To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Waters, Ruiz, and Roisman (2017) recently published evidence based on the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (MLSRA) that sensitive caregiving during childhood is associated with higher levels of secure base script knowledge during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAIsbs). At present, however, little is known about the role of variation in atypical caregiving, including abuse and/or neglect, in explaining individual differences in AAIsbs. This study revisited data from the MLSRA (N = 157) to examine the association between experiencing abuse and/or neglect in the first 17.5 years of life and secure base script knowledge measured at ages 19 and 26 years. Several aspects of abuse and/or neglect experiences were assessed, including perpetrator identity, timing, and type. Regressions revealed that childhood abuse and/or neglect was robustly associated with lower AAIsbs scores in young adulthood, above and beyond previously documented associations with maternal sensitivity and demographic covariates. Follow-up analyses provided evidence that the predictive significance of abuse for secure base script knowledge was specific to perpetration by parental figures, rather than non-caregivers. Exploratory analyses indicated that abuse and/or neglect: (a) in middle childhood and adolescence (but not infancy and early childhood) and (b) physical abuse (but not sexual abuse or neglect) were uniquely associated with lower AAIsbs scores.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an effective psychological intervention for children and young people with anxiety disorders (James et al, 2013). This has led to interest in whether CBT programmes can be widely provided in schools to prevent or ameliorate anxiety symptoms in children.
Results from school based anxiety prevention trials are encouraging (Neil & Christensen 2009; Fisak, Richard, Mann 2011). Before the widespread use of school based preventive programmes can be advocated methodologically robust evaluations are required to demonstrate that they are effective when transported to everyday settings.
To undertake a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a universal school based CBT programme (Friends for Life) for children aged 9-10 years of age .
Three arm RCT comparing Friends for Life delivered by trained health or school leaders with usual school provision (Stallard et al,2012). Primary outcome the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) at 12 month follow-up.
A total of 1362 children from 40 schools participated with 1257 (92%) being re-assessed at follow-up. There was a difference in adjusted mean child report RCADS scores for health-led versus school-led FRIENDS (−3.94, 95%CI −6.41 to −1.47) and health-led FRIENDS versus usual school provision (2.66, 95%CI −5.22 to −0.09). Health-led CBT resulted in greater reductions in symptoms of anxiety than the other two arms (Stallard et al 2014),
Our pragmatic trial demonstrates that universally delivered anxiety prevention programmes can be effective when transported into schools. However, effectiveness varies depending upon who delivers them.
Stressful experiences affect biological stress systems, such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Life stress can potentially alter regulation of the HPA axis and has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. Little, however, is known about the relative influence of stressors that are encountered at different developmental periods on acute stress reactions in adulthood. In this study, we explored three models of the influence of stress exposure on cortisol reactivity to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) by leveraging 37 years of longitudinal data in a high-risk birth cohort (N = 112). The cumulative stress model suggests that accumulated stress across the lifespan leads to dysregulated reactivity, whereas the biological embedding model implicates early childhood as a critical period. The sensitization model assumes that dysregulation should only occur when stress is high in both early childhood and concurrently. All of the models predicted altered reactivity, but do not anticipate its exact form. We found support for both cumulative and biological embedding effects. However, when pitted against each other, early life stress predicted more blunted cortisol responses at age 37 over and above cumulative life stress. Additional analyses revealed that stress exposure in middle childhood also predicted more blunted cortisol reactivity.
NASA has put people in unique and extreme environments for over six decades. Supporting these individuals with a comprehensive health-care system has evolved over this period. As the Apollo program ended and NASA began to contemplate a space shuttle and space station program, societal pressures in the late 1960s and early 1970s caused federal agencies such as NASA to reconsider how to link the needs of the space program with a growing pressure to address societal needs by forging interagency partnerships. The Space Technology Applied to the Rural Papago Health Care (STARPAHC) project provides an example of how NASA sought to balance these two imperatives in an age of diminishing federal support. This project can provide lessons for today’s uncertain budgetary future for agencies such as NASA, which are once again being asked to find creative and innovative ways to support their missions while demonstrating their larger value to society.
