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Studies of domestic architectural variation are rare in archaeological research, possibly because the essential methods remain underdeveloped. To encourage a comparative approach to explaining the construction differences in household dwellings, we designed and utilized objective and easily applied means to calculate labor costs for constructing a variety of domestic architectural styles in Hohokam society. We applied Abrams's (1989, 1994) approach, labelled “architectural energetics,” which converts architecture into its labor equivalents for building structures. By doing so, we derived standard units of measurement that promote comparative analysis. To demonstrate the method's utility, we turned to the pithouses and adobe surface structures at Pueblo Grande. We wanted to test whether the history of construction was driven by environmental degradation, and, in particular, a depletion over time of wood resources for home building (see Loendorf and Lewis 2017). Our analysis indicated that factors in addition to wood depletion likely contributed to the architectural changes at Pueblo Grande and across the Hohokam world.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects ~7% of reproductive age women. Although its etiology is unknown, in animals, excess prenatal testosterone (T) exposure induces PCOS-like phenotypes. While measuring fetal T in humans is infeasible, demonstrating in utero androgen exposure using a reliable newborn biomarker, anogenital distance (AGD), would provide evidence for a fetal origin of PCOS and potentially identify girls at risk. Using data from a pregnancy cohort (The Infant Development and Environment Study), we tested the novel hypothesis that infant girls born to women with PCOS have longer AGD, suggesting higher fetal T exposure, than girls born to women without PCOS. During pregnancy, women reported whether they ever had a PCOS diagnosis. After birth, infant girls underwent two AGD measurements: anofourchette distance (AGD-AF) and anoclitoral distance (AGD-AC). We fit adjusted linear regression models to examine the association between maternal PCOS and girls’ AGD. In total, 300 mother–daughter dyads had complete data and 23 mothers reported PCOS. AGD was longer in the daughters of women with a PCOS diagnosis compared with daughters of women with no diagnosis (AGD-AF: β=1.21, P=0.05; AGD-AC: β=1.05, P=0.18). Results were stronger in analyses limited to term births (AGD-AF: β=1.65, P=0.02; AGD-AC: β=1.43, P=0.09). Our study is the first to examine AGD in offspring of women with PCOS. Our results are consistent with findings that women with PCOS have longer AGD and suggest that during PCOS pregnancies, daughters may experience elevated T exposure. Identifying the underlying causes of PCOS may facilitate early identification and intervention for those at risk.
We deposited TaWSi amorphous metal thin films to determine how composition affects film crystallization and oxidation at high temperatures. Films were deposited by magnetron sputtering from targets of nominal compositions Ta : W : Si = 40 : 40 : 20, 30 : 50 : 20, and 30 : 30 : 40, and studied by electron probe microanalysis, electron microscopy, electrical methods, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy. All films remained amorphous to 800 °C or higher temperatures. Films prepared from the target composition 30 : 30 : 40 yielded the film composition Ta41.7W38.4Si19.9, which retained its film integrity and amorphous structure to 1100 °C, even after annealing in air.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterised by a marked and persistent fear of social/performance situations, and a number of key environmental factors have been implicated in the aetiology of the disorder. Hence, the current article reviews theoretical and empirical evidence linking the development of SAD with parenting factors, traumatic life events, and aversive social experiences. Specifically, research suggests that the risk of developing SAD is increased by over-controlling, critical and cold parenting, an insecure attachment style, aversive social/peer experiences, emotional maltreatment, and to a lesser extent other forms of childhood maltreatment and adversity. Moreover, these factors may lead to posttraumatic reactions, distorted negative self-imagery, and internalised shame-based schemas that subsequently maintain SAD symptomatology. However, further research is necessary to clarify the nature, interactions, and relative contributions of these factors. It is likely that SAD develops via a complex interplay of biological and environmental factors, and that multiple aetiological pathways underlie the development of the disorder.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
