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BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
Objectives: One of the most prominent features of schizophrenia is relatively lower general cognitive ability (GCA). An emerging approach to understanding the roots of variation in GCA relies on network properties of the brain. In this multi-center study, we determined global characteristics of brain networks using graph theory and related these to GCA in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: Participants (N=116 controls, 80 patients with schizophrenia) were recruited from four sites. GCA was represented by the first principal component of a large battery of neurocognitive tests. Graph metrics were derived from diffusion-weighted imaging. Results: The global metrics of longer characteristic path length and reduced overall connectivity predicted lower GCA across groups, and group differences were noted for both variables. Measures of clustering, efficiency, and modularity did not differ across groups or predict GCA. Follow-up analyses investigated three topological types of connectivity—connections among high degree “rich club” nodes, “feeder” connections to these rich club nodes, and “local” connections not involving the rich club. Rich club and local connectivity predicted performance across groups. In a subsample (N=101 controls, 56 patients), a genetic measure reflecting mutation load, based on rare copy number deletions, was associated with longer characteristic path length. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of characteristic path lengths and rich club connectivity for GCA and provide no evidence for group differences in the relationships between graph metrics and GCA. (JINS, 2016, 22, 240–249)
High quality Ga-face and N-face AlGaN/GaN based heterostructures have been grown by plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy. By using Ga-face material we are able to fabricate conventional heterojunction field effect transistors. Because the N-face material confines electrons at a different heterojunction, the resulting transistors are called inverted. The Ga-face structures use a high temperature AlN nucleation layer to establish the polarity. Structures from these materials, relying only on polarization induced interface charge effects to create the two-dimensional electron gases, are used to confirm the polarity of the material as well as test the electrical properties of the layers. The resulting sheet concentrations of the two dimensional electron gases agree very well with the piezoelectric theory for this materials system. Hall mobilities of the two-dimensional gases for the N-face structures are as high as 1150 cm2/Vs and 3440 cm2/Vs for 300 K and 77 K respectively, while the Ga–face structures yield room temperature mobilities of 1190 cm2/Vs. Both structures were then fabricated into transistors and characterized. The inverted transistors, which were fabricated from the N-face material, yielded a maximum transconductance of 130 mS/mm and a current density of 905 mA/mm. Microwave measurements gave an ft of 7 GHz and an fmax of 12 GHz for a gate length of 1 µm. The normal transistors, fabricated from the Ga-face material, produced a maximum transconductance of 247 mS/mm and a current density of 938 mA/mm. Microwave measurements gave an ft of 50 GHz and an fmax of 97 GHz for a gate length of 0.25 µm. This shows that using plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy N-face and Ga(Al)-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures can be grown with structural and electrical properties very suitable for high power field effect transistors.
Relatively lower executive functioning is characteristic of individuals with schizophrenia. As low socio-economic status (SES) early in life (i.e. parent SES) has been linked with lower executive skills in healthy children, we hypothesized that parental SES (pSES) would be more strongly related to executive functioning in individuals with schizophrenia than in controls and have a greater impact on prefrontal cortical morphology.
Healthy controls (n = 125) and individuals with schizophrenia (n = 102) completed tests assessing executive functioning and intelligence. The groups were matched on pSES, which was evaluated with the Hollingshead–Redlich scale. A principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on 10 variables from six executive tests, yielding three specific components (fluency, planning and response inhibition). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to evaluate effects of pSES on gray matter (GM) concentration.
Lower pSES was associated with lower scores across the three executive functioning components, and a significant group by pSES interaction was observed such that low pSES, in particular, affected individuals with schizophrenia. These effects remained significant when intellectual ability, education and self-SES (sSES) were added as covariates. VBM revealed that lower pSES was associated with reduced GM volume in several anterior brain regions, especially the superior frontal gyrus, in patients but not in controls.
These findings suggest that individuals with schizophrenia may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse impact of low pSES, in terms of both lower executive skills and reduced anterior GM volumes.
Group-level results suggest that relative to healthy controls (HCs), ultra-high-risk (UHR) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) subjects show alterations in neuroanatomy, neurofunction and cognition that may be mediated genetically. It is unclear, however, whether these groups can be differentiated at single-subject level, for instance using the machine learning analysis support vector machine (SVM). Here, we used a multimodal approach to examine the ability of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor neuroimaging (DTI), genetic and cognitive data to differentiate between UHR, FEP and HC subjects at the single-subject level using SVM.
