes that produce fuels and chemicals based on fossil resources. In this study, the catalytic activity and selectivity of polycrystalline platinum (Pt) is thoroughly characterized for the CO2 reduction reaction, based on an electrochemical cell design that offers high sensitivity for product detection. Thin polyaniline films are then electrodeposited onto polycrystalline Pt foils to form hybrid organic–inorganic surfaces. The addition of the polymer is observed to have an impact on the catalytic chemistry, yielding up to a fivefold enhancement in formate and CO production over pure Pt foils. This work elucidates new strategies to perturb interfacial chemistry in a manner that could help steer CO2 electro-reduction catalysis in desired directions.
The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.
The emergence of epidemic cholera in post-earthquake Haiti portended a public health disaster of uncertain magnitude. In order to coordinate relief efforts in an environment with limited healthcare infrastructure and stretched resources, timely and realistic projections of the extent of the cholera outbreak were crucial. Projections were shared with Government and partner organizations beginning 5 days after the first reported case and were updated using progressively more advanced methods as more surveillance data became available. The first projection estimated that 105 000 cholera cases would occur in the first year. Subsequent projections using different methods estimated up to 652 000 cases and 163 000–247 000 hospitalizations during the first year. Current surveillance data show these projections to have provided reasonable approximations of the observed epidemic. Providing the real-time projections allowed Haitian ministries and external aid organizations to better plan and implement response measures during the evolving epidemic.
Deficiency of oestrogen at menopause decreases intestinal Ca absorption, contributing to a negative Ca balance and bone loss. Mg deficiency has also been associated with bone loss. The purpose of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that treatment with a spray-dried mixture of chicory oligofructose and long-chain inulin (Synergy1; SYN1) would increase the absorption of both Ca and Mg and alter markers of bone turnover. Fifteen postmenopausal women (72·2 (sd 6·4) years) were treated with SYN1 or placebo for 6 weeks using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Fractional Ca and Mg absorption were measured using dual-tracer stable isotopes before and after treatment. Bone turnover markers were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks. Fractional absorption of Ca and Mg increased following SYN1 compared with placebo (P < 0·05). Bone resorption (by urinary deoxypyridinoline cross-links) was greater than baseline at 6 weeks of active treatment (P < 0·05). Bone formation (by serum osteocalcin) showed an upward trend at 3 weeks and an increase following 6 weeks of SYN1 (P < 0·05). Closer examination revealed a variation in response, with two-thirds of the subjects showing increased absorption with SYN1. Post hoc analyses demonstrated that positive responders had significantly lower lumbar spine bone mineral density than non-responders (dual X-ray absorptiometry 0·887 ± 0·102 v. 1·104 ± 0·121 g/cm2; P < 0·01), and changes in bone turnover markers occurred only in responders. These results suggest that 6 weeks of SYN1 can improve mineral absorption and impact markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Further research is needed to determine why a greater response was found in women with lower initial spine bone mineral density.
Congenital anomalies of the tricuspid valve, and/or its supporting apparatus, leading to severe tricuspid regurgitation are rare. Although well tolerated in early childhood, long-standing and progressive volume loading of the right heart leads to symptoms of decreased exercise tolerance, and may predispose to arrhythmias in the long term. We report three cases of severe tricuspid regurgitation related to anomalies of the cords supporting the antero-superior leaflet of the tricuspid valve. Shortened cords leading to tethering of the leaflet were seen in two cases, and hypoplasia of the leaflet in the other. In all cases, the regurgitant jet was directed posteriorly towards the coronary sinus and atrial septum. Surgical repair was possible in one case, while it proved necessary to replace the valve in a second. The third child is asymptomatic and under regular review.
The space–time scan statistic is often used to identify incident disease clusters. We introduce a method to adjust for naturally occurring temporal trends or geographical patterns in illness. The space–time scan statistic was applied to reports of lower respiratory complaints in a large group practice. We compared its performance with unadjusted populations from: (1) the census, (2) group-practice membership counts, and on adjustments incorporating (3) day of week, month, and holidays; and (4) additionally, local history of illness. Using a nominal false detection rate of 5%, incident clusters during 1 year were identified on 26, 22, 4 and 2% of days for the four populations respectively. We show that it is important to account for naturally occurring temporal and geographic trends when using the space–time scan statistic for surveillance. The large number of days with clusters renders the census and membership approaches impractical for public health surveillance. The proposed adjustment allows practical surveillance.
This manuscript extends our previously published work (based on data from one clinic) on the association between three drinking water-treatment modalities (boiling, filtering, and bottling) and diarrhoeal disease in HIV-positive persons by incorporating data from two additional clinics collected in the following year. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of drinking water patterns, medication usage, and episodes of diarrhoea among HIV-positive persons attending clinics associated with the San Francisco Community Consortium. We present combined results from our previously published work in one clinic (n = 226) with data from these two additional clinics (n = 458). In this combined analysis we employed logistic regression and marginal structural modelling of the data. The relative risk of diarrhoea for ‘always’ vs. ‘never’ drinking boiled water was 0.68 (95% CI 0.45–1.04) and for ‘always’ vs. ‘never’ drinking bottled water was 1.22 (95% CI 0.82–1.82). Drinking filtered water was unrelated to diarrhoea [1.03 (95% CI 0.78, 1.35) for ‘always’ vs. ‘never’ drinking filtered water]. Adjustment for confounding did not have any notable effect on the point estimates (0.61, 1.35 and 0.98 for boiled, bottled, and filtered water respectively, as defined above). The risk of diarrhoea was lower among those consuming boiled water but this finding was not statistically significant. Because of these findings, the importance of diarrhoea in immunocompromised individuals, and the limitations of cross-sectional data further prospective investigations of water consumption and diarrhoea among HIV-positive individuals are needed.