We present optical identifications of nine previously unidentified extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources discovered during the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite surveys. The all-sky survey detected four of the sources and the more sensitive deep survey detected the other five sources. Three of the four all-sky survey sources, EUVE_J1918+59.9, EUVE_J2249+58.5, and EUVE_J2329+41.4, are listed in present catalogs as having possible associations with optical counterparts but without spectral class. The first two of these sources are hot DA white dwarfs showing an optical spectrum with broad Balmer lines. The source EUVE_J2329+41.4 is listed as having a possible association with an unclassified M star. We show that a pair of dMe stars are actually optical counterparts located within the error circle of the EUVE source position. The EUVE_J2114+503 remains unidentified even though all the possible candidates have been studied. Based on the count rates we predict a fainter white dwarf or a cataclysmic variable counterpart for this candidate. All five sources discovered with the EUVE deep survey, EUVE_J0318+184, EUVE_J0419+217, EUVE_J2053−175, EUVE_J2056−171 and EUVE_J2233−096, have been identified as late-type stars. The spectral classes, distances, visual magnitudes, and estimated hydrogen column densities for these EUVE sources are presented.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterised by a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations. Cognitive models suggest that self-focused cognitive processes play a crucial role in generating and maintaining social anxiety, and that self-focused cognition occurs prior to, during, and following social situations (Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). There is a substantial body of empirical evidence demonstrating that socially anxious individuals engage in self-focused cognition during and following a social or performance situation. A smaller but growing body literature suggests that a similar process occurs prior to such situations, and that these three processes are interdependent. Furthermore, the vast majority of research to date indicates that self-focused cognitive processes are detrimental, and that they generate and maintain social anxiety in a variety of ways. However, there remains considerable scope for research to further explicate the role of these processes in the maintenance of SAD, and to enhance interventions designed to ameliorate their negative effects.
During the course of a discussion on Mr R. C. B. Lane's paper, ‘The Dissolution of a Superannuation Society’, presented to the Institute on 24 January 1949, Mr V. A. Burrows enunciated the dictum that a consulting actuary's function, in connexion with friendly societies and pension funds, was primarily an educative one. In his view, it was the actuary's duty to explain and expound the mysteries of his craft so that the laymen who formed committees of management, trustees, local authority finance committees—whoever his clients were—should obtain some grasp of the actuarial principles of their particular funds.
Most consulting actuaries would probably agree with this definition of their task. Their clients can generally give only superficial and spasmodic thought to their own funds, since their primary attention will be devoted to their own trades or businesses. The consulting actuary, on the other hand, meets a succession of technical and administrative problems bearing on friendly societies and pension funds, and in course of time he should be able to exercise wide judgment in these matters. Trustees and committees of management of pension funds should come to feel that they can turn to their actuary for guidance on all points of difficulty whether these are of principle, policy or administration.
Retinal ganglion cells receive excitatory synapses from bipolar cells and inhibitory synapses from amacrine cells. Previous studies in primate suggest that the strength of inhibitory amacrine input is greater to cells in peripheral retina than to foveal (central) cells. A comprehensive study of a large number of ganglion cells at different eccentricities, however, is still lacking. Here, we compared the amacrine and bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in central and peripheral retina of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Ganglion cells were labeled by retrograde filling from the lateral geniculate nucleus or by intracellular injection. Presumed amacrine input was identified with antibodies against gephyrin; presumed bipolar input was identified with antibodies against the GluR4 subunit of the AMPA receptor. In vertical sections, about 40% of gephyrin immunoreactive (IR) puncta were colocalized with GABAA receptor subunits, whereas immunoreactivity for gephyrin and GluR4 was found at distinct sets of puncta. The density of gephyrin IR puncta associated with ganglion cell dendrites was comparable for midget and parasol cells at all eccentricities studied (up to 2 mm or about 16 degrees of visual angle for midget cells and up to 10 mm or >80 degrees of visual angle for parasol cells). In central retina, the densities of gephyrin IR and GluR4 IR puncta associated with the dendrites of midget and parasol cells are comparable, but the average density of GluR4 IR puncta decreased slightly in peripheral parasol cells. These anatomical results indicate that the ratio of amacrine to bipolar input does not account for the distinct functional properties of parasol and midget cells or for functional differences between cells of the same type in central and peripheral retina.
