To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Current methods of control recruitment for case-control studies can be slow (a particular issue for outbreak investigations), resource-intensive and subject to a range of biases. Commercial market panels are a potential source of rapidly recruited controls. Our study evaluated food exposure data from these panel controls, compared with an established reference dataset. Market panel data were collected from two companies using retrospective internet-based surveys; these were compared with reference data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios to compare exposure to each of the 71 food items between the market panel and NDNS participants. We compared 2103 panel controls with 2696 reference participants. Adjusted for socio-demographic factors, exposure to 90% of foods was statistically different between both panels and the reference data. However, these differences were likely to be of limited practical importance for 89% of Panel A foods and 79% of Panel B foods. Market panel food exposures were comparable with reference data for common food exposures but more likely to be different for uncommon exposures. This approach should be considered for outbreak investigation, in conjunction with other considerations such as population at risk, timeliness of response and study resources.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
We have undertaken a study of the 3-D spatial distribution of the older (τ ≥ 1–2 Gyr) stellar population lying beyond ~ 2 kpc in projected radial distance from the centre of the SMC. The study will eventually cover 120 square degrees including six overlapping Schmidt fields. Here we present the results from an area of 80 square degrees including the western, northern and north-eastern outer parts of the SMC.
We present a systematic review providing estimates of the overall and regional burden of infectious complications following prostate biopsy. A directly standardized prevalence estimate was used because it reflects the burden of disease more explicitly. Complications included sepsis, hospitalization, bacteraemia, bacteriuria, and acute urinary retention after biopsy. There were 165 articles, comprising 162 577 patients, included in the final analysis. Our findings demonstrate that transrectal biopsy was associated with a higher burden of hospitalization (1·1% vs. 0·9%) and sepsis (0·8% vs. 0·1%) compared to transperineal biopsy, while acute urinary retention was more prevalent after transperineal than transrectal biopsy (4·2% vs. 0·9%). The differences were statistically non-significant because of large heterogeneity across countries. We also demonstrate and discuss regional variations in complication rates, with Asian studies reporting higher rates of sepsis and hospitalization.
This case report describes a patient who suffered an acute, severe complication of unilateral submandibular sialolithiasis, the disease process and management of these patients.
A 70-year-old woman was under investigation for a recurrent, painful right submandibular swelling and subsequently presented with an acute exacerbation. She exhibited symptoms of acute submandibular sialadenitis, and also reported breathing difficulty and a change in voice quality. Computed tomography imaging showed that this was caused by a submandibular gland duct sialolith, with inflammation extending to the ipsilateral supraglottis. She was treated medically and the stone was removed when the inflammation had stabilised.
This case highlights the need to thoroughly assess patients with neck swellings, especially when symptoms are atypical, to avoid life-threatening complications.
The flight of barnacle geese at airspeeds representing high-speed migrating flight is investigated using experiments and simulations. The experimental part of the work involved the filming of three barnacle geese (Branta Leucopsis) flying at different airspeeds in a wind tunnel. The video footage was analysed in order to extract the wing kinematics. Additional information, such as wing geometry and camber was obtained from a 3D scan of a dried wing. An unsteady vortex lattice method was used to simulate the aerodynamics of the measured flapping motion. The simulations were used in order to successfully reproduce the measured body motion and thus obtain estimates of the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. It was found that the mean of the wing pitch angle variation with time has the most significant effect on lift while the difference in the durations of the upstroke and downstroke has the major effect on thrust. The power consumed by the aerodynamic forces was also estimated; it was found that increases in aerodynamic power correspond very closely to climbing motion and vice versa. Root-mean-square values of the power range from 100W to 240W. Finally, it was observed that tandem flying can be very expensive for the trailing bird.
Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ electrochemical-scanning/transmission electron microscopy (ec-S/TEM), a technique that utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction, or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry (CV), choronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−-based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with CV and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and were found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10−5 cm2/s. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off, which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers, and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.
Drugs that kill or inhibit the sexual stages of Plasmodium in order to prevent transmission are important components of malaria control programmes. Reducing gametocyte carriage is central to the control of Plasmodium falciparum transmission as infection can result in extended periods of gametocytaemia. Unfortunately the number of drugs with activity against gametocytes is limited. Primaquine is currently the only licensed drug with activity against the sexual stages of malaria parasites and its use is hampered by safety concerns. This shortcoming is likely the result of the technical challenges associated with gametocyte studies together with the focus of previous drug discovery campaigns on asexual parasite stages. However recent emphasis on malaria eradication has resulted in an upsurge of interest in identifying compounds with activity against gametocytes. This review examines the gametocytocidal properties of currently available drugs as well as those in the development pipeline and examines the prospects for discovery of new anti-gametocyte compounds.
