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Heterotrophic soil protists encompass lineages that are both evolutionarily ancient and highly diverse, providing an untapped wealth of scientific insight. Yet the diversity of free-living heterotrophic terrestrial protists is still largely unknown. To contribute to our understanding of this diversity, we present a checklist of heterotrophic protists currently reported from terrestrial Antarctica, for which no comprehensive evaluation currently exists. As a polar continent, Antarctica is especially susceptible to rising temperatures caused by anthropogenic climate change. Establishing a baseline for future conservation efforts of Antarctic protists is therefore important. We performed a literature search and found 236 taxa identified to species and an additional 303 taxa identified to higher taxonomic levels in 54 studies spanning over 100 years of research. Isolated by distance, climate and the circumpolar vortex, Antarctica is the most extreme continent on Earth: it is not unreasonable to think that it may host physiologically and evolutionarily unique species of protists, yet currently most species discovered in Antarctica are considered cosmopolitan. Additional sampling of the more extreme intra-continental zones will probably result in the discovery of more novel and unique taxa.
Plants of Sumatran fleabane [Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker] were identified in a field with an unusual rapid leaf injury herbicide symptom after application of 2,4-D in mixture with glyphosate. The objectives of this study were to confirm the occurrence of resistance to 2,4-D herbicide and to characterize the occurrence of rapid necrosis as the mechanism associated with the herbicide resistance in C. sumatrensis. The performed studies were an initial screening, effect of 2,4-D alone and associated with glyphosate, cross and multiple resistance evaluation, effect of commercial formulation and analytical product, and rate of H2O2 evolution. The accession Marpr9-rn was identified with rapid necrosis symptom and survival to 804 g ae ha-1 of 2,4-D. The resistance factor to the herbicide 2,4-D was 18.6 at 49 days after spraying. The analytical product 2,4-D and the commercial formulation resulted in similar symptoms of rapid necrosis. This symptom did not occur for the six other auxinic herbicides (dicamba, florpyrauxifen-benzyl, fluroxypyr, halauxifen-methyl, picloran and triclopyr) indicating absence of cross-resistance. Multiple resistance was not identified in the Marpr9-rn population to the herbicides paraquat, saflufenacil and ammonium glufosinate. However, survival to the herbicides glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl occurred. The evolution of H2O2 began at 15 minutes after application and was less pronounced in low light. These results indicate the first case of resistance to 2,4-D and occurrence of rapid necrosis in C. sumatrensis.
To assess the accuracy of government inspection records, relative to ground observation, for identifying businesses offering foods/drinks.
Agreement between city and state inspection records v. ground observations at two levels: businesses and street segments. Agreement could be ‘strict’ (by business name, e.g. ‘Rizzo’s’) or ‘lenient’ (by business type, e.g. ‘pizzeria’); using sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for businesses and using sensitivity, PPV, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV) for street segments.
The Bronx and the Upper East Side (UES), New York City, USA.
All food/drink-offering businesses on sampled street segments (n 154 in the Bronx, n 51 in the UES).
By ‘strict’ criteria, sensitivity and PPV of government records for food/drink-offering businesses were 0·37 and 0·57 in the Bronx; 0·58 and 0·60 in the UES. ‘Lenient’ values were 0·40 and 0·62 in the Bronx; 0·60 and 0·62 in the UES. Sensitivity, PPV, specificity and NPV of government records for street segments having food/drink-offering businesses were 0·66, 0·73, 0·84 and 0·79 in the Bronx; 0·79, 0·92, 0·67, and 0·40 in the UES. In both areas, agreement varied by business category: restaurants; ‘food stores’; and government-recognized other storefront businesses (‘gov. OSB’, i.e. dollar stores, gas stations, pharmacies). Additional business categories – ‘other OSB’ (barbers, laundromats, newsstands, etc.) and street vendors – were absent from government records; together, they represented 28·4 % of all food/drink-offering businesses in the Bronx, 22·2 % in the UES (‘other OSB’ and street vendors were sources of both healthful and less-healthful foods/drinks in both areas).
Government records frequently miss or misrepresent businesses offering foods/drinks, suggesting caveats for food-environment assessments using such records.
Quaternary processes and environmental changes are often difficult to assess in remote subantarctic islands due to high surface erosion rates and overprinting of sedimentary products in locations that can be a challenge to access. We present a set of high-resolution, multichannel seismic lines and complementary multibeam bathymetry collected off the eastern (leeward) side of the subantarctic Auckland Islands, about 465 km south of New Zealand's South Island. These data constrain the erosive and depositional history of the island group, and they reveal an extensive system of sediment-filled valleys that extend offshore to depths that exceed glacial low-stand sea level. Although shallow, marine, U-shaped valleys and moraines are imaged, the rugged offshore geomorphology of the paleovalley floors and the stratigraphy of infill sediments suggests that the valley floors were shaped by submarine fluvial erosion, and subsequently filled by lacustrine, fjord, and fluvial sedimentary processes.
ex quo, quia suum cuiusque fit eorum quae natura fuerant communia quod cuique obtigit, id quisque teneat; †e quo si quis† sibi appetet, uiolabit ius humanae societatis.
