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The objective of the study was to assess the post-weaning growth response of Sahiwal calves reared on four different pre-weaning dietary regimens. The four diets were: (a) whole cow's milk, starter ration (SR; CP = 20%, total digestible nutrients (TDN) = 72%) and Berseem hay (H; Egyptian clover; CP = 21%, TDN = 63%); (b) whole cow's milk + H; (c) milk replacer (MR; reconstituted to supplier specification; Sprayfo®) + SR + H; and (d) MR + H. The protein and fat percentages of reconstituted MR were 2.22 and 1.84, respectively. Milk or MR were fed at the rate of 10% of the calves’ body weight (BW) until 56 days of age, and then withdrawn gradually until weaned completely by 84 days of age. The average initial BW of calves in groups A, B, C and D were 56.3 ± 1.0, 47.5 ± 1.0, 40.4 ± 1.0 and 30.3 ± 1.0 kg, respectively. Initially, there were 12 calves in each group with six of each sex; however, one male calf died from each of groups B and C and were not replaced. During the post-weaning period, 13 to 24 weeks, the calves were fed a single total mixed ration ad libitum based on maize, canola meal, wheat straw and molasses containing 16% CP and 70% TDN. Daily feed intake and weekly BW gains were recorded. The data were analyzed by MIXED model analysis procedures using the statistical program SAS. The intake of calves as percent of their BW, feed conversion ratio and cost per kg of BW gain were not different (P > 0.05) across treatments. The daily gain at 24 weeks of age for the pre-weaning treatments A, B, C and D were 746 ± 33, 660 ± 33, 654 ± 33 and 527 ± 33 g/day and the final liveweights of calves were 119 ± 4.2, 102 ± 4.2, 95 ± 4.2 and 75 ± 4.2 kg, respectively. Gains were influenced significantly (P < 0.05) by pre-weaning treatments. The calves fed MR and H only during the pre-weaning period were unable to catch up post weaning with calves on other dietary treatments. The calves fed whole milk from birth at the rate of 10% of liveweight together with concentrates had higher weaning weight and superior growth rate post weaning as well. Thus, pre-weaning feeding was important for higher weaning weights and superior growth rates post weaning.
A zeroth order dendritic carbosilane structure, SiFA4H with four hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) functional groups attached via propyl ligand arms to a central silicon atom, has been developed as a model hydrogen-bond (HB) acid sorbent coating and candidate reference HB acid. The HB donor interaction, through the hydroxyl of the HFIP moiety, with a solute HB base can be monitored by observing the hydroxyl stretching frequency through measurements of SiFA4H FTIR spectra before and during vapor exposure. HFIP hydroxyl stretch shifts, upwards of 700 cm-1 have been observed depending on the HB base. For a range of HB bases, the resulting hydroxyl stretch shifts correlate directly with the solute HB basicity scale, “B”, developed by Abraham et al . A variety of techniques exist to measure solute HB basicity, however, the applicability to examine HB bases delivered as vapors or gases and the simplicity of the measurements described herein, with a reusable reference HB acid sorbent coating and standard FTIR spectrophotometer techniques is attractive for some applications including those with hazardous chemicals. Moreover, as an extension of this work we propose employing SiFA4H or related sorbents as molecular sensing coatings, where the semi-selective sorbent is examined by various infrared (IR) spectroscopic techniques to monitor and identify hazardous chemicals, taking advantage of molecular binding phenomena which occur in the sorbent .
RED is a technique we have developed for stand-off detection of trace explosives using infrared (IR) photo-thermal imaging [1,2,3]. RED incorporates compact IR quantum cascade lasers tuned to strong characteristic absorption bands and may be used to illuminate explosives present as particles on a surface. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface and detect any small increase in the thermal emission upon laser illumination. We have previously demonstrated the technique at several meters to 10’s of meters of stand-off distance indoors and in field tests [4,5], while operating the lasers below the eye-safe intensity limit (100 mWcm2) . Sensitivity to traces of explosives as small as a nanogram has been demonstrated. By varying the incident wavelength slightly, we can readily show selectivity between individual explosives such as TNT and RDX. Using a sequence of lasers at different wavelengths, we increase both sensitivity and selectivity. A complete detection protocol can be performed in a sub-second time domain. More recently, RED has been used to emphasize measurements with cooled detectors in addition to examining the utility of filtering the collected thermal emission signal which is rich in analyte-specific spectroscopic information. A next generation RED system and detection algorithm is being developed to take advantage of these more powerful features. This manuscript will include an overview of the approach and recent experimental results.