Three age- and gender-matched SVM paired comparison groups were created comprising 19, 19 and 15 subject pairs for FEP versus HC, UHR versus HC and FEP versus UHR, respectively. Genetic, sMRI, DTI, fMRI and cognitive data were obtained for each participant and the ability of each to discriminate subjects at the individual level in conjunction with SVM was tested.
Successful classification accuracies (p < 0.05) comprised FEP versus HC (genotype, 67.86%; DTI, 65.79%; fMRI, 65.79% and 68.42%; cognitive data, 73.69%), UHR versus HC (sMRI, 68.42%; DTI, 65.79%), and FEP versus UHR (sMRI, 76.67%; fMRI, 73.33%; cognitive data, 66.67%).
The results suggest that FEP subjects are identifiable at the individual level using a range of biological and cognitive measures. Comparatively, only sMRI and DTI allowed discrimination of UHR from HC subjects. For the first time FEP and UHR subjects have been shown to be directly differentiable at the single-subject level using cognitive, sMRI and fMRI data. Preliminarily, the results support clinical development of SVM to help inform identification of FEP and UHR subjects, though future work is needed to provide enhanced levels of accuracy.
Enhanced thermal conductivity oxide fuels offer increases in both safety and efficiency of commercial light water reactors. Low-temperature oxidative sintering and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) techniques have been used to produce UO2-SiC composite pellets. Oxidative sintering performed for 4 hours at 1200∼1600oC and SPS was employed only for 5 mins at the same temperature. While oxidative sintering failed to achieve enhanced thermal conductivity, the SPS sintered pellet obtained promising features such as higher density, better interfacial contact, and reduced chemical reaction. Thermal conductivity measurement at 100oC, 500oC, and 900oC revealed maximum 62% higher thermal conductivity value, when compared to UO2 pellets, in SPS sintered UO2-10vol% SiC composite pellet. The result shows that the SPS technique is required to sinter UO2-SiC nuclear fuel pellets with a high value of thermal conductivity.
The classical Schlichting boundary layer theory is extended to account for the excitation of generalized surface waves in the frequency and velocity amplitude range commonly used in microfluidic applications, including Rayleigh and Sezawa surface waves and Lamb, flexural and surface-skimming bulk waves. These waves possess longitudinal and transverse displacements of similar magnitude along the boundary, often spatiotemporally out of phase, giving rise to a periodic flow shown to consist of a superposition of classical Schlichting streaming and uniaxial flow that have no net influence on the flow over a long period of time. Correcting the velocity field for weak but significant inertial effects results in a non-vanishing steady component, a drift flow, itself sensitive to both the amplitude and phase (prograde or retrograde) of the surface acoustic wave propagating along the boundary. We validate the proposed theory with experimental observations of colloidal pattern assembly in microchannels filled with dilute particle suspensions to show the complexity of the boundary layer, and suggest an asymptotic slip boundary condition for bulk flow in microfluidic applications that are actuated by surface waves.
Nanoscale superlattice-like (SLL) dielectric was employed to reduce the power consumption of the Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this study, we have simulated and found that the cells with the SLL dielectric have a higher peak temperature compared to that of the cells with the SiO2 dielectric after constant pulse activation, due to the interface scattering mechanism. Scaling of the SLL dielectric has resulted in higher peak temperatures, which can be even higher after material/structural modifications. Furthermore, the SLL dielectric has good material properties that enable the cells to have high endurance. This shows the effectiveness of the SLL dielectric for advanced memory applications.
The dynamics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal, monodisperse particles in plane Poiseuille flows are investigated by fully three-dimensional numerical simulations for bulk volume fractions of 0.20–0.40 of neutrally-buoyant particles. The ensemble averages of the volume fraction and particle velocity profiles are consistent with previous experiments. A statistical analysis indicates that there is an intermediate region between particle layers near the wall and a plug region in the core, in which the behaviour of ensemble-averaged suspension field can be approximated by a continuum theory. In the intermediate region, the wall-normal and spanwise velocity fluctuations, angular velocity in the vorticity direction and particle shear stress are found to be linear functions of the distance from the wall. The particle normal stresses in the intermediate region are almost uniform, consistent with the concept of normal-stress-driven particle migration. The intermediate region decreases in extent and the width of the core region increases for larger bulk volume fractions. There is a remarkable similarity between the particle–phase pressure profiles scaled by the local shear rate for different bulk volume fractions. The particle pressure profiles in the intermediate region are compared with the rheological model proposed by Morris & Boulay (1999). The effective viscosity, evaluated from the ratio of the total shear stress to the fluid-phase shear stress, shows a good agreement with empirical viscosity relations in Couette-flow suspensions. In the present study, both non-local dynamics and finite-size effects of the particles are evident in the core of the channel. These effects are more pronounced at larger volume fractions.
