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Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.
It has been over 5 years since the last special issue of Twin Research and Human Genetics on ‘Twin Registries Worldwide: An Important Resource for Scientific Research’ was published. Much progress has been made in the broad field of twin research since that time, and the current special issue is a follow-up to update the scientific community about twin registries around the globe. The present article builds upon our 2013 Registry description by summarizing current information on the Washington State Twin Registry (WSTR), including history and construction methods, member characteristics, available data, and major research goals. We also provide a section with brief summaries of recently completed studies and discuss the future research directions of the WSTR. The Registry has grown in terms of size and scope since 2013; highlights include recruitment of youth pairs under 18 years of age, extensive geocoding work to develop environmental exposures that can be linked to survey and administrative health data such as death records, and expansion of a biobank with specimens collected for genotyping, DNA methylation, and microbiome based-studies.
This paper reports on the first four cochlear implant cases in Malawi.
Three patients were deafened from infectious diseases and one from an unknown cause. They all had post-lingual deafness. Six months after the last implant, they are all progressing well.
Despite significant practical difficulties, it has proved possible, with the right support, to carry out cochlear implantation in one of the world's poorest countries. The project has also raised awareness of deafness in Malawi and highlighted significant public health issues relating to the aetiology of deafness in developing countries.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is recognised to have a significant complication profile (e.g. blindness, cerebrospinal fluid leak and intracranial sepsis). Pre-operative computed tomography imaging is considered mandatory for surgical planning to reduce intra-operative risk. A radiological report is the ‘gold standard’ in image interpretation; however, because of a lack of otolaryngological or radiological guidance, its contents may be variable. By surveying practising otolaryngologists, this study aimed to provide some guidance which may be used by radiologists to produce more surgically relevant radiological reports.
A prospective questionnaire was distributed to the ENT-UK panel.
A total of 117 consultant members of the panel completed the survey. Twenty-nine per cent indicated that they were uncomfortable interpreting all areas of the computed tomography scan. Greatest importance was given to areas including the ethmoid roof (dehiscence, asymmetry and angle), lamina papyracea (dehiscence) and sphenoid sinus (carotid canal dehiscence and optic nerve relationships).
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is commonly performed by non-subspecialist rhinologists. The information obtained from this study can be used by radiologists to improve report relevance, particularly for the generalist ENT surgeon. This contributes to improving patient safety and helps avoid medicolegal litigation when complications arise.
To identify factors that significantly influence myringoplasty success.
A retrospective study was performed of all adults and children who underwent myringoplasty from January 2005 to January 2010 in a teaching hospital. Outcome measures were tympanic membrane perforation closure and air–bone gap closure to within 20 dB HL. The factors assessed were the surgeon grade, pre-operative condition of the ipsilateral and contralateral middle ears, perforation site, perforation size, graft material, and whether simultaneous cortical mastoidectomy was performed. Factors with statistically significant effects were determined by logistic regression analysis.
In the adult group, the perforation site significantly influenced tympanic membrane closure (p = 0.016): anterior (p = 0.008) and subtotal (p = 0.017) sites had the greatest influence. None of the factors proved to have a significant influence on tympanic membrane closure in the paediatric group.
There was a significant association between perforation site and tympanic membrane perforation closure in adults. Anterior and subtotal perforations had a significantly reduced closure rate.
Magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere provide the energy for most varieties of solar activity, including high-energy electromagnetic radiation, solar energetic particles, flares, and coronal mass ejections, as well as powering the solar wind. Despite the fundamental role of magnetic fields in solar and heliospheric physics, there exist only very limited measurements of the field above the base of the corona. What is needed are direct measurements of not only the strength and orientation of the magnetic field but also the signatures of wave motions in order to better understand coronal structure, solar activity, and the role of MHD waves in heating and accelerating the solar wind. Fortunately, the remote sensing instrumentation used to make magnetic field measurements is also well suited to measure the Doppler signature of waves in the solar structures. We present here a mission concept for the Waves And Magnetism In the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS) experiment which is proposed for a NASA long-duration balloon flight.