The low vapor pressure of many energetic materials presents a challenge for detection by non-contact methods. We address this limitation by illuminating energetic materials including TNT and RDX with infrared lasers tuned to strong molecular absorption bands to efficiently heat trace amounts present on substrates. This substantially increases their vapor signatures for direct detection, obviating the need to swab surfaces for solid particles or to collect headspace vapors for extended time periods. The instantaneously generated vapor produced by Laser Trace Vaporization (LTV) can be detected by any number of techniques which can accommodate vapor sampling or spectroscopic analysis. Currently the testbed for LTV incorporates a tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) to illuminate the sample and an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) to validate the signal enhancement. The LTV technique works well with all tested substrates, though the thermal and spectroscopic properties of the substrate can influence the efficiency of the vaporization. Computational results from laser heating along with experimental thermal kinetic measurements were used to optimize LTV laser irradiation parameters. In addition to a range of LTV results for different explosives and substrates, we explore the effects of wavelength-dependent heating on the sample and substrate.
We are developing a new non-contact and non-destructive imaging technique which requires no sample preparation and provides similar content information as FTIR or Raman spectroscopy while being immune to fluorescence and offers a potentially faster scan rate and/or higher spatial resolution. It utilizes photo-thermal heating of the sample with a quantum cascade laser (or other suitable infrared laser) and measuring the resulting increase in thermal emissions by either an infrared (IR) detector or a laser probe consisting of a visible laser reflected from the sample. The latter case allows for further increases in the spatial resolution from ∼10 μm to ∼1 μm or better, with suitable experimental conditions. Since the thermal emission signal is proportional to the absorption coefficient, by tuning the wavelength of the IR laser we can directly measure the IR spectrum of the sample. By raster scanning over the surface of the sample we can obtain maps of the chemical composition of the sample surface. We demonstrate this technique by imaging the surface of a micro-fabricated flow-through chemical vapor preconcentrator consisting of a silicon frame and a suspended-perforated polyimide membrane with a pair of platinum heater traces, coated with a custom sorbent polymer for selective sorption of analyte. We measure the spatial resolution of our photo-thermal imaging system as well as discuss the conditions under which the spatial resolution can be further increased from the far-field diffraction limited resolution given by the combination of the imaging optic and IR excitation laser wavelength.
Kenneth L. Tanaka, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff,
Robert Anderson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,
James M. Dohm, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson,
Vicki L. Hansen, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Minnesota Duluth,
George E. McGill, University of Massachusetts, Amherst,
Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,
Richard A. Schultz, Geomechanics – Rock Fracture Group, Department of Geological Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno,
Thomas R. Watters, Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
As on Earth, other solid-surfaced planetary bodies in the solar system display landforms produced by tectonic activity, such as faults, folds, and fractures. These features are resolved in spacecraft observations directly or with techniques that extract topographic information from a diverse suite of data types, including radar backscatter and altimetry, visible and near-infrared images, and laser altimetry. Each dataset and technique has its strengths and limitations that govern how to optimally utilize and properly interpret the data and what sizes and aspects of features can be recognized. The ability to identify, discriminate, and map tectonic features also depends on the uniqueness of their form, on the morphologic complexity of the terrain in which the structures occur, and on obscuration of the features by erosion and burial processes. Geologic mapping of tectonic structures is valuable for interpretation of the surface strains and of the geologic histories associated with their formation, leading to possible clues about: (1) the types or sources of stress related to their formation, (2) the mechanical properties of the materials in which they formed, and (3) the evolution of the body's surface and interior where timing relationships can be determined. Formal mapping of tectonic structures has been performed and/or is in progress for Earth's Moon, the planets Mars, Mercury, and Venus, and the satellites of Jupiter (Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, and Io).
