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The 7 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children in many countries. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of PCVs and potential herd-protection in older adults in Ireland. IPD notification and typing data from adults ⩾65 years of age from July 2007 to June 2016 was assessed using national surveillance data. There was a 94% reduction in PCV7 serotypes from 2007–2008 to 2015–2016, incidence rate ratio (IRR 0·05, P < 0·0001). However, there was no decline in the additional PCV13 (PCV13-7) serotypes over the same period (IRR 0·90) nor in comparison with the pre-PCV13 period 2009–2010 (IRR 0·92). The incidence of serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine only (PPV23-PCV13) and non-vaccine types (NVTs) increased significantly (IRR 2·17, P = 0·0002 and IRR 3·43, P = 0·0001 respectively). Consequently, the overall IPD incidence rate in adults has remained relatively unchanged (from 28·66/100 000 to 28·88/100 000, IRR 1·01, P = 0·9477). Serotype 19A and NVTs were mainly responsible for penicillin resistance in recent years. The decline of PCV7 serotypes indicate that the introduction of PCV7 resulted in herd-protection for adults. However, increases in PPV23-PCV13 and NVTs suggest that changes in vaccination strategy amongst older adults are needed to build on the success of PCVs in children.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
Mount Erebus is the most active volcano on the Antarctic continent, and it has the most geographically and physically isolated geothermal soil on Earth. Preliminary genetic analysis of the microbial community present in the 65°C subsurface soil of Tramway Ridge, on Mount Erebus, revealed a unique high temperature ecosystem, with the dominant members possessing little genetic similarity to known bacteria. This study investigated the metabolism and physiology of this intriguing ecosystem using physical-chemical soil surveying, community-based phenotypic arrays, nutritional enrichment experiments and pyrosequencing. Results have provided new insights into the metabolic requirements and putative roles of specific organisms, as well as the significance of specific carbon and nitrogen sources. In enrichment experiments bicarbonate slowed down an otherwise dramatic shift in community structure. This suggests that bicarbonate maintains the native community in vitro by supplying an essential inorganic compound that is utilized for slow, autotrophic growth. This approach shows potential as a model for future investigations of cultivation resistant thermophilic communities.
There are now significant data to support the hypothesis that early life nutrition in the fetus, infant and young child can have profound effects on long-term health. This review considers some of this evidence with specific reference to the current burden of disease in Australia and New Zealand. As the findings of further research become available, recommendations on optimizing early life nutrition should be formulated and made widely available as part of the preventative health policy agenda in both Australia and New Zealand.
A critical investigation of the use of the wetting balance to characterize leadfinish solderability is described. The wetting force vs. time curves for matte tin and solder plated copper coupons which have been subjected to well controlled environmental conditions, such as steam and high temperature bakes have been analyzed. Steam exposure was shown to impact greatly the shape of the wetting force curve, with the major effect observed after one hour of exposure and with no significant changes upon further exposure. The high temperature exposure (bake) and associated intermetallic compound formation had little effect on the force-time curve as long as it was protected from oxidation. Results show that when the wetting balance is used in conjunction with SEM and microanalysis tools, it is an excellent diagnostic tool for determining sources of solderability changes.
Maternal obesity during pregnancy is often characterized by fetal macrosomia but it can also result in fetal growth restriction in a subset of pregnancies. We hypothesized that mechanisms of this growth restriction may include adverse effects of maternal high fat (HF) intake on placental growth and function. Female rats (100 days old) were time-mated and randomly assigned to either a control (Con) or HF diet ad libitum throughout gestation. At E21, dams were killed; litter size and fetal and placental weights were recorded and maternal and fetal samples collected for further analyses. The HF diet resulted in a 54% increase in maternal body weight gain during gestation. In contrast, male and female fetal weights were reduced in HF pregnancies (P < 0.05), as were the weights of the junctional zone of the placenta (P = 0.013), whereas labyrinth zone weights were unaffected. The HF diet increased maternal and fetal plasma leptin levels (P < 0.05), but maternal and fetal insulin and fetal glucose levels were unaffected. Labyrinthine expression of PPARγ and total VEGFa mRNA, both markers of placental vascular development, were unaffected by consumption of the HF diet in placentas of male and female fetuses. Furthermore, maternal HF nutrition did not alter phosphorylated protein levels of either mammalian target of rapamycin or its downstream signaling factor eIF4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These data show that in the rat, maternal HF nutrition results in fetal and placental junctional zone growth restriction, maternal and fetal hyperleptinemia but did not alter gene expression of markers of placental vascular development.
A detailed investigation of many aspects of the physics
of laser–plasma interaction at very high laser
intensities is required in order to assess the feasibility
and the promise of the fast ignitor scheme for inertial
confinement fusion. Relevant results, obtained in a series
of experiments carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,
Chilton (UK) and at the Centre d'Etudes Atomique,
Limeil Valenton (France), are presented and discussed here.
In particular, the formation of plasma channels was observed
following the propagation of relativistically intense,
ps laser pulses through underdense plasmas. The channels
persist long after the interaction, and their expansion
has been measured. Efficient guiding of ultraintense laser
pulses, both through preformed density channels and through
solid guides, has been demonstrated. Finally, indication
of collimated fast electron propagation through solid targets
has been obtained from the observation of filamentary ionization
tracks in laser irradiated solid targets.
Mating disruption of Cydia molesta (Busck) was attempted by treating, with pheromone, all orchards in a small but discrete peach-growing district in New South Wales for two successive years. In the final year of the trial, two former control orchards were also treated with pheromone. The efficacy of the treatment was examined by monitoring fruit and shoot damage, male captures in pheromone traps, captures of both sexes in feeding lures, mated status of wild females and numbers of immature stages in trap bands. It was concluded that mating disruption was a viable alternative to conventional insecticides.
Decca have undertaken a study for the Department of Industry of possible integrated navigation systems for use in merchant ships, particularly VLCCs, and also the development and supply of an advanced navigation information system for offshore patrol vessels which uses many of the techniques proposed in the earlier civil study. This computer system provides for the integration of various data sources including radar, the processing of the data and display; a prominent item is the Admiralty chart.
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