A total of twenty-four sows and their offspring were used in a 20-week study to investigate the effects of feeding GM maize on maternal and offspring health. Sows were fed diets containing GM or non-GM maize from service to the end of lactation. GM maize-fed sows were heavier on day 56 of gestation (P< 0·05). Offspring from sows fed GM maize tended to be lighter at weaning (P= 0·08). Sows fed GM maize tended to have decreased serum total protein (P= 0·08), and increased serum creatinine (P< 0·05) and γ-glutamyltransferase activity (P= 0·07) on day 28 of lactation. Serum urea tended to be decreased on day 110 of gestation in GM maize-fed sows (P= 0·10) and in offspring at birth (P= 0·08). Both platelet count (P= 0·07) and mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC; P= 0·05) were decreased on day 110 of gestation in GM maize-fed sows; however, MCHC tended to be increased in offspring at birth (P= 0·08). There was a minimal effect of feeding GM maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring serum biochemistry and haematology at birth and body weight at weaning.
A total of 72 male weaned pigs were used in a 110-day study to investigate the effect of feeding genetically modified (GM) Bt MON810 maize on selected growth and health indicators. It was hypothesised that in pigs fed Bt maize, growth and health are not impacted compared with pigs fed isogenic maize-based diets. Following a 12-day basal period, pigs (10.7 ± 1.9 kg body weight (BW); ∼40 days old) were blocked by weight and ancestry and randomly assigned to treatments: (1) non-GM maize diet for 110 days (non-GM), (2) GM maize diet for 110 days (GM), (3) non-GM maize diet for 30 days followed by GM maize diet up to day 110 (non-GM/GM) and (4) GM maize diet for 30 days followed by non-GM maize diet up to day 110 (GM/non-GM). BW and daily feed intake were recorded on days 0, 30, 60 and 110 (n = 15). Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (n = 10) on day 80. Following slaughter on day 110, organs and intestines were weighed and sampled for histological analysis and urine was collected for biochemical analysis (n = 10). Serum biochemistry analysis was performed on days 0, 30, 60, 100 and 110. Growth performance and serum biochemistry were analysed as repeated measures with time and treatment as main factors. The slice option of SAS was used to determine treatment differences at individual time points. There was no effect of feeding GM maize on overall growth, body composition, organ and intestinal weight and histology or serum biochemistry on days 60 and 100 and on urine biochemistry on day 110. A treatment × time interaction was observed for serum urea (SU; P < 0.05), creatinine (SC; P < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; P < 0.05). On day 30, SU was lower for the non-GM/GM treatment compared with the non-GM, GM and GM/non-GM treatments (P < 0.05). On day 110, SC was higher for the non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM treatments compared with non-GM and GM treatments (P < 0.05). Overall, serum total protein was lower for the GM/non-GM treatment compared with the non-GM/GM treatment (P < 0.05). The magnitude of change observed in some serum biochemical parameters did not indicate organ dysfunction and the changes were not accompanied by histological lesions. Long-term feeding of GM maize to pigs did not adversely affect growth or the selected health indicators investigated.
I have the honour to lay hefore the Society of Antiquaries copies and translations of some original documents from the archives of Simancas and Venice, relating to the passage of English history which formed the subject of a communication from Mr. Spedding on the 1st of March of the present year, and in doing so I can only regret that they were not before Mr. Spedding at the time when he was drawing up his Paper. In that case they would not merely have been in the hands of one who was most capable of making the best use of them, but they would have fallen into their natural place in the narrative which he prepared. He would have found in them the strongest confirmation of many of his arguments; but, amongst the new facts which would have thus been at his service, he would not have encountered one to necessitate the withdrawal or even the modification of a single statement.