Venus has a pressure-corrected bulk density that is only 3% less than that of the Earth. In contrast, the surface environments of these two planets are very different. At the mean planetary radius the atmospheric pressure and temperature on Venus are 95 bars and 737 K, respectively. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface, which implies the absence of the processes most effective for erosion and sediment transport on Earth. The planet is completely shrouded in clouds, and temperatures of the lower atmosphere do not vary much from equator to poles, resulting in winds not capable of significant erosion. Most of the materials exposed on the surface of Venus apparently formed during approximately the last 20% of solar system history, with no significant clues to conditions on the planet during prior eons. Because the dense atmosphere has destroyed small bolides, the smallest surviving impact craters have diameters of ~2 km, and the total population of impact craters is less than 1000. The dominant terrain on Venus is plains, which constitute ~80% of the planet's surface. Impact craters are randomly distributed on these plains, and thus differences in the relative age of surface materials based on differences in crater frequency are not statistically robust.
The global topography of Venus does not include the diagnostic plate-boundary signatures that are present on Earth, and thus plate tectonics has not been active on Venus during the time represented by the current surface materials and features.
To provide an up to date review of the literature on aneurysmal bone cysts, including their diagnosis, pathology, pathophysiology, radiology and management.
Retrospective review of six cases over a 15-year period.
Six patients (age range, eight months to 17 years; mean, 9.6 years) presented with an aneurysmal bone cyst in the mandible (n = 3), maxilla (n = 2) or occipital soft tissue (n = 1). Each patient underwent primary excision, with one subsequent recurrence.
Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign but locally destructive entities which may occasionally present to otolaryngologists, since they can involve the head and neck region, in particular the mandible.
The functionalization of polymers and nano-materials with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) groups provides materials suitable for a variety of preconcentrator and sensor applications. These are especially useful in high vapor pressure, hydrogen-bond basic vapor collection. These specific interactions lead to high efficiency collection of basic analytes such as DMMP (organophosphonates), DNT, and TNT (nitroaromatics). The lower vapor pressure analytes such as RDX have a larger dependence on surface interactions without specific (hydrogen bond) interactions. The use of carbosilane polymers with HFIP pendant groups offers dramatic improvements over fluoropolyol (FPOL) and siloxane polymers in sensor and precon applications. The sorbent capacity and thermal stability are both dramatically improved. In this work we will demonstrate the use of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) composites with HFIP polymers as sorbent coatings and evaluate their use as SPME coatings.
The antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter isolates recovered from a range of retail food samples (n=374) and humans (n=314) to eight antimicrobial compounds were investigated. High levels of resistance in food C. jejuni isolates were observed for ceftiofur (58%), ampicillin (25%) and nalidixic acid (17%) with lower levels observed for streptomycin (7·9%) and chloramphenicol (8·3%). A total of 80% of human C. jejuni isolates were resistant to ceftiofur, while 17% showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, 8·6% to streptomycin and 4·1% to chloramphenicol. Resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobials such as erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was 6·7, 12, and 15% respectively for all food isolates and was similar to corresponding resistance prevalences observed for human isolates, where 6·4, 12 and 13% respectively were found to be resistant. Comparisons of C. jejuni isolates in each location showed a high degree of similarity although some regional variations did exist. Comparison of total C. jejuni and C. coli populations showed minor differences, with C. jejuni isolates more resistant to ampicillin and ceftiofur. Multidrug resistance patterns showed some profiles common to human and clinical isolates.
We present a laser-based direct write technique termed matrix-assisted pulsed-laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW). This technique utilizes a laser transparent fused silica disc coated on one side with a composite matrix consisting of the material to be deposited mixed with a laser absorbing polymer. Absorption of laser radiation results in the decomposition of the polymer, which aids in transferring the solute to an acceptor substrate placed parallel to the matrix surface. Using MAPLE DW, complex patterns consisting of metal powders, ceramic powders, and polymer composites were transferred onto the surfaces of various types of substrates with <10 micron resolution at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure without the use of masks.