Secondary electron emission spectroscopy is used to investigate the generation and transport of impact-ionized electrons in wide bandgap material. Secondary electron yield and energy distribution measurements from C(100) and CVD diamond samples are analyzed to obtain information about the internal gain and electron energy distribution following impact ionization, as well as the effects of the transport process on the internal electron distribution. By studying the emission from surfaces having a negative electron affinity (NEA), the total transmitted intensity and the full energy spectrum of the internal electrons are revealed in the measurements. Energy spectra measured from the diamond samples contain a low-energy peak whose energy position and width are independent of incident beam energy. This suggests that the peak represents the electron distribution produced by impact-ionization events. A large percentage of the total emitted electrons lie within this peak, indicating that the impact-ionization process is very efficient at generating low-energy electrons. Very high yields are measured from both samples, establishing the presence of high internal gain and efficient electron transport in the material. From the linear slope of the yield curves, the escape depth of the low-energy electrons is deduced to be much larger than ˜ 0.1 μm in both diamond samples.
Diamond exhibits high secondary-electron yields which vary strongly with sample preparation and sample treatment. In this study, we identify some of the factors that govern the secondary-electron emission yield of diamond. Comparative studies are made with polycrystalline diamond films having different dopants (boron or nitrogen), dopant concentrations and surface conditions (hydrogen-terminated or oxidized). In these studies, the total electron yield as a function of the incident-electron energy and the energy distribution of the secondary emitted electrons are measured. The results show that both electrical conductivity and hydrogen-termination play essential roles in the secondary-electron emission process. For hydrogen-terminated samples, the energy distribution shows a large and narrow peak at the onset of electron emission. The long mean-free path of the secondary electrons and the low or negative electron affinity are essential to the exceedingly high electron yield of diamond.
The effects of exogenous phaseic acid (PA) on germination and protein accumulation of cultured immature barley embryos were examined. Chemically synthesized PA was racemic, 87% pure and stable over the course of the experiment. Germination was observable in >90% of the untreated embryos after 3 days of incubation, whereas embryos treated with 10μm abscisic acid (ABA) or PA showed no evidence of germination. Buffer extracts from embryos treated with ABA or PA had similar protein profiles when examined by single and two-dimensional electrophoresis. The profiles differed significantly from those of embryos incubated in the absence of the two compounds. Concentrations of α-amylase inhibitor and barley-germ agglutinin (BGA) increased upon treatment of immature embryos with ABA or PA. This was due to de novo synthesis as there was increased incorporation of radioactivity from 35S-labelled amino acids into the proteins in treated embryos. Endogenous ABA content in PA-treated embryos was not significantly different from that in untreated embryos. An analogue of ABA, 2′, 3′-dihydroabscisic acid, which cannot be metabolized to phaseic acid, inhibited germination and caused increased synthesis of α-amylase inhibitor and germ agglutinin. ABA and PA may both be active in promoting responses associated with ABA in barley embryos, but the embryos are more sensitive to ABA.
This paper addresses manufacturing research involving contributions in computer science, control theory and material processing science. The research objective has been to develop intelligent, †self-directed‡ control systems which enable in situ control path generation based on †product-processing‡ feedback. A †product-directed‡ control philosophy which emphasizes product quality is described together with a generic architecture for representing process knowledge. Specific details are presented involving the development and application of a self-directed material processing system for autoclave curing of composites together with recent research results, production challenges and future research in †self-improving‡ material processing systems.
The sensitivity of the properties of RBa2Cu3Ox materials to oxygen stoichiometry has been widely reported.1 This is a serious problem in the synthesis and processing of these compounds since many operations must be carried out at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures where bulk oxygen is in dynamic equilibrium with gas phase molecular oxygen. Therefore it is crucial for the rational design of processing strategies to understand how the equilibria and kinetics of oxygen stoichiometry in this material vary with temperature and pressure. In this paper we report work on two problems in this area: first, we describe the development of accurate methods for the determination of oxygen stoichiometry in experimental samples, and second, the use of these methods to investigate and analyze equilibrium oxygen contents over a range of temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. Equilibrium oxygen contents from 350 – 900°C at oxygen pressures of. 05, .21, and 1.00 atmospheres have been determined. The pressure dependence has also been examined over a wider range at selected temperatures. Most of this data can be adequately fit to a model which assumes that a single chemical equilibrium constant can describe the entire stoichiometry range from x=6 to 7. However, kinetic data suggests that the detailed mechanism must be more complex, and that the overall thermochemistry may reflect contributions from a number of interacting processes rather than any single elementary step. In concurrent work we have used these methods to develop sample series that can be used to examine magnetic properties2 and far IR spectra3 of these materials as a systematic function of oxygen content.
The brothers of 73 delinquent boys were found themselves to be more antisocial than the brothers of 73 matched control boys. Further, the average antisocial score of the probands’ brothers increased with the number of brothers in the family, holding the number of sisters constant, and decreased with the number of sisters, holding the number of brothers constant. These results are interpreted in terms of male potentiation and female suppression of antisocial behaviour in boys. Results are also reported for 59 pairs of matched delinquent and control girls and their siblings.