The Rogart igneous complex is unique within the northern Scottish Caledonides because it comprises an apparent continuum of magma types that records a progressive change in emplacement mechanisms related to large-scale tectonic controls. Syn-D2 leucogranites and late-D2 quartz monzodiorites were emplaced during crustal thickening and focused within the broad zone of ductile deformation associated with the Naver Thrust. In contrast, emplacement of the post-D2 composite central pluton was controlled by development of a steeply dipping dextral shear zone along the Loch Shin Line, interpreted as an anti-Riedel shear within the Great Glen Fault system. The mantle-derived nature of the late-to-post-D2 melts implies that the Naver Thrust and the Loch Shin Line were both crustal-scale structures along which magmas were channelled during deformation. A U–Pb zircon age of 425±1.5 Ma for the outer component of the central pluton provides an upper limit on regional deformation and metamorphism within host Moine rocks. These findings are consistent with the view that a fundamental change in tectonic regime occurred in the Scottish Caledonides at c. 425 Ma, corresponding to the switch from regional thrusting that resulted from the collision of Baltica and Laurentia, to the development of the orogen-parallel Great Glen Fault system.
Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden.
Political observers have detected a noticeable uptick in American political incivility in recent years, culminating with several moderate senators recently citing the rise of hard-core partisanship as the reason for their retirement. Supporting these accusations of unprecedented incivility with empirical evidence can be difficult, as notions of what constitutes appropriate, civil behavior are subjective and can vary across the political context of different eras. Was it more uncivil, for example, for William Jennings Bryan to accuse his political opponents of crucifying other Americans on a cross of gold than it was for a member of Congress to yell “You lie!” at the president in the nation's Capitol? Assessing the incivility of these statements requires determining the effect each had on political opponents' abilities to maintain a functional relationship despite their disagreement over policy outcomes. Nevertheless, many politicians, political observers, and scholars are truly concerned that current levels of incivility are indeed worse, not only damaging the ability to resolve complex public problems, but threatening the long-term stability of America's governing institutions. Largely focusing on changes in institutional structures and elite behavior, scholars identify numerous explanations for this trend.
The articles in this symposium are peppered with numerous recent incidents of political incivility ranging from physical scuffles at town hall meetings to the now-infamous accusation shouted at president Barack Obama during a nationally televised address before a joint session of Congress. Name calling and ad hominem attacks that were once associated with talk radio and cable television pundits have made their way into the halls of governing institutions, which no longer serve as sacred spaces one-step removed from bare-knuckled politics. Indeed, divisive views have even made inroads into “safe” topics for discussion—the weather and sports. Forget the intensity of debate over climate change. Democrats were actually 10% more likely to claim that the 2012 winter season was warmer than were their Republicans counterparts (Newport 2012). Sports no longer offers a neutral conversation starter, as 27% of Republicans view Tim Tebow as their favorite quarterback compared to only 9% of Democrats (Public Policy Polling 2011). Vitriol, combined with legislative gridlock and the uproar of protestors—not only in Washington, DC, but also in state capitals and prominent cities across the country—has shifted our discipline's attention to the role of political civility in sustaining a healthy democracy.
This research compared public opinions about Escherichia coli O157 (an increasing environmental hazard associated with livestock) in two farming areas with contrasting incidence of E. coli O157 disease. A questionnaire was administered in rural Grampian (10·8 cases/100 000 population per year) and North Wales (2·5 cases/100 000 population per year). Awareness was highest among farmers in Grampian (91%) and lowest among visitors to both areas (28%). Respondents were more likely to indicate vomiting (76%) than bloody diarrhoea (48%) as a common symptom. Undercooked meat and contact with farm animal faeces were identified by 60% of all respondents as risk factors who described ‘basic hygiene’ for risk reduction indoors. Visitors view E. coli O157 as a food hazard, not an environmental hazard that produces vomiting not dysentery. Efforts to reduce human infections in livestock farming areas could be improved with proximate reminders for visitors of the environmental pathway of E. coli O157 infection.
During a 15-month period in Scotland a small but important number of human Campylobacter cases (3·2%) arose from 91 putative household outbreaks. Of the 26 outbreaks with known strain composition, 89% were composed of the same MLST which supports the potential use of MLST in public health epidemiology. The number of cases associated with household outbreaks is much larger than general outbreaks and there is some evidence to indicate that there may be secondary transmission, although this is relatively rare.