We give an overview of the open-boundary planar supercell stack method (OPSSM), as a means for treating 3D quantum transport in mesoscopic tunnel structures. The flexibility of the method allows us to examine a variety of physical phenomena relevant to quantum transport. In this work we focus on the effects of interface roughness and embedded nanostructures in tunnel devices. Four representative applications of OPSSM are discussed: (1) interface roughness in double barrier resonant tunneling structures, (2) self-organized InAs quantum dot insertions in GaAs/AlAs double barrier structures, (3) tunneling characteristics of ultra-thin oxides with interface roughness, and, (4) embedded quantum wire model of dielectric breakdown. These examples demonstrate scattering and localization effects under different biasing conditions.
The incorporation of oxygen onto the (3×3) reconstructed surface of GaN(0001) has been studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the (3×3) reconstruction corresponds to a fractional Ga adlayer atop a Ga terminated GaN surface. Our measurements indicate a surface coverage of 1.15 ± 0.2 monolayers of relaxed Ga on the surface. The binding energy separation between the relaxed surface Ga3d core level and bulk Ga3d level was measured to be 1.1 ± 0.1 eV. A metallic component extending from the bulk GaN valence band maximum out to 0 eV was also present in the XPS spectrum. The separation between the bulk valence band maximum and the Fermi level of the metallic component was found to be 2.1 ± 0.1 eV. The relaxation of the surface Ga was found to decrease with oxygen exposure indicating Ga-O bonding, with oxygen adsorption terminating at 1.3 ± 0.2 monolayers. The O1s core level was found to have a FWHM of 2.0 ± 0.1 eV.
The surface morphology of GaN is observed by atomic force microscopy for growth on GaN and AlN buffer layers and as a function of III/V flux ratio. Films are grown on sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source. Growth using GaN buffer layers leads to N-polar films, with surfaces strongly dependent on the flux conditions used. Flat surfaces can be obtained by growing as Ga-rich as possible, although Ga droplets tend to form. Ga-polar films can be grown on AlN buffer layers, with the surface morphology determined by the conditions of buffer layer deposition as well as the III/V ratio for growth of the GaN layer. Near-stoichiometric buffer layer growth conditions appear to support the flattest surfaces in this case. Three defect types are typically observed in GaN films on AlN buffers, including large and small pits and “loop” defects. It is possible to produce surfaces free from large pit defects by growing thicker films under more Ga-rich conditions. In such cases the surface roughness can be reduced to less than 1 nm RMS.
This paper addresses the microanalysis techniques used to characterize thermal sprayed Ti coatings on concrete surfaces as anodes in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems. Thermal sprayed Ti anodes on concrete were electrochemically aged in laboratory studies of anode performance and service life. A thermal sprayed catalyzed Ti anode was installed on the Depoe Bay Bridge on the Oregon Coast in a field demonstration of the ICCP system. Both air and N were used as the atomizing gases during the study. Thermal sprayed Ti coatings are typically applied in an inert atmosphere or vacuum using shrouds or chambers to prevent reactions with the atmosphere. This was not possible with a structure as large as a bridge.
Microanalysis of Ti and N together is difficult and the effects of O add to the complexity of the analysis. The ternary Ti-O-N system has not be well studied.
The surface morphology of GaN is observed by atomic force microscopy for growth on GaN and AlN buffer layers and as a function of III/V flux ratio. Films are grown on sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source. Growth using GaN buffer layers leads to N-polar films, with surfaces strongly dependent on the flux conditions used. Flat surfaces can be obtained by growing as Ga-rich as possible, although Ga droplets tend to form. Ga-polar films can be grown on AlN buffer layers, with the surface morphology determined by the conditions of buffer layer deposition as well as the III/V ratio for growth of the GaN layer. Near-stoichiometric buffer layer growth conditions appear to support the flattest surfaces in this case. Three defect types are typically observed in GaN films on AlN buffers, including large and small pits and “loop” defects. It is possible to produce surfaces free from large pit defects by growing thicker films under more Ga-rich conditions. In such cases the surface roughness can be reduced to less than l nm RMS.