A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections occurred in southern Sweden during autumn 2002. A matched case-control study was performed and indicated an association between consumption of fermented sausage and EHEC infection (odds ratio 5·4, P<0·002). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified a strain of E. coli O157:H7 in clinical faecal isolates, which was identical to a strain isolated from sausage samples obtained from households of infected individuals. A combination of microbiological and epidemiological results established a link between sausage consumption and the outbreak in 30 out of a total of 39 investigated cases. Contaminated beef was suspected to be the source of infection. Delayed start of fermentation, lack of heat-treatment and a short curing period in cold temperature were identified as the main factors enabling EHEC survival. EHEC can survive throughout the entire production process of fermented sausage if curing conditions are inadequate.