Hall-effect measurements were conducted on Si-doped AlxGa1−xN films grown on sapphire substrate by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The Al mole fraction in the 1 [.proportional]m thick AlxGa1−xN was 0.0, 0.3, and 0.5, and the Si doping concentration was kept at a nominal value of 1018 cm−3. Variable temperature Hall-effect measurements reveal a presence of a highly degenerate n-type region at the AlxGa1−xN /sapphire interface. This degenerate interfacial layer dominates the electrical properties below 30 K and significantly affects the properties of the AlxGa1−xN layer. Thus, by using a two-layer conducting model, the carrier concentration and mobility of the AlxGa1−xN layer alone are obtained.
We report on the optical properties of defects introduced in epitaxial 4H-SiC by 2 MeV protons using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The near band edge characteristics of nitrogen-doped n-type 4H-SiC are present in the optical spectrum of the as-grown samples. Following a proton irradiation, the material is altered and the luminescence of the shallow centers is attenuated almost entirely with the emergence of deeper shallow traps at energies greater than 300 meV below the conduction band. Subsequent hightemperature thermal annealing of the material results in an increase in the emission spectrum at both the near band edge region (Eg = 3.25 eV) and between 2.65 and 2.95 eV. Recovery of the characteristic nitrogen-related peaks at the near band edge following high-temperature annealing is identified, but is not complete even at 1500 °C. In the deep trap region below 2.95 eV, activation of trap centers with annealing results in a sharp increase in the signal intensity of an irradiation-induced defect trap (2.90 eV) as well as the associated phonon replicas. Based on previous ion-implantation and other radiation studies in 4H-SiC, the emergence of the 2.90 eV defect complex and associated phonon replicas after high temperature anneal is the well known D1 photoluminescence. The observed lines in the D1 spectrum are due to exciton recombination at isoelectronic defect centers.
Optical properties of Er, Tr, and Pr ion implanted GaAs and A1xGa1−xAs were investigated using photoluminescenoe. For Er, the characteristic sharp emissions around 1.54 μm were observed at sample temperatures as high as 296 K, which are due to the transitions between the weakly crystal-field-split spin-orbit levels 4I13/2 and 4I15/2 of Er3+ (4f11) ; the strongest luminescence signal was from A10.4Ga0 6As. For Tm, the sharp 4f-emissions were observed between 1.22 to 1.33 μm at sample temperatures up to 200 K, and are due to the transitions between levels 3H5 and 3H6 of Tm3+ (4f12). For Pr, three sets of 4f-emissions were observed at 1.05, 1.35, and 1.6 μm due to transitions between levels 1G4∼3H4, 1G4∼3H5, and 3F3 ∼ 3H4 of Pr3+(4f2), respectively, and the highest temperature at which sharp emissions were observed was around 175 K.
Electrical and optical measurements were performed on p-type GaAs implanted with 1013 Er ions/cm2 at an energy of 1 MeV. The samples were annealed at 650, 750, 850, or 900 °C for 15 seconds using the rapid thermal annealing technique. Although annealing at 650 °C was insufficient to recover measureable electrical conductivity in the implanted region, Er3+ 4f-4f emissions were still observed. Annealing at 750 TC produced a large concentration of hole traps at EV + 360 meV, and the most intense Er-related emissions at 1.54 μm. The two higher annealing temperatures returned the implanted region to the conductivity of the substrate but resulted in weak Er-related emissions. Two distinct Er-related centers were found, and they are believed to be the cause of the intense and weak emissions, an Er-interstitial and Er substituting for Ga, respectively.
Wafer curvature measurements of a trilayer (SiO2 / AlSiCu / Si) structure are compared to that predicted by a weighted sum of individual measurements of SiO2 and AISiCu films on Si, and significant differences are found to exist for temperatures above 200°C. A straightforward analysis of the stresses in each layer has been modeled using an extension of a model by Feng et al. which assumes uniform plastic deformation throughout the Al. The modeling results suggest a straightforeward method for determining stresses in deformable thin films that are confined by elastic overlayers. A comparison of the stress-temperature behavior for unpassivated and passivated AISiCu films reveals that the confined films exhibit less plastic deformation and both higher tension and compression during thermal cycling.
MOCVD and MBE grown GaN were implanted with Ar, Mg, Si, Be, C, and O, and annealed in a conventional oven under flowing NH3 or N2 gas. Absorption measurements confirmed that implantation damage was annealed out after 90 minutes at a temperature of 1000 °C. Surface damage caused by NH3 annealing was evident in absorption and photoluminescence measurements for annealing temperatures of over 1000 °C. Although most of the implants showed no unique luminescence peaks, systematic changes in the relative intensities of the exciton, donor-acceptor pair, and yellow peaks were noted. The Mg implanted samples showed evidence of the acceptor bound exciton line at 3.44 eV, and a unique peak at 3.3 eV possibly due to a Mg free-to-bound transition.
