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A new planar multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna for ultra wideband (UWB) applications is presented. The proposed antenna operates over the frequency band from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz and it consists of two identical circular monopoles on an FR4 substrate. The wide isolation is achieved through a novel planar decoupling structure that is being inserted between the dual antennas. Moreover, a center slot is etched on the common ground to further increase isolation. The effectiveness of the decoupling structure is analyzed, and performance study has been performed to investigate the mutual coupling reduction. A good isolation of more than 31 dB has been achieved through the entire UWB band (more than 12 dB improvement over the reference antenna). The proposed UWB antenna with and without the wideband decoupling structure has been investigated and verified both numerically and experimentally. The measurement results of the proposed UWB–MIMO antenna are in good agreement with the simulation results. The proposed UWB antenna has been compared with previous works regarding antenna size, geometric complexity, bandwidth, and isolation level. The proposed antenna has some outstanding characteristics such as a geometric simplicity, compact size, broad bandwidth, and low correlation which give the antenna an excellent diversity performance and a good candidate for UWB applications.
This paper discusses results from the second phase of the European Ice Sheet Modelling Initiative (EISMINT). It reports the intercomparison of ten operational ice-sheet models and uses a series of experiments to examine the implications of thermomechanical coupling for model behaviour. A schematic, circular ice sheet is used in the work which investigates both steady states and the response to stepped changes in climate. The major finding is that the radial symmetry implied in the experimental design can, under certain circumstances, break down with the formation of distinct, regularly spaced spokes of cold ice which extended from the interior of the ice sheet outward to the surrounding zone of basal melt. These features also manifest themselves in the thickness and velocity distributions predicted by the models. They appear to be a common feature to all of the models which took part in the intercomparison, and may stem from interactions between ice temperature, flow and surface form. The exact nature of these features varies between models, and their existence appears to be controlled by the overall thermal regime of the ice sheet. A second result is that there is considerable agreement between the models in their predictions of global-scale response to imposed climate change.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
Documenting past changes in the East Antarctic surface mass balance is important to improve ice core chronologies and to constrain the ice-sheet contribution to global mean sea-level change. Here we reconstruct past changes in the ratio of surface mass balance (SMB ratio) between the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and Dome Fuji (DF) East Antarctica ice core sites, based on a precise volcanic synchronization of the two ice cores and on corrections for the vertical thinning of layers. During the past 216 000 a, this SMB ratio, denoted SMBEDC/SMBDF, varied between 0.7 and 1.1, being small during cold periods and large during warm periods. Our results therefore reveal larger amplitudes of changes in SMB at EDC compared with DF, consistent with previous results showing larger amplitudes of changes in water stable isotopes and estimated surface temperature at EDC compared with DF. Within the last glacial inception (Marine Isotope Stages, MIS-5c and MIS-5d), the SMB ratio deviates by up to 0.2 from what is expected based on differences in water stable isotope records. Moreover, the SMB ratio is constant throughout the late parts of the current and last interglacial periods, despite contrasting isotopic trends.
This study aimed to determine the relationship between quality of life and satisfaction with care among cancer patients in palliative care in Saudi Arabia.
A total of 130 palliative cancer patients were invited to participate in our cross-sectional study. Patients were recruited from a large tertiary hospital within the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia. All eligible participants answered a three-part questionnaire that included demographic data and the validated European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ–C15–PAL) and (EORTC IN-PATSAT32) questionnaires.
Participants were mostly female (103/130, 79%) and married (93/130, 71%), and more than half had breast cancer (69/130, 53%). They were between 17 and 86 years of age (mean = 46.7, SD = 16.50). The correlation test showed that the relationship with physical function was weak, while emotional function and global health status had a moderate relationship with general satisfaction (r = 0.21, p < 0.01; r = 0.32, p < 0.001; r = 0.26, p < 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that emotional function is the more important factor in predicting satisfaction with care among palliative cancer patients. An increase in emotional function leads to increased general satisfaction.
Significance of results:
The emotional function of palliative cancer patients was more closely associated with overall satisfaction with care than physical function or global health status. All palliative care team members are thus required to provide adequate psychosocial support. It is recommended that interdisciplinary and collaborative approaches be integrated in palliative care of cancer patients.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with NANTEN. We report the results of a comparison between CO clouds and SNRs in the LMC. Among the 35 known SNRs, only 10 are possibly associated with CO clouds. These 10 CO clouds and SNRs deserve follow-up studies for possible interactions. We present overlays of CO clouds on the optical images of some of these SNRs.
We have made a 12CO(J = 1−0) survey of the LMC with NANTEN. A sample of 55 giant molecular clouds has been identified and comparisons with stellar clusters, HII regions and SNRs are presented. The connection between the clouds and cluster formation is discussed.
We have made 12CO(J=1-0) observations in the LMC with NANTEN, and compared the detected giant molecular clouds (GMCs) with HII regions and stellar clusters. It is found that ~ 80% of the GMCs are associated with HII regions. The results of comparisons of the GMCs with the HII regions and the stellar clusters are presented.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with the NANTEN millimeter-wave telescope and identified about 100 distinct giant molecular clouds (GMCs). A detailed comparison of the GMCs with stellar clusters and a UV image is discussed.