Research on camouflage focusses on the ways animals make themselves inconspicuous against their background (Thayer 1909; Cott 1940; Ruxton et al. 2004). A common means of achieving inconspicuousness involves crypsis via background matching. In the visual domain we focus on here, this means possessing a phenotype that matches the colours, patterns and brightness of its surrounding background (Stevens & Merilaita 2009). The traditional focus on animals being the active players that match themselves against a passive background is well justified when the background is not a live entity. In many cases, however, animals’ immediate surroundings are either plants or larger animals. Examples include ambush predators on either flowers or foliage, herbivores on plants and small parasites on large hosts. In such cases, the background organisms may actually be active players that coevolve with the animals that use them as a backdrop. This important feature of animal camouflage requires detailed evaluation.
The transition metal pentatellurides HfTe5 and ZrTe5 exhibit a broad resistive anomaly as a function of temperature. This behavior is also reflected in the thermopower as it changes from a large positive value below room temperature to a large negative value at lower temperatures with the zero crossing corresponding well with the peak temperature of the resistive anomaly. The large values of the thermopower at low temperatures (T ≈ 150 K) have made these materials attractive for investigation for potential low temperature thermoelectric applications. The magnitude of the resistive peak and the peak temperature are highly sensitive to doping as well as external influences such as magnetic field and pressure. In this study we examine the effect of doping with various rare earth elements (RE = Ce, Sm and Dy) and the subsequent effects on the electrical resistivity and the thermopower. These results will be discussed in relation to the thermoelectric performance of these materials.
Ceramic analysis with an electron microprobe and thin-section petrography are used to investigate prehistoric exchange among the Hohokam of the Salt River valley, Arizona. These complimentary techniques can be useful for resolving the special problems that arise when studying ceramic exchange over short distances.
We have initiated a study of improved methods for implementing dry (AIROX) processing of commercial spent nuclear fuels for recycling back into light-water reactors. In this proliferation-resistant recycle, the spent fuel is converted to a powder, blended with fresh medium-enriched uranium powder, and refabricated into fuel elements. Evaluations of neutronic characteristics show that it will be necessary to remove a substantial portion of the neutronabsorbing fission products in the spent fuel, especially lanthanides and rhodium, in order to achieve efficient utilization of the spent fuel. We have already modeled oxidative vaporization of selected fission products from the powder at 1000 °C. In addition to permanent gases and fission products that are vaporized during pellet sintering, this can remove Tc, Mo, and some Ru and improve the neutronics. A number of approaches are being evaluated for removing lanthanides and rhodium, initially by thermodynamic modeling and review of literature. The lanthanides exist in solid solution with UO2 so separations methods will require conversion to fine powder; rhodium is present as a metallic inclusion in the epsilon phase. Chlorination of finely powdered oxide at 1100-1200 °C would vaporize substantial portions of Nd, Eu, Gd, and Rh. A fraction of the uranium would also vaporize; if significant, it could be recovered for recycle. Magnetic and electrostatic methods were evaluated for separation of lanthanide from spent fuel. They are not likely to be practical. However, static separation techniques may be applicable for removing rhodium in the fine powder metallic inclusions. These technicalconsiderations provide the basis for a suggested experimental program.
Thick film garnet Faraday rotators with perpendicular anisotropy have limited utility for variable polarization rotation applications because multi-domain effects result in large effective insertion losses in device applications. Thick film growth of (BiGdLu)3(FeGaAl)5O12 on (100) substrates yields growth-induced anisotropies ranging from positive anisotropy perpendicular domains to negative anisotropy in-plane domains. Planar domains show variable magnetization by domain rotation with a uniform projection of magnetization along the axis of light propagation. This can produce low-loss devices when operated in sub-saturation applications such as magnetic field sensors, variable optical attenuators and polarization controllers.
