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Social support has been shown to be associated with a reduced likelihood of developing psychotic experiences in the general population and even amongst those at high risk due to exposure to multiple forms of victimisation (poly-victimised). However, it is unclear whether this association is merely due to the confounding effects of shared environmental and genetic influences, or reverse causality. Therefore, we investigated whether social support has a unique environmentally mediated effect on adolescent psychotic experiences after accounting for familial factors, including genetic factors, and also prior psychopathology.
Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 UK-born twins. Adolescents were interviewed at age 18 about psychotic experiences and victimisation exposure since age 12, and their perceptions of social support. Prior childhood mental health problems and psychotic symptoms were assessed at age 12. The discordant twin method was used to disentangle the relative family-wide and unique-environmental effects of social support on psychotic experiences in the general population and among poly-victimised adolescents.
Perceived social support, particularly from friends, was found to have a unique environmentally mediated buffering effect on adolescent psychotic experiences in the whole sample and in the high-risk poly-victimised group.
The protective effects of social support on adolescent psychotic experiences cannot be accounted for by shared environmental or genetic factors, nor by earlier psychopathology. Our findings suggest that early intervention programmes focused on increasing perceptions of social support have the potential to prevent the emergence of psychotic experiences amongst adolescents.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
This article reviews the Southern Illinois Twins/Triplets and Siblings Study (SITSS) and describes some of the findings related to recent projects that were completed using this sample. At this time, the SITSS has enrolled 375 twin pairs, 12 triplet families, 1 family of quadruplets, 98 nontwin sibling pairs and 287 singletons. Testing begins for twins and triplets as young as age 1 and then occurs yearly on their birthdays until 5 years of age. Through age 20, various follow-up studies have been conducted on the SITSS sample to examine their social, emotional, and cognitive development across childhood and adolescence from a behavioral genetic perspective. A variety of methodologies have been used to investigate gene–environment correlations (rGE) and gene–environment interactions (GxE). Advanced statistical procedures (e.g., genetic likelihood indices and multilevel modeling) have been utilized to further investigate genetic underpinnings of behavior. Recent results have indicated genetic influences on the aggressiveness of preschoolers’ media preferences, increased problem behaviors related to young children’s overestimation of self-competence, and the influence of early life temperament and internalizing problems on adolescent health behaviors. Additionally, the SITSS has provided evidence for evocative rGE for various behaviors (aggression, prosocial and play), as well as findings supporting interactions between the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) and the environment (peer victimization, prenatal birth complications and parental sensitivity). Together, by use of multitrait and multimethodological investigations, this behavior genetic data set assists in furthering our understanding of biological and environmental influences on children’s development.
Background: Cervical sponylotic myelopathy (CSM) may present with neck and arm pain. This study investiagtes the change in neck/arm pain post-operatively in CSM. Methods: This ambispective study llocated 402 patients through the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network. Outcome measures were the visual analogue scales for neck and arm pain (VAS-NP and VAS-AP) and the neck disability index (NDI). The thresholds for minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were determined to be 2.6 and 4.1. Results: VAS-NP improved from mean of 5.6±2.9 to 3.8±2.7 at 12 months (P<0.001). VAS-AP improved from 5.8±2.9 to 3.5±3.0 at 12 months (P<0.001). The MCIDs for VAS-NP and VAS-AP were also reached at 12 months. Based on the NDI, patients were grouped into those with mild pain/no pain (33%) versus moderate/severe pain (67%). At 3 months, a significantly high proportion of patients with moderate/severe pain (45.8%) demonstrated an improvement into mild/no pain, whereas 27.2% with mild/no pain demonstrated worsening into moderate/severe pain (P <0.001). At 12 months, 17.4% with mild/no pain experienced worsening of their NDI (P<0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that neck and arm pain responds to surgical decompression in patients with CSM and reaches the MCIDs for VAS-AP and VAS-NP at 12 months.