Introduction: The Prehospital Evidence-Based Practice (PEP) program is an online, freely accessible, continuously updated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) evidence repository. This summary describes the research evidence for the identification and management of adult patients suffering from sepsis syndrome or septic shock. Methods: PubMed was searched in a systematic manner. One author reviewed titles and abstracts for relevance and two authors appraised each study selected for inclusion. Primary outcomes were extracted. Studies were scored by trained appraisers on a three-point Level of Evidence (LOE) scale (based on study design and quality) and a three-point Direction of Evidence (DOE) scale (supportive, neutral, or opposing findings based on the studies’ primary outcome for each intervention). LOE and DOE of each intervention were plotted on an evidence matrix (DOE x LOE). Results: Eighty-eight studies were included for 15 interventions listed in PEP. The interventions with the most evidence were related to identification tools (ID) (n = 26, 30%) and early goal directed therapy (EGDT) (n = 21, 24%). ID tools included Systematic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and other unique measures. The most common primary outcomes were related to diagnosis (n = 30, 34%), mortality (n = 40, 45%) and treatment goals (e.g. time to antibiotic) (n = 14, 16%). The evidence rank for the supported interventions were: supportive-high quality (n = 1, 7%) for crystalloid infusion, supportive-moderate quality (n = 7, 47%) for identification tools, prenotification, point of care lactate, titrated oxygen, temperature monitoring, and supportive-low quality (n = 1, 7%) for vasopressors. The benefit of prehospital antibiotics and EGDT remain inconclusive with a neutral DOE. There is moderate level evidence opposing use of high flow oxygen. Conclusion: EMS sepsis interventions are informed primarily by moderate quality supportive evidence. Several standard treatments are well supported by moderate to high quality evidence, as are identification tools. However, some standard in-hospital therapies are not supported by evidence in the prehospital setting, such as antibiotics, and EGDT. Based on primary outcomes, no identification tool appears superior. This evidence analysis can guide selection of appropriate prehospital therapies.
We read with interest the recent editorial, “The Hennepin Ketamine Study,” by Dr. Samuel Stratton commenting on the research ethics, methodology, and the current public controversy surrounding this study.1 As researchers and investigators of this study, we strongly agree that prospective clinical research in the prehospital environment is necessary to advance the science of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency medicine. We also agree that accomplishing this is challenging as the prehospital environment often encounters patient populations who cannot provide meaningful informed consent due to their emergent conditions. To ensure that fellow emergency medicine researchers understand the facts of our work so they may plan future studies, and to address some of the questions and concerns in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, the lay press, and in social media,2 we would like to call attention to some inaccuracies in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, and to the lay media stories on which it appears to be based.
Ho JD, Cole JB, Klein LR, Olives TD, Driver BE, Moore JC, Nystrom PC, Arens AM, Simpson NS, Hick JL, Chavez RA, Lynch WL, Miner JR. The Hennepin Ketamine Study investigators’ reply. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):111–113
We assessed whether paternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical factors influence the risk of an infant being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA). We examined the data on 3659 fathers of term offspring (including 662 LGA infants) born to primiparous women from Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). LGA was defined as birth weight >90th centile as per INTERGROWTH 21st standards, with reference group being infants ⩽90th centile. Associations between paternal factors and likelihood of an LGA infant were examined using univariable and multivariable models. Men who fathered LGA babies were 180 g heavier at birth (P<0.001) and were more likely to have been born macrosomic (P<0.001) than those whose infants were not LGA. Fathers of LGA infants were 2.1 cm taller (P<0.001), 2.8 kg heavier (P<0.001) and had similar body mass index (BMI). In multivariable models, increasing paternal birth weight and height were independently associated with greater odds of having an LGA infant, irrespective of maternal factors. One unit increase in paternal BMI was associated with 2.9% greater odds of having an LGA boy but not girl; however, this association disappeared after adjustment for maternal BMI. There were no associations between paternal demographic factors or clinical history and infant LGA. In conclusion, fathers who were heavier at birth and were taller were more likely to have an LGA infant, but maternal BMI had a dominant influence on LGA.