Single crystal NaCo2O4 platelets with sizes up to 6mm were synthesized by the typical high temperature NaCl flux method. The in-plane thermopower α and in-plane resistivity ρ were measured to be ∼100µV/K and 0.3mΩ-cm at 300K, respectively. The in-plane thermal conductivity κ was measured by our custom-designed “PTC” system and found to be ∼5 W-m−1K−1 at 300K, which is 2-3 times larger than the polycrystalline NaCo2O4. The in-plane phonon mean free path lph was estimated to be ∼9.5Å, which is much smaller than the in-plane mean free path of conducting carriers (la∼51Å). A novel low temperature flux method where NaCl/NaOH was used as flux and metallic Co powders as Co source was developed to successfully synthesize Na-deficient NaxCo2O4 crystals with size up to 6mm at low temperature of 550°C. The different temperature dependence in resistivity reveals that two different types of crystals can exist, one is metallic and another is semiconducting. The temperature dependence of the measured k is like that of a disordered solid and the value is found to be ∼7 W-m−1K−1 at 300K.
Certain parenting styles are influential in the emergence of later mental health problems, but less is known about the relationship between parenting style and later psychological well-being. Our aim was to examine the association between well-being in midlife and parental behaviour during childhood and adolescence, and the role of personality as a possible mediator of this relationship.
Data from 984 women in the 1946 British birth cohort study were analysed using structural equation modelling. Psychological well-being was assessed at age 52 years using Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Parenting practices were recollected at age 43 years using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Extraversion and neuroticism were assessed at age 26 years using the Maudsley Personality Inventory.
In this sample, three parenting style factors were identified: care; non-engagement; control. Higher levels of parental care were associated with higher psychological well-being, while higher parental non-engagement or control were associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. The effects of care and non-engagement were largely mediated by the offspring's personality, whereas control had direct effects on psychological well-being. The psychological well-being of adult women was at least as strongly linked to the parenting style of their fathers as to that of their mothers, particularly in relation to the adverse effects of non-engagement and control.
This study used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the effects of parenting practices on psychological well-being in midlife. The effects of parenting, both positive and negative, persisted well into mid-adulthood.
Paramedics often are asked to care for patients at the end of life. To do this, they must communicate effectively with family and caregivers, understand their legal obligations, and know when to withhold unwanted interventions. The objectives of this study were to ascertain paramedics' attitudes toward end-of-life (EOL) situations and the frequency with which they encounter them; and to compare paramedics' preparation during training for a variety of EOL care skills.
A written survey was administered to a convenience sample of paramedics in two cities: Denver, Colorado and Los Angeles, California. Questions addressed: (1) attitudes toward EOL decision-making in prehospital settings; (2) experience (number of EOL situations experienced in the past two years); (3) importance of various EOL tasks in clinical practice (pronouncing and communicating death, ending resuscitation, honoring advance directives (ADs)); and (4) self-assessed preparation for these EOL tasks. For each task, importance and preparation were measured using a four-point Likert scale. Proportions were compared using McNemar chi-square statistics to identify areas of under or over-preparation.
Two hundred thirty-six paramedics completed the survey. The mean age was 39 years (range 22–59 years), and 222 (94%) were male. Twenty percent had >20 years of experience. Almost all participants (95%; 95% CI = 91–97%) agreed that prehospital providers should honor field ADs, and more than half (59%; 95% CI = 52–65%) felt that providers should honor verbal wishes to limit resuscitation at the scene. Ninety-eight percent of the participants (95% CI = 96–100%) had questioned whether specific life support interventions were appropriate for patients who appeared to have a terminal disease. Twenty-six percent (95% CI = 20–32%) reported to have used their own judgment during the past two years to withhold or end resuscitation in a patient who appeared to have a terminal disease. Significant discrepancies between the importance in practice and the level of preparation during training for the four EOL situations included: (1) understanding ADs (75% very important vs. 40% well prepared; difference 35%: 95% CI = 26–43%); (2) knowing when to honor written ADs (90% very important vs. 59% well-prepared; difference 31%: 95% CI = 23–38%); and (3) verbal ADs (75% very important vs. 54% well-prepared, difference 21%: 95% CI = 12–29%); and (4) communicating death to family or friends (79% very important vs. 48% well prepared, difference 31%: 95% CI = 23–39%). Paramedics' preparation in EOL skills was significantly lower than that for clinical skills such as endotracheal intubation or defibrillation.
There is a need to include more training in EOL care into prehospital training curricula, including how to verify and apply ADs, when to withhold treatments, and how to discuss death with victims' family or friends.