Forward and reverse current-voltage (I-V-T) measurements of MOCVD grown 4H-SiC p+/n diodes are compared to classical recombination-generation theory over the temperature range of 100 to 750 K. The forward bias data indicate that the I-V characteristics of the wellbehaved devices follow a classical recombination dominant transport mechanism. Ideality factors were determined to be in the range of 1.85 to 2.09, and the forward activation energy found to be EA = l.56 eV compared to a nearly ideal value of 1.6 eV. A majority of the devices tested under forward bias conditions were, however, found to exhibit significant leakage current components due to tunneling at forward biases of up to 2.2 V for turn-on voltages in the 2.5 to 3.0 range. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was also performed on the diode structures over the same wide temperature range, and the results were correlated to those obtained from reverse I-V-T and C-V-T characterization. Deep level defects at energies between 200 and 856 meV were identified from the DLTS data, and these levels are believed to be responsible for the tunneling dominant current conduction. Intrinsic deep levels, common to all devices tested, are emphasized and suggested as possible reverse bias tunneling paths for breakdown to explain the lack of an avalanche mechanism in all of the 4H-SiC diodes tested.
High quality Ga-face and N-face AlGaN/GaN based heterostructures have been grown by plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy. By using Ga-face material we are able to fabricate conventional heterojunction field effect transistors. Because the N-face material confines electrons at a different heterojunction, the resulting transistors are called inverted. The Ga-face structures use a high temperature AIN nucleation layer to establish the polarity. Structures from these materials, relying only on polarization induced interface charge effects to create the two-dimensional electron gases, are used to confirm the polarity of the material as well as test the electrical properties of the layers. The resulting sheet concentrations of the two dimensional electron gases agree very well with the piezoelectric theory for this materials system. Hall mobilities of the two-dimensional gases for the N-face structures are as high as 1150 cm2/Vs and 3440 cm2/Vs for 300 K and 77 K respectively, while the Ga-face structures yield room temperature mobilities of 1190 cm2/Vs. Both structures were then fabricated into transistors and characterized. The inverted transistors, which were fabricated from the N-face material, yielded a maximum transconductance of 130 mS/mm and a current density of 905 mA/mm. Microwave measurements gave an ft of 7 GHz and an fmax of 12 GHz for a gate length of 1 μm. The normal transistors, fabricated from the Ga-face material, produced a maximum transconductance of 247 mS/mm and a current density of 938 mA/mm. Microwave measurements gave an ft of 50 GHz and an fmax of 97 GHz for a gate length of 0.25 μm. This shows that using plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy N-face and Ga(A1)-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures can be grown with structural and electrical properties very suitable for high power field effect transistors.
Wafer curvature measurements of a trilayer (SiO2 / AlSiCu / Si) structure are compared to that predicted by a weighted sum of individual measurements of SiO2 and AlSiCu films on Si, and significant differences are found to exist for temperatures above 200°C. A straightforward analysis of the stresses in each layer has been modeled using an extension of a model by Feng et al. which assumes uniform plastic deformation throughout the Al. The modeling results suggest a straightforeward method for determining stresses in deformable thin films that are confined by elastic overlayers. A comparison of the stress-temperature behavior for unpassivated and passivated AlSiCu films reveals that the confined films exhibit less plastic deformation and both higher tension and compression during thermal cycling.
Strong rare earth (RE) emissions from Nd and Er implanted into MOCVD grown GaN were observed through photoluminescence (PL) with below bandgap excitation from an Ar+laser. Three well resolved manifolds of 4f lines from the crystal-field split 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 4F3/2 → 4I11/2, and 4F3/2 → 4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ were observed at low temperature at ˜0.98, ˜1.14, and ˜1.46 μm, respectively. The Er implanted GaN showed both the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 Er3+ transition at ˜1.54 μm and the 4I11/2 → 4I15/2 Er3+ transition at ˜1.00 μm. The Er luminescence at ˜1.54 μm and Nd luminescence at ˜1.1 μm persisted to room temperature. Both Er and Nd implanted samples showed increasing RE3+ signal as annealing temperature increased from 700 to 1000 °C. The growth of new 4f crystal-field split-lines in the ˜1.54 μm 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 manifold as annealing temperature was increased to 1000 °C suggests multiple Er3+ radiative centers.