Background: Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is a partial opioid agonist/antagonist and recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Emergency departments (EDs) are a key point of contact with the healthcare system for patients living with OUD. Aim Statement: We implemented a multi-disciplinary quality improvement project to screen patients for OUD, initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals, and provide rapid next business day walk-in referrals to addiction clinics in the community. Measures & Design: From May to September 2018, our team worked with three ED sites and three addiction clinics to pilot the program. Implementation involved alignment with regulatory requirements, physician education, coordination with pharmacy to ensure in-ED medication access, and nurse education. The project is supported by a full-time project manager, data analyst, operations leaders, physician champions, provincial pharmacy, and the Emergency Strategic Clinical Network leadership team. For our pilot, our evaluation objective was to determine the degree to which our initiation and referral pathway was being utilized. We used administrative data to track the number of patients given bup/nal in ED, their demographics and whether they continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their ED visit. Addiction clinics reported both the number of patients referred to them and the number of patients attending their referral. Evaluation/Results: Administrative data shows 568 opioid-related visits to ED pilot sites during the pilot phase. Bup/nal was given to 60 unique patients in the ED during 66 unique visits. There were 32 (53%) male patients and 28 (47%) female patients. Median patient age was 34 (range: 21 to 79). ED visits where bup/nal was given had a median length of stay of 6 hours 57 minutes (IQR: 6 hours 20 minutes) and Canadian Triage Acuity Scores as follows: Level 1 – 1 (2%), Level 2 – 21 (32%), Level 3 – 32 (48%), Level 4 – 11 (17%), Level 5 – 1 (2%). 51 (77%) of these visits led to discharge. 24 (47%) discharged patients given bup/nal in ED continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their index ED visit. EDs also referred 37 patients with OUD to the 3 community clinics, and 16 of those individuals (43%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Discussion/Impact: Our pilot project demonstrates that with dedicated resources and broad institutional support, ED patients with OUD can be appropriately initiated on bup/nal and referred to community care.
Detailed x-ray double-axis rocking-curve analysis has been made of a series of silicon wafers, polished using various colloidal silicas with a number of different conditions. Significant differences, attributable to the polishing conditions, were observed in the tails of the rocking curves, using a four-reflection, non-dispersive beam conditioner. These have been compared with theoretical simulations in order to deduce the strain profile near the surface.
The current mixed-methods study explored qualitative accounts of prior childhood experiences and current contextual factors around family meals across three quantitatively informed categories of family meal frequency patterns from adolescence to parenthood: (i) ‘maintainers’ of family meals across generations; (ii) ‘starters’ of family meals in the next generation; and (iii) ‘inconsistent’ family meal patterns across generations.
Quantitative survey data collected as part of the first (1998–1999) and fourth (2015–2016) waves of the longitudinal Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults) study and qualitative interviews conducted with a subset (n 40) of Project EAT parent participants in 2016–2017.
Surveys were completed in school (Wave 1) and online (Wave 4); qualitative interviews were completed in-person or over the telephone.
Parents of children of pre-school age (n 40) who had also completed Project EAT surveys at Wave 1 and Wave 4.
Findings revealed salient variation within each overarching theme around family meal influences (‘early childhood experiences’, ‘influence of partner’, ‘household skills’ and ‘family priorities’) across the three intergenerational family meal patterns, in which ‘maintainers’ had numerous influences that supported the practice of family meals; ‘starters’ experienced some supports and some challenges; and ‘inconsistents’ experienced many barriers to making family meals a regular practice.
Family meal interventions should address differences in cooking and planning skills, aim to reach all adults in the home, and seek to help parents who did not eat family meals as a child develop an understanding of how and why they might start this tradition with their family.
Lapierre et al. (2018) provide a compelling set of reasons why conducting research in organizational settings should include investing time and energy to foster and promote enhanced relationships with organizational stakeholders. We agree that managing research partnerships carefully is paramount to creating the conditions necessary to implement rigorous methodology and collect the data needed to test theory-based hypotheses. However, we believe that Lapierre et al.’s argument should be taken further.
Care of children affected by AIDS in Swaziland is predominately provided by families, with support from ‘community-based responses’. This approach is consistent with United Nations International Children’s Fund’s (UNICEF) framework for the protection, care and support of children affected by AIDS. However, the framework relies heavily on voluntary caregiving which is highly gendered. It pays limited attention to caregivers’ well-being or sustainable community development which enables more effective caregiving. As a result, the framework is incompatible with the social justice principles of primary health care, and the sustainable development goals (SDGs).
Our aim was to examine the effects and gender dimensions of providing voluntary, community-based, care-related labour for children affected by AIDS.
We conducted multiple-methods research involving an ethnography and participatory health research, in a rural Swazi community. We analysed data related to community-based responses using an abductive, mixed-methods technique, informed by the capabilities approach to human development and a gender analysis framework.
Two community-based responses, ‘neighbourhood care points’ (facilities that provide children meals) and the ‘lihlombe lekukhalela’ (child protector) program were being implemented. The unpaid women workers at neighbourhood care points reported working in challenging conditions (eg, lacking labour-saving technologies), insufficient and diminishing material support (eg, no food), and receiving limited support from the broader community. Child protectors indicated their effectiveness was limited by lack of social power, relative to the perpetrators of child abuse. The results indicate that support for community-based responses will be enhanced by acknowledging and addressing the highly gendered nature of care-related labour and social power, and that increasing access to material resources including food, caregiver stipends and labour-saving technologies, is essential. These strategies will simultaneously contribute to the social and economic development of communities central to primary health care, and achieving the poverty, hunger, gender and work-related SDGs.