Aminocyclopyrachlor, a newly discovered synthetic auxin herbicide, and its methyl ester, appear to control a number of perennial broadleaf weeds. The potential volatility of this new herbicide and its methyl ester were determined under laboratory conditions and were also compared to dicamba and aminopyralid with the use of enclosed chamber and open-air plant bioassays. Bioassays consisting of visual estimates of epinastic responses and kidney bean and soybean leaf-width measurements were developed to measure vapor release from glass and plastic. Vapor release of aminocyclopyrachlor from glass surfaces was undetectable under laboratory conditions, and no phytotoxic responses were observed when plants were exposed to vapors emanating from various surfaces. Results were similar to those of aminopyralid, indicating the risk of plant injury from vapor movement of aminocyclopyrachlor and aminopyralid was very low. When combined with 1% methylated seed oil, vapor release of aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl ester reached 86% 192 h after application to glass surfaces. Phytotoxic responses of plants exposed to vapors emanating from various surfaces treated with aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl ester were similar to responses to dicamba under enclosed incubation conditions, but were less in outdoor, open-air environments. Studies are needed to understand better the risk of injury to nontarget plants due to vapor movement of aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl ester under field applications.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is a common procedure in almost all ENT departments. Commonly, a head ring is used for head support during this procedure. We believe that the Rubens pillow enables better head stability and provides a better operating surface for surgical instruments.
The health benefits of seafood are well documented and based on the unique supply of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Aquaculture now contributes about 50 % of food-grade seafood globally and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a rich source of n-3 HUFA. However, salmon and other oily fish can accumulate lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POP), including dioxins (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), derived largely from feed. In the present study, triplicate groups of salmon, of initial weight 0·78 kg, were fed one of three experimental diets for 11 weeks. The diets were coated with either a northern fish oil (FO) with a high POP content (cNFO), the same oil that had been decontaminated (deNFO) or a blend of southern fish oil, rapeseed and soyabean oils (SFO/RO/SO). Dietary PCDD/F+dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB) concentrations were 17·36, 0·45 and 0·53 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg, respectively. After 11 weeks, the flesh concentrations in fish fed the cNFO, deNFO and SFO/RO/SO diets were 6·42, 0·34 and 0·41 ng TEQ/kg, respectively. There were no differences in flesh EPA and DHA between fish fed the cNFO or deNFO diets although EPA and DHA were reduced by 50 and 30 %, respectively, in fish fed the SFO/RO/SO diet. Thus, decontaminated FO can be used to produce salmon high in n-3 HUFA and low in POP. Salmon produced using deNFO would be of high nutritional value and very low in POP and would utilise valuable fish oils that would otherwise be destroyed due to their high pollutant concentrations.
Water related activities result in a large number of fatalities annually throughout Canada, especially in the Canadian north, where drowning rates are up to ten times the national average. This study used participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and archival research to understand why residents of Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories (NWT) rarely wear lifejackets. Three themes emerged. Firstly residents largely perceive lifejackets to be inaccessible, secondly drownings are attributed to factors other than failing to wear a lifejacket and thirdly lifejacket use is not encouraged by important individuals in the community. It is suggested that successful lifejacket promotion for this population requires drowning prevention programmes that move away from simplistic approaches that encourage people to wear lifejackets and instead must utilise an approach that addresses each component of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB).
We report a rare case of internal jugular vein duplications, in order to raise the level of awareness of this anomaly amongst ENT surgeons, radiologists and intensive care practitioners. We briefly review and discuss the related literature.
Duplicated internal jugular veins are a rare anatomical finding. They may be subclinical, or may present with neck swellings that may be mistaken for laryngocoeles or branchial cysts. We present a case of bilateral internal jugular vein duplication in a young adult. The referral was made on the basis of intermittent neck swelling, dyspnoea and dysphagia. Conservative treatment was instigated, and symptoms improved without surgical intervention.
Only a handful of cases of duplicated internal jugular veins have been reported. The current case is unique, as no previously reported cases have presented with dyspnoea and dysphagia. We suggest a conservative approach, as there is currently no evidence that duplicated internal jugular veins cause any adverse health outcomes.
Within the Scottish Caledonides, the Glen Scaddle Metagabbro was intruded into the Moine Supergroup of the Northern Highland Terrane after Grampian D2 folding and prior to regional D3 and D4 upright folding and amphibolite-facies metamorphism. A U–Pb zircon age of 426 ± 3 Ma obtained from the metagabbro is interpreted to date emplacement. D3–D4 folding is constrained to have occurred during the Scandian orogenic event. In contrast, polyphase folding and regional metamorphism of the Dalradian Supergroup southeast of the Great Glen Fault is entirely Grampian. These differences are consistent with published tectonic models that invoke a minimum of 700 km of post-Scandian sinistral displacements across the Great Glen Fault to juxtapose the Grampian and Northern Highland terranes.