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This book examines the environmental and technological complexity of South Carolina inland rice plantations from their inception at the turn of the seventeenth century to the brink of their institutional collapse at the eve of the Civil War. Inland rice cultivation provided a foundation for the South Carolina colonial plantation complex and enabled planters' participation in the Atlantic economy, dependence on enslaved labor, and dramatic alteration of the natural landscape. Moreover, the growing population of enslaved Africans led to a diversely-acculturated landscape unique to the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Despite this significance, Lowcountry inland rice cultivation has had an elusive history. Unlike many historical interpretations that categorize inland rice cultivation in a universal and simplistic manner, this study explains how agricultural systems varied among plantations. By focusing on planters' and slaves' alteration of the inland topography, this book emphasizes how agricultural methods met the demands of the local environment.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
The frost susceptibility of Australian commercial cereal crops, in particular wheat and barley, has become an economically devastating issue for growers. The relative risk to frost damage of the currently available varieties is obtained through testing varieties in a series of field experiments at locations susceptible to frost events (FEs). The experimental design, measurement protocols and resultant data from these frost expression experiments (FEEs) are complex due to the unpredictability of the timing and severity of FEs, and the maturity of the plants at the time of the events. Design and protocol complexities include the use of multiple sowing dates and the recording of plant maturity. Data difficulties include a high degree of unbalance, and in the instance of multiple frosts in a FEE, there is a longitudinal aspect. A linear mixed model analysis was adopted to accommodate these characteristics of individual FEEs and the multi-environment trial analysis of 17 FEEs. Finally, an approach is demonstrated for dissemination of results that are of use to both growers and breeders.
The physics of a rotary wing in forward flight are highly complex, particularly when flow separation is involved. The purpose of this work is to assess the role of three-dimensional (3-D) vortex dynamics, with a focus on Coriolis forces, in the evolution of vortices in the reverse flow region of a rotating wing. High-fidelity numerical simulations were performed to recreate the flow about a representative rotating wing in forward flight. A vorticity transport analysis was performed to quantify and compare the magnitudes of 2-D flow physics, vortex tilting and Coriolis effects in the resulting flow fields. Three-dimensional vortex dynamics was found to have a very small impact on the growth and behaviour of vortices in the reverse flow region; in fact, the rate of vortex growth was successfully modelled using a simple 2-D vortex method. The small role of 3-D physics was attributed to the Coriolis and vortex tilting terms being approximately equal and opposite to one another. This ultimately lead to vortex behaviour that more closely resembled a surging wing as opposed to a conventional rotating wing, a feature unique to the reverse flow region.
The optimum oxygen tension for culturing mammalian embryos has been widely debated by the scientific community. While several laboratories have moved to using 5% as the value for oxygen tension, the majority of modern in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory programmes still use 20%. Several in vivo studies have shown the oxygen tension measured in the oviduct of mammals fluctuates between 2% and 8% and in cows and primates this values drops to <2% in the uterine milieu. In human IVF, a non-physiological level of 20% oxygen has been used in the past. However, several studies have shown that atmospheric oxygen introduces adverse effects to embryo development, not limited to numerous molecular and cellular physiology events. In addition, low oxygen tension plays a critical role in reducing the high level of detrimental reactive oxygen species within cells, influences embryonic gene expression, helps with embryo metabolism of glucose, and enhances embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Collectively, this improves embryo implantation potential. However, clinical studies have yielded contradictory results. In almost all reports, some level of improvement has been identified in embryo development or implantation, without any observed drawbacks. This review article will examine the recent literature and discusses ongoing efforts to understand the benefits that low oxygen tension can bring to mammal embryo development in vitro.
Weed management is a major challenge in organic crop production, and organic farms generally harbor larger weed populations and more diverse communities compared with conventional farms. However, little research has been conducted on the effects of different organic management practices on weed communities and crop yields. In 2014 and 2015, we measured weed community structure and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield in a long-term experiment that compared four organic cropping systems that differed in nutrient inputs, tillage, and weed management intensity: (1) high fertility (HF), (2) low fertility (LF), (3) enhanced weed management (EWM), and (4) reduced tillage (RT). In addition, we created weed-free subplots within each system to assess the impact of weeds on soybean yield. Weed density was greater in the LF and RT systems compared with the EWM system, but weed biomass did not differ among systems. Weed species richness was greater in the RT system compared with the EWM system, and weed community composition differed between RT and other systems. Our results show that differences in weed community structure were primarily related to differences in tillage intensity, rather than nutrient inputs. Soybean yield was lower in the EWM system compared with the HF and RT systems. When averaged across all four cropping systems and both years, soybean yield in weed-free subplots was 10% greater than soybean yield in the ambient weed subplots that received standard management practices for the systems in which they were located. Although weed competition limited soybean yield across all systems, the EWM system, which had the lowest weed density, also had the lowest soybean yield. Future research should aim to overcome such trade-offs between weed control and yield potential, while conserving weed species richness and the ecosystem services associated with increased weed diversity.
Civil–military relationships are necessary in humanitarian emergencies but, if poorly managed, may be detrimental to the efforts of humanitarian organizations. Awareness of guidelines and understanding of risks relating to the relationship among deployed military personnel have not been evaluated.
Fifty-five military and 12 humanitarian healthcare workers in South Sudan completed questionnaires covering experience, training and role, agreement with statements about the deployment, and free text comments.
Both cohorts were equally aware of current guidance. Eight themes defined the relationship. There was disagreement about the benefit to the South Sudanese people of the military deployment, and whether military service was compatible with beneficial health impacts. Two key obstacles to the relationship and 3 areas the relationship could be developed were identified.
This study shows that United Kingdom military personnel are effectively trained and understand the constraints on the civil–military relationship. Seven themes in common between the groups describe the relationship. Current guidance could be adapted to allow a different relationship for healthcare workers.