The base text cited is that of Winterbottom. After discussing the origin of private property, Cicero asserts that it should be maintained as distributed (id quisque teneat). Of the matter marked corrupt, e quo (sometimes written ex quo or with a letter deleted after e; see Winterbottom's apparatus criticus) is likely to be a repetition of the preceding ex quo and therefore intrusive (as Winterbottom suggested ad loc.: ‘fort. delendum’). si quis evidently requires supplementation. Müller (after marginal corrections in printings of Lambinus's edition) inserted quid after quis, but in that case one would expect a further specification (quid alienum or the like). The better candidate for the supplement after quis is perhaps plus, the reading of the two fifteenth-century Munich codices 7020 and 650 (M and S respectively), an easy error. Cf. Cic. Leg. agr. 3.13: cum plus appetat quam ipse Sulla …; Sull. 84: ut ego mihi plus appetere coner quam quantum omnes inimici inuidique patiantur.
itaque me non extrema †tribus† suffragiorum, sed primi illi uestri concursus, neque singulae uoces praeconum, sed una uox uniuersi populi Romani consulem declarauit.
Cicero narrates his election as consul. The above is the text printed by G. Manuwald, who notes that the construction of tribus is ‘odd’ and was queried by J.-L. Ferrary. She suspects that tribus ‘may be an explanatory gloss (or part of it) that entered the text’ and should therefore be deleted with Kayser. She rejects Richter's conjecture diribitio for tribus as palaeographically implausible.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Building on the synthesis of carbon reservoirs in Earth's subsurface, this chapter focuses on the forms, cycling, and fate of the carbon supporting microbial life in the terrestrial and marine subsurface. As the subsurface is estimated to host a vast reservoir of life on Earth, identifying the carbon compounds that life uses for energy and growth is key to understanding ecosystem functioning in the past and at present, and also for extrapolating these findings to the search for life in the universe. This chapter highlights advances in quantifying small carbon compounds, measuring rates of carbon turnover, and the fate of carbon in the deep biosphere.
This chapter reviews the systematics of partial melting of mantle lithologies – like peridotite and eclogite – in the presence of carbon dioxide. It discusses the composition of mantle-derived magmas generated in the presence of carbon dioxide and whether magmas erupted on Earth’s surface resemble carbonated magmas from the mantle. It reviews how the production of carbon dioxide-rich magma in the mantle varies as a function of tectonic settings – beneath continents and oceans and in subduction zones – and time.
Field studies were conducted from 2009 through 2011 at the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center near Lingle, Wyoming, to evaluate great northern bean response to PRE flumioxazin mixed with either trifluralin, pendimethalin, or ethalfluralin. Seven treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block with three or four replicates y−1. The soil texture of the study site was loam in 2009 and 2011, and sandy loam in 2010. Soil organic matter ranged from 1.4% to 1.8%. Treatments included flumioxazin plus trifluralin, flumioxazin plus pendimethalin, flumioxazin plus ethalfluralin, ethalfluralin plus EPTC, imazamox plus bentazon (POST), hand-weeded control, and nontreated control. Dry bean density 4 wk after planting differed among herbicide treatments (P < 0.001). Treatments that included flumioxazin reduced dry bean density 54% compared with treatments without flumioxazin. Dry bean yield was influenced by dry bean density; on average, yield in flumioxazin-containing herbicide treatments was 30% less than treatments not containing flumioxazin, even though weed control was generally greater in flumioxazin treatments.
Wildlife-based tourism poses opportunities and challenges for species conservation. Minimizing potential negative impacts of tourism is critical to ensure business and conservation enterprises can coexist. In north-western Namibia tourism is used as a conservation tool for the Critically Endangered black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis. However, black rhinoceroses are susceptible to human disturbance and may become displaced by tourist activities, which threatens not only the security and health of the rhinoceros population but also the sustainability of the business. We examined areas avoided by black rhinoceroses to understand how they respond to the type and extent of tourism development, and to evaluate management alternatives. We used spatial data on use of water sources by rhinoceroses to create a series of a priori candidate models that described the negative influences of tourist activities on rhinoceros habitat use. A model selection approach strongly supported a cumulative zones of influence model comprised of a 6 km buffer around the airstrip combined with a 1 km buffer around roads used daily. We compared alternative management scenarios using the best-performing model and found that an optimal road-use policy combined with airstrip relocation could minimize the total area avoided by the black rhinoceros to 7.1% and loss of high quality habitat to 20.7%. Under the worst-case scenario the area avoided and loss of high quality habitat were 153 and 85% greater, respectively, than under the scenario with optimal management. Our findings provide a novel framework and a practical, policy-relevant decision support tool to improve the contribution of tourism to wildlife conservation.
The USA and UK governmental and academic agencies suggest that up to 35% of dementia cases are preventable. We canvassed dementia risk and protective factor awareness among New Zealand older adults to inform the design of a larger survey.