SNP in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is associated with risk of lower respiratory infections. The influence of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway resulting in susceptibility to upper respiratory infections (URI) has not been investigated. We evaluated the influence of thirty-three SNP in eleven vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN and VDR) resulting in URI risk in 725 adults in London, UK, using an additive model with adjustment for potential confounders and correction for multiple comparisons. Significant associations in this cohort were investigated in a validation cohort of 737 children in Manchester, UK. In all, three SNP in VDR (rs4334089, rs11568820 and rs7970314) and one SNP in CYP3A4 (rs2740574) were associated with risk of URI in the discovery cohort after adjusting for potential confounders and correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted incidence rate ratio per additional minor allele ≥1·15, Pfor trend ≤0·030). This association was replicated for rs4334089 in the validation cohort (Pfor trend=0·048) but not for rs11568820, rs7970314 or rs2740574. Carriage of the minor allele of the rs4334089 SNP in VDR was associated with increased susceptibility to URI in children and adult cohorts in the United Kingdom.
Families of children born with CHD face added stress owing to uncertainty about the magnitude of the financial burden for medical costs they will face. This study seeks to assess the family responsibility for healthcare bills during the first 12 months of life for commercially insured children undergoing surgery for severe CHD.
The MarketScan® database from Truven was used to identify commercially insured infants in 39 states from 2010 to 2012 with an ICD-9 diagnosis code for transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, or truncus arteriosus, as well as the corresponding procedure code for complete repair. Data extraction identified payment responsibilities of the patients’ families in the form of co-payments, deductibles, and co-insurance during the 1st year of life.
There were 481 infants identified who met the criteria. Average family responsibility for healthcare bills during the 1st year of life was $2928, with no difference between the three groups. The range of out-of-pocket costs was $50–$18,167. Initial hospitalisation and outpatient care accounted for the majority of these responsibilities.
Families of commercially insured children with severe CHD requiring corrective surgery face an average of ~$3000 in out-of-pocket costs for healthcare bills during the first 12 months of their child’s life, although the amount varied considerably. This information provides a framework to alleviate some of the uncertainty surrounding healthcare financial responsibilities, and further examination of the origination of these expenditures may be useful in informing future healthcare policy discussion.
Access to transition-related medical interventions (TRMIs) for transgender veterans has been the subject of substantial public interest and debate. To better inform these important conversations, the current study investigated whether undergoing hormone or surgical transition intervention(s) relates to the frequency of recent suicidal ideation (SI) and symptoms of depression in transgender veterans.
This study included a cross-sectional, national sample of 206 self-identified transgender veterans. They self-reported basic demographics, TRMI history, recent SI, and symptoms of depression through an online survey.
Significantly lower levels of SI experienced in the past year and 2-weeks were seen in veterans with a history of both hormone intervention and surgery on both the chest and genitals in comparison with those who endorsed a history of no medical intervention, history of hormone therapy but no surgical intervention, and those with a history of hormone therapy and surgery on either (but not both) the chest or genitals when controlling for sample demographics (e.g., gender identity and annual income). Indirect effect analyses indicated that lower depressive symptoms experienced in the last 2-weeks mediated the relationship between the history of surgery on both chest and genitals and SI in the last 2-weeks.
Results indicate the potential protective effect that TRMI may have on symptoms of depression and SI in transgender veterans, particularly when both genitals and chest are affirmed with one's gender identity. Implications for policymakers, providers, and researchers are discussed.