Children of parents with major mood and psychotic disorders are at increased risk of psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms. It has been suggested that the risk of psychosis may be more often transmitted from parent to opposite-sex offspring (e.g., from father to daughter) than to same-sex offspring (e.g., from father to son). To test whether sex-specific transmission extends to early manifestations of psychosis, we examined sex-specific contributions to psychotic symptoms among offspring of mothers and fathers with depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We assessed psychotic symptoms in 309 offspring (160 daughters and 149 sons) aged 8–24 years (mean=13.1, s.d.=4.3), of whom 113 had a mother with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depression and 43 had a father with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depression. In semi-structured interviews, 130 (42%) offspring had definite psychotic symptoms established and confirmed by psychiatrists on one or more assessments. We tested the effects of mental illness in parents on same-sex and opposite-sex offspring psychotic symptoms in mixed-effect logistic regression models. Psychotic symptoms were more prevalent among daughters of affected fathers and sons of affected mothers than among offspring of the same sex as their affected parent. Mental illness in the opposite-sex parent increased the odds of psychotic symptoms (odds ratio (OR)=2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–4.91, P=0.002), but mental illness in the same-sex parent did not have a significant effect on psychotic symptoms in offspring (OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.61–2.07, P=0.697). The opposite-sex-specific parent-of-origin effects may suggest X chromosome-linked genetic transmission or inherited chromosomal modifications in the etiology of psychotic symptoms.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
Although childhood adversity is a potent determinant of psychopathology, relatively little is known about how the characteristics of adversity exposure, including its developmental timing or duration, influence subsequent mental health outcomes. This study compared three models from life course theory (recency, accumulation, sensitive period) to determine which one(s) best explained this relationship.
Prospective data came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7476). Four adversities commonly linked to psychopathology (caregiver physical/emotional abuse; sexual/physical abuse; financial stress; parent legal problems) were measured repeatedly from birth to age 8. Using a statistical modeling approach grounded in least angle regression, we determined the theoretical model(s) explaining the most variability (r2) in psychopathology symptoms measured at age 8 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and evaluated the magnitude of each association.
Recency was the best fitting theoretical model for the effect of physical/sexual abuse (girls r2 = 2.35%; boys r2 = 1.68%). Both recency (girls r2 = 1.55%) and accumulation (boys r2 = 1.71%) were the best fitting models for caregiver physical/emotional abuse. Sensitive period models were chosen alone (parent legal problems in boys r2 = 0.29%) and with accumulation (financial stress in girls r2 = 3.08%) more rarely. Substantial effect sizes were observed (standardized mean differences = 0.22–1.18).
Child psychopathology symptoms are primarily explained by recency and accumulation models. Evidence for sensitive periods did not emerge strongly in these data. These findings underscore the need to measure the characteristics of adversity, which can aid in understanding disease mechanisms and determining how best to reduce the consequences of exposure to adversity.
Southern California has experienced widespread amphibian declines since the 1960s. One species, the Vulnerable California red-legged frog Rana draytonii, is now considered to be extirpated from most of southern California. In February 2017 a population of R. draytonii was discovered in the southern foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains of Riverside County, California, near the edge of the species’ historical distribution. This population belongs to an mtDNA lineage that was presumed to be extirpated within the USA but is still extant in Baja California, Mexico. This discovery increases the potential for future, evolutionarily informed translocations within the southern portion of this species’ range in California.
Muscularity of lamb carcasses, which is defined as the depth of muscle relative to dimensions of the skeleton (De Boer et al., 1974), is a commercially important trait in many countries. An objective index of muscularity was defined by Purchas et al. (1991) based on the weights of the muscles around a bone and the bone length. Jones et al. (2002) proposed an objective index to assess in vivo the shape of the muscle in the hind leg using X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), which had a phenotypic correlation of 0.63 with dissection measures of muscularity, as described by Purchas et al. (1991).
Perennial ryegrass varieties bred to express high water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations have been shown to improve liveweight gain in pre-weaned lambs of grazing ewes (Lee et al., 2001) compared to conventional ryegrass. Studies have shown that the largest differential in WSC between ryegrass varieties bred for high WSC concentrations and control ryegrasses occurs 5-6 weeks after the plant is allowed to re-grow following cutting or grazing (Miller et al., 2001). Therefore, the benefits, in terms of lamb performance, of using these grasses with high WSC concentrations may be best achieved when they are rotationally rather than continuously grazed. The aim of this experiment was to compare lambs rotationally or continuously grazing either a ryegrass variety bred for high WSC concentrations or a control ryegrass.