The modified Lifestyle for Brain Health scale quantifying dementia risk was introduced to a sample of 304 eligible self-selected participants.
Two hundred and sixteen older adults (≥50 years), with mean ± standard deviation age 65.5 ± 11.4 years (50–93 years), completed the survey (71% response rate). Respondents were mostly women (n = 172, 80%), European (n = 207, 96%), and well educated (n = 100, 46%, with a tertiary qualification; including n = 17, 8%, with a postgraduate qualification). Around half of the participants felt that they were at a future risk of living with dementia (n = 101, 47%), and the majority felt that this would change their lives significantly (n = 205, 95%), that lifestyle changes would reduce their risk (n = 197, 91%), and that they could make the necessary changes (n = 189, 88%) and wished to start changes soon (n = 160, 74%). Only 4 of 14 modifiable risk or protective factors for dementia were adequately identified by the participants: physical exercise (81%), depression (76%), brain exercises (75%), and social isolation (83%). Social isolation was the commonly cited risk factor for dementia, while physical exercise was the commonly cited protective factor. Three clusters of brain health literacy were identified: psychosocial, medical, and modifiable.
The older adults in our study are not adequately knowledgeable about dementia risk and protective factors. However, they report optimism about modifying risks through lifestyle interventions.
The Children of the Twins Early Development Study (CoTEDS) is a new prospective children-of-twins study in the UK, designed to investigate intergenerational associations across child developmental stages. CoTEDS will enable research on genetic and environmental factors that underpin parent–child associations, with a focus on mental health and cognitive-related traits. Through CoTEDS, we will have a new lens to examine the roles that parents play in influencing child development, as well as the genetic and environmental factors that shape parenting behavior and experiences. Recruitment is ongoing from the sample of approximately 20,000 contactable adult twins who have been enrolled in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) since infancy. TEDS twins are invited to register all offspring to CoTEDS at birth, with 554 children registered as of May 2019. By recruiting the second generation of TEDS participants, CoTEDS will include information on adult twins and their offspring from infancy. Parent questionnaire-based data collection is now underway for 1- and 2-year-old CoTEDS infants, with further waves of data collection planned. Current data collection includes the following primary constructs: child mental health, temperament, language and cognitive development; parent mental health and social relationships; parenting behaviors and feelings; and other socioecological factors. Measurement tools have been selected with reference to existing genetically informative cohort studies to ensure overlap in phenotypes measured at corresponding stages of development. This built-in study overlap is intended to enable replication and triangulation of future analyses across samples and research designs. Here, we summarize study protocols and measurement procedures and describe future plans.
Whether maternal obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with early-childhood development in low-income, urban, minority populations, and whether effects differ by child sex remain unknown. This study examined the impact of prepregnancy BMI and GWG on early childhood neurodevelopment in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health Mothers and Newborns study. Maternal prepregnancy weight was obtained by self-report, and GWG was assessed from participant medical charts. At child age 3 years, the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Intelligence were completed. Sex-stratified linear regression models assessed associations between prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain z-scores with child PDI and MDI scores, adjusting for covariates. Of 382 women, 48.2% were normal weight before pregnancy, 24.1% overweight, 23.0% obese, and 4.7% underweight. At 3 years, mean scores on the PDI and MDI were higher among girls compared to boys (PDI: 102.3 vs. 97.2, P = 0.0002; MDI: 92.8 vs. 88.3, P = 0.0001). In covariate-adjusted models, maternal obesity was markedly associated with lower PDI scores in boys [b = −7.81, 95% CI: (−13.08, −2.55), P = 0.004], but not girls. Maternal BMI was not associated with MDI in girls or boys, and GWG was not associated with PDI or MDI among either sex (all-P > 0.05). We found that prepregnancy obesity was associated with lower PDI scores at 3 years in boys, but not girls. The mechanisms underlying this sex-specific association remain unclear, but due to elevated obesity exposure in urban populations, further investigation is warranted.
While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.
Fracture of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells in photovoltaic modules is a big concern to the photovoltaics (PV) industry. Cell cracks cause performance degradation and warranty issues to the manufacturers. The roots of cell fractures lie in the manufacturing and integration process of the cells and modules as they go through a series of elevated temperature and pressure processes, involving bonding of dissimilar materials, causing residual stresses. Evaluation of the exact physical mechanisms leading to these thermomechanical stresses is highly essential to quantify them and optimize the PV modules to address them. We present a novel synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction based techniques to characterize the stress and fracture in the crystalline silicon PV modules. We show the detailed stress state after soldering and lamination process, using the synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction experiments. We also calculate the maximum tolerable microcrack size in the c-Si cells to sustain the residual stress after lamination. We further demonstrate the effect of these residual stresses on the cell fractures using the widely accepted fracture (4-point bending) tests. These test results show that the soldering and lamination induced localized residual stresses indeed reduce the load-carrying capacity of the c-Si cells.