Little is known about the role of affectionate behaviours — factors traditionally understood within the context of romantic relationships — in uncommitted ‘casual sex’ encounters. In a sample of U.S. undergraduate emerging adults aged 18–25 years (N = 639) we conducted a preliminary internet-based questionnaire investigation into the role of affectionate behaviours — operationalised here as cuddling, spending the night and cuddling, foreplay, and eye gazing — across two sexual relationship contexts: (committed) traditional romantic relationships and (uncommitted) casual sex encounters. While affectionate behaviours were desired more often in romantic relationships than in casual sexual encounters, many respondents (both men and women) engaged in these affectionate behaviours during casual sexual encounters as well. This was especially pronounced in those who expressed a preference for casual sex encounters over romantic relationships: in a casual sex context these participants were about 1.5 times as likely to cuddle, 1.5 times as likely to spend the night and cuddle, and nearly 5 times as likely to engage in foreplay with a partner. The current study emphasises the importance of considering relationship context in sexuality and relationship research, and the need for further theoretical and empirical research on dimensions of intimacy, including affection, in people's diverse romantic and sexual lives.
Ultrasound (US) detects synovitis more accurately than clinical examination (CE) in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This review aimed to investigate the use of US, compared to CE alone, in treatment strategies for RA, and to estimate its potential to be cost-effective in making treatment decisions.
A systematic review was conducted of studies: investigating RA treatment response or strategies that compared US with CE-assessed synovitis; and of tapering RA treatment (1). A model was constructed to investigate the potential cost-effectiveness of US in (i) selecting patients suitable for treatment tapering; and (ii) avoiding treatment escalation (2).
Seven prospective cohort studies suggested US-detected synovitis was significantly associated with a treatment response or tapering failure, whereas in most cases clinical examination alone was not. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified suggested that US added to the Disease Activity Index (DAS)-based treatment strategies but did not significantly improve primary outcomes, but was associated with improved rate of DAS remission. The evidence showed that some patients (proportions varied widely) who had achieved low disease activity could have treatment tapered, with no, or little, short-term harm to the patient.
The model estimated that an average reduction of 2.5 percent in the costs of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (bDMARDs) was sufficient to cover the costs of performing US every three months. This value increased to 4 percent and 13 percent for the costs of conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (cDMARDs) depending on the assumed regimen.
Use of US to monitor synovitis could potentially be a cost-effective approach, given that low proportions of patients for whom clinicians consider amending treatment, would need to taper treatment, or remain on therapy without escalation. US could provide clinicians with more confidence in reducing the drug burden. However, there is considerable uncertainty in this conclusion due to lack of robust data relating to key parameters.
Hearing loss can impair effective communication between caregivers and individuals with cognitive impairment. However, hearing loss is not often measured or addressed in care plans for these individuals. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of hearing loss and the utilization of hearing aids in a sample of individuals with cognitive impairment in a tertiary care memory clinic.
A retrospective review of 133 charts of individuals >50 years who underwent hearing assessment at a tertiary care memory clinic over a 12-month period (June 2014–June 2015) was undertaken. Using descriptive statistics, the prevalence of hearing loss was determined and associations with demographic variables, relevant medical history, cognitive status, and hearing aid utilization were investigated.
Results indicate that hearing loss is highly prevalent among this sample of cognitively impaired older adults. Sixty percent of the sample had at least a mild hearing loss in the better hearing ear. Among variables examined, age, MMSE, and medical history of diabetes were strongly associated with hearing impairment. Hearing aid utilization increased in concordance with severity of hearing loss, from 9% to 54% of individuals with a mild or moderate/severe hearing loss, respectively.
Hearing loss is highly prevalent among older adults with cognitive impairment. Despite high prevalence of hearing loss, hearing aid utilization remains low. Our study highlights the importance of hearing evaluation and rehabilitation as part of the cognitive assessment and care management plan in this vulnerable population.