Male weanling pigs (n 32) with a mean initial body weight of 7·5 kg and a mean weaning age of 28 d were used in a 31 d study to investigate the effects of feeding GM (Bt MON810) maize on growth performance, intestinal histology and organ weight and function. At weaning, the pigs were fed a non-GM starter diet during a 6 d acclimatisation period. The pigs were then blocked by weight and litter ancestry and assigned to diets containing 38·9 % GM (Bt MON810) or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 d. Body weight and feed disappearance were recorded on a weekly basis (n 16/treatment), and the pigs (n 10/treatment) were killed on day 31 for the collection of organ, tissue and blood samples. GM maize-fed pigs consumed more feed than the control pigs during the 31 d study (P < 0·05) and were less efficient at converting feed to gain during days 14–30 (P < 0·01). The kidneys of the pigs fed GM maize tended to be heavier than those of control pigs (P = 0·06); however, no histopathological changes or alterations in blood biochemistry were evident. Small intestinal morphology was not different between treatments. However, duodenal villi of GM maize-fed pigs tended to have fewer goblet cells/μm of villus compared with control pigs (P = 0·10). In conclusion, short-term feeding of Bt MON810 maize to weaned pigs resulted in increased feed consumption, less efficient conversion of feed to gain and a decrease in goblet cells/μm of duodenal villus. There was also a tendency for an increase in kidney weight, but this was not associated with changes in histopathology or blood biochemistry. The biological significance of these findings is currently being clarified in long-term exposure studies in pigs.
Intestinal failure (IF) occurs when intestinal absorptive function is inadequate to maintain hydration and nutrition without enteral or parenteral supplements. It has been classified into three types depending on duration of nutrition support and reversibility. Type 1 IF is commonly seen in the peri-operative period as ileus and usually spontaneously resolves within 14 d. Type 2 IF is uncommon and is often associated with an intra-abdominal catastrophe, intestinal resection, sepsis, metabolic disturbances and undernutrition. Type 3 IF is a chronic condition in a metabolically stable patient, which usually requires long-term parenteral nutrition. This paper focuses on Types 1 and 2 IF (or acute IF) that are usually found in surgical wards. The objectives of this paper are to review the incidence, aetiology, prevention, management principles and outcome of acute IF. The paper discusses the resources necessary to manage acute IF, the indications for inter-hospital transfer and the practicalities of how to transfer and receive a patient with acute IF.
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a protein, plays a key role in wound healing and blood vessel regeneration. However, most negative effects in vivo, or in vitro result from the over dosage of bFGF. Furthermore, it needs to keep the bFGF from protein denaturant. Thus, this study aims to develop a new delivery system based on silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) dispersed in collagen patch for delivery of the bFGF in a local and prolonged manner. In this research, SiO2 NPs are used to encapsulate bFGF through a modified water-in-oil micro-emulsion. The bFGF-loaded nanoparticles afterwards are dispersed in the collagen-based matrix through a EDC cross-linking step. The in vitro release kinetics of SiO2 NPs - encapsulated bFGF with and without collagen matrix have been monitored through ELISA. In addition, the cytotoxicity of SiO2 NPs is investigated by studying the viability of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) under the different concentrations of SiO2 NPs. It has found the average diameter (d) for SiO2 NPs encapsulating bFGF is 45 ± 8 nm with a loading efficiency of 72.5±3%. The maximum concentration of bFGF locally released from SiO2 NPs impregnated collagen matrix can be monitored after 30 days, while bFGF released from SiO2 NPs can be detected in 20 days. The further prolonged releasing after the nanoparticle-encapsulated bFGF laden collagen matrix is possibly due to the interaction between the nanoparticles and collagen matrix. In addition, the biocompatibility of the SiO2 NP has been investigated. We found that SiO2 NPs at the concentration of 50 μg/ml can still keep the cell alive. The results indicate that the nanoparticle-laden collagen matrix can locally deliver growth factor in a prolonged manner. This new delivery system may benefit to blood vessel regeneration and potentiate greater angiogenesis.
Bulk BaTiO3 has a large linear electro-optic coefficient and a very high dielectric constant. We report results obtained for two different MOCVD processes designed to deposit BaTiO3 films with properties suitable for nonlinear electro-optic or high charge storage applications. Epitaxial BaTiO3 films have been grown on NdGaO3  substrates using a high temperature thermal process; the substrate temperature was 1000°C and the total pressure was 4 torr. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) measurements indicate highly textured, single phase films on the NdGaO3 substrate which are predominantly  oriented. Fine grained polycrystalline films have been grown on Pt at 600°C by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PEMOCVD). Specular IR reflectance was used to determine the concentration of BaCO3 in the film, which was significantly reduced by the plasma. The polycrystalline films had dielectric constants as large as 300 and resistivities exceeding 5 x 108 Ω-cm at room temperature.