Fully sampled 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the whole extent of the LMC have been made with a linear resolution of ~ 30 pc at a detection limit of N(H2) = 2 × 1021 cm−2. In addition, several selected regions have been mapped with higher sensitivity corresponding to a detection limit of 1 × 1021 cm−2. Based on these results, a new estimate of the molecular mass in the LMC is presented.
The red variables whose amplitude is larger than 1.3 mag in the MOA database are studied for the LMC. Among 3 196 such stars, 532 stars are likely to be Miras or red semiregular variables. The period–colour relation of these stars is shown.
More than 4000 stars observed in both MOA and DENIS projects showing periodic or quasi-periodic light curves are studied. Almost all Mira stars are located on the classical period-luminosity relation, and the multiplicity of the period-luminosity relation is confirmed for small-amplitude stars. The colour-magnitude diagrams based on the MOA red band, Rm, and Ks constructed for the sequences, form a single strip with small successive shifts.
A large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both the LMC and the SMC, which has been established by the MOA project, is a useful resource to study variable stars. In our preliminary study, variables identified as β Lyrae type stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars have been found amongst blue stars.
A review of the MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) project is presented. MOA is a collaboration of approximately 30 astronomers from New Zealand and Japan established with the aim of finding and detecting microlensing events towards the Magellanic Clouds and the Galactic bulge, which may be indicative of either dark matter or of planetary companions. The observing program commenced in 1995, using very wide band blue and red filters and a nine-chip mosaic CCD camera.
As a by-product of these observations a large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both LMC and SMC has been established. In one preliminary analysis 576 bright variable stars were confirmed, nearly half of them being Cepheids. Another analysis has identified large numbers of blue variables, and 205 eclipsing binaries are included in this sample. In addition 351 red variables (AGB stars) have been found. Light curves have been obtained for all these stars. The observations are carried out on a 61-cm f/6.25 telescope at Mt John University Observatory where a new larger CCD camera was installed in 1998 July. From this latitude (44° S) the Magellanic Clouds can be monitored throughout the year.
The fossil record provides an important source of data on adaptive radiations, and indeed some of the earliest theoretical insights on the nature of these radiations were made by paleontologists. Here we focus on the diverse Devonian Metacryphaeus group calmoniid trilobites, known from the Malvinokaffric Realm, which have been considered a classic example of an adaptive radiation preserved in the fossil record. We use a geometric morphometric analysis in conjunction with phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns and data on speciation rates. Using ancestral character state reconstruction during speciation events, we quantify patterns of morphological change in order to assess the role ecological and geographical factors may have played in mediating this radiation. We found no significant differences between the amount of morphological change that occurred during speciation events when ancestors and descendants were in the same area as opposed to when they occupied different areas. Further, the magnitude of morphological divergence did not change through time or with cladogenetic rank. These patterns, in conjunction with the fact that the radiation occurs in a geographically heterogeneous region subjected to repeated episodes of sea-level rise and fall, suggest that at the macroevolutionary scale this radiation may have been motivated more by phenomena that facilitated geographic isolation than by competition.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
The transport equation for the mean turbulent energy dissipation rate
along the centreline of a fully developed channel flow is derived by applying the limit at small separations to the two-point budget equation. Since the ratio of the isotropic energy dissipation rate to the mean turbulent energy dissipation rate
is sufficiently close to 1 on the centreline, our main focus is on the isotropic form of the transport equation. It is found that the imbalance between the production of
due to vortex stretching and the destruction of
caused by the action of viscosity is governed by the diffusion of
by the wall-normal velocity fluctuation. This imbalance is intrinsically different from the advection-driven imbalance in decaying-type flows, such as grid turbulence, jets and wakes. In effect, the different types of imbalance represent different constraints on the relation between the skewness of the longitudinal velocity derivative
and the destruction coefficient
of enstrophy in different flows, thus resulting in non-universal approaches of
towards a constant value as the Taylor microscale Reynolds number,
, increases. For example, the approach is slower for the measured values of
along either the channel or pipe centreline than along the axis in the self-preserving region of a round jet. The data for
collected in different flows strongly suggest that, in each flow, the magnitude of
is bounded, the value being slightly larger than 0.5.
The supposed universality of the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia has been seriously challenged. It is now widely accepted that the life-time prevalence and incidence of this disorder vary considerably in time and place. As a result, there has been renewed interest in environmental causation of schizophrenia. There are few extant formulations that have successfully integrated the available new evidence into a coherent theory for its causation. The outgroup intolerance hypothesis is an attempt to integrate this evidence. It proposes that schizophrenia is the result of a mismatch between the social brain as shaped by evolution and the new social conditions of the post-neolithic. The hypothesis can provide an explanation for (i) the higher risk to migrants, (ii) the ethnic density phenomenon, (iii) the increased risk to individuals who have grown up in cities and (iv) the putative low risk in hunter-gatherer societies. Evidence is presented from a range of disciplines and sources including epidemiology, psychopathology, social psychology and clinical trials in support of this hypothesis. A range of testable predictions follow from the hypothesis.