The most recent helium abundance determinations in main sequence B stars are those of Hardrop and Scholtz, Kodaira and Scholtz, Norris, and Leckrone. Their results indicate that it is possible to assign a helium abundance which is characteristic of all B stars. Norris and Leckrone worked with a number of B stars ranging from B0 to B9, and both have assigned a characteristic helium abundance to the B stars. Norris derived a value, A = 0.088 ± 0.012, and Leckrone a value of A = 0.106 ± 0.01, where A is the abundance of helium relative to hydrogen by number.
The aim of this work is to investigate certain assumptions that have been made in calculating line profiles and equivalent widths of neutral helium lines in early type stars. The effect of electron scattering on the continuum flux is investigated and a curve of growth analysis carried out to study this effect. The theories involved in calculating the line absorption coefficient are also investigated.
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the FFQ administered to participants in the follow-up of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS), and to provide calibration coefficients.
A random sample stratified by country of birth, age, sex and BMI was selected from MCCS participants. Participants completed two FFQ and three 24 h recalls over 1 year. Reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Validity coefficients (VC) were estimated from structural equation models and calibration coefficients obtained from regression calibration models.
Adults born in Australia, Greece or Italy.
Nine hundred and sixty-five participants consented to the study; of these, 459 participants were included in the reliability analyses and 615 in the validity and calibration analyses.
The FFQ showed good repeatability for twenty-three nutrients with ICC ranging from 0·66 to 0·80 for absolute nutrient intakes for Australian-born and from 0·51 to 0·74 for Greek/Italian-born. For Australian-born, VC ranged from 0·46 (monounsaturated fat) to 0·83 (Ca) for nutrient densities, comparing well with other studies. For Greek/Italian-born, VC were between 0·21 (Na) and 0·64 (riboflavin). Calibration coefficients for nutrient densities ranged from 0·39 (retinol) to 0·74 (Mg) for Australian-born and from 0·18 (Zn) to 0·54 (riboflavin) for Greek/Italian-born.
The FFQ used in the MCCS follow-up study is suitable for estimating energy-adjusted nutrients for Australian-born participants. However, its performance for estimating intakes is poorer for southern European migrants and alternative dietary assessment methods ought to be considered if dietary data are to be measured in similar demographic groups.
The hybrid procedure is one mode of initial palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Subsequently, patients proceed with either the “three-stage” pathway – comprehensive second stage followed by Fontan completion – or the “four-stage” pathway – Norwood procedure, hemi-Fontan, or Fontan completion. In this study, we describe somatic growth patterns observed in the hybrid groups and a comparison primary Norwood group.
A retrospective analysis of patients who have undergone hybrid procedure and Fontan completion was performed. Weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were recorded at each operation.
We identified 13 hybrid patients – eight in the three-stage pathway and five in the four-stage pathway – and 49 Norwood patients. Weight: three stage: weight decreased from hybrid procedure to comprehensive second stage (−0.4±1.3 versus −2.3±1.4, p<0.01) and then increased to Fontan completion (−0.4±1.5 versus −0.6±1.4, p<0.01); four stage: weight decreased from hybrid procedure to Norwood (−2.0±1.4 versus −3.3±0.9, p=0.06), then stabilised to hemi-Fontan. Weight increased from hemi-Fontan to Fontan completion (−2.7±0.6 versus −1.0±0.7, p=0.01); primary Norwood group: weight decreased from Norwood to hemi-Fontan (p<0.001) and then increased to Fontan completion (p<0.001). Height: height declined from hybrid procedure to Fontan completion in the three-stage group. In the four-stage group, height decreased from hybrid to hemi-Fontan, and then increased to Fontan completion. The Norwood group decreased in height from Norwood to hemi-Fontan, followed by an increase to Fontan completion.
In this study, we show that patients undergoing the hybrid procedure have poor weight gain before superior cavopulmonary connection, before returning to baseline by Fontan completion. This study identifies key periods to target poor somatic growth, a risk factor of morbidity and worse neurodevelopmental outcomes.