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Three mirrors of the White Cliffs Solar Power Station are currently being used for very high energy γ-ray Astronomy while the University of Adelaide very high energy γ-ray telescope is being designed. Use is made of fast-timing to obtain γ-ray arrival directions to an accuracy approaching 1 °. The experimental arrangement and operation of the telescope is described and our current observing program is outlined.
This paper provides a new explanation for why closed-end bond funds coexist along with otherwise identical open-end bond funds. Closed-end bond funds offer investors the opportunity to leverage their fixed income investment at very low borrowing rates and are attractive to investors for this reason. We find that differences in leverage are reflected in the discount on closed-end bond funds in a manner consistent with the advantage of leverage.
In this paper we show that selecting mutual funds using alpha computed from a fund’s holdings and security betas produces better future alphas than selecting funds using alpha computed from a time-series regression on fund returns. This is true whether future alphas are computed using holdings and security betas or a time-series regression on fund returns. Furthermore, we show that the more frequently the holdings data are available, the greater the benefit. This has major implications for the Securities and Exchange Commission’s recent ruling on the frequency of holdings disclosure and the information plan sponsors should collect from portfolio managers. We also explore the effect of conditioning betas on macroeconomic variables as suggested by Ferson and Schadt (1996) to identify superior-performing mutual funds as well as the alternative way of employing holdings data proposed by Grinblatt and Titman (1993).
We investigated the effect of social inequalities on the uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, combining data from a feasibility study conducted in 2007–2008 in 2817 secondary schoolgirls in two UK primary-care trusts, with census and child health records. Uptake was significantly lower in more deprived areas (P<0·001) and in ethnic minority girls (P=0·013). The relatively small proportion of parents who actively refused vaccination by returning a negative consent form were more likely to come from more advantaged areas (P<0·001). Non-responding parents were from more deprived (P<0·001) and ethnic minority (P=0·001) backgrounds. Girls who did not receive HPV vaccination were less likely to have received all their childhood immunizations particularly measles, mumps and rubella (MMR). Different approaches may be needed to maximize HPV vaccine uptake in engaged and non-responding parents, including ethnic-specific approaches for non-responders.
It has been suggested that individuals might be more readily colonized with bacteria that cause meningitis through enhanced binding of the bacteria to virusinfected epithelial cells. As respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) affects infants and children in the age group also susceptible to bacterial meningitis, we tested the hypothesis that infection of HEp-2 cells by RSV might enhance binding of Neisseria meningitidis or Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Attachment of fluorescein-labelled bacteria to HEp-2 cells was measured by flow cytometry, and RSV-infected cells bound significantly more meningococci (P < 0·001) and Hib (P < 0·01) than uninfected cells. Although the isolates expressed different antigenic characteristics (3 meningococci and 5 Hib), all showed a similar pattern of binding. The results are discussed with reference to the methods used for detection of bacterial binding and to interactions that might explain the increased binding to RSV-infected cells.
Non-secretors of ABO blood group antigens are over-represented among patients with meningococcal diseases. Lower levels of secretory IgA reported for non-secretors have been suggested to compromise mucosal defences. Total serum and salivary IgG, IgA and IgM and levels of these isotypes specific for Neisseria lactamica and five isolates of meningococci were determined by ELISA for 357 pupils and staff of a secondary school in which an outbreak of meningitis occurred. There were no differences in total or specific levels of serum IgG, IgA or IgM or salivary IgG or IgA of secretors compared with non-secretors. Non-secretors had significantly lower levels of salivary IgM (P=0·022) A similar pattern was observed for levels of IgM specific for N. lactamica and five meningococcal isolates. The significance of these results is discussed with reference to the role of secretory IgM in protection of mucosal surfaces in infants.
Greek military recruits (993) were examined for carriage of meningococci during July 1990. Blood, saliva and throat swab specimens were obtained and each recruit answered a questionnaire providing information on age, education (a measure of socioeconomic level), place of residence, smoking habits and recent infections.
The overall carriage rate was 25% but differed between the two camps: 79/432 (18%) in Camp A and 168/561 (30%) in Camp B (P < 0·0005). In Camp B, there were significantly higher proportions of recruits who were non-secretors (P < 0·0005), and/or heavy smokers (P < 0·0005). They were also younger ( < 19 years old) (P < 0·001), and on the whole had fewer years of education (P < 0·0005). By univariate analysis, carriage was significantly associated with smoking. By multiple logistic regression analysis, carriage was associated with smoking (P < 0·001), age (P < 0·01) and the camp in which the recruits were based (P < 0·01). Among recruits in Camp B, 15/38 (40%) of those with recent viral infections were carriers compared with 30% for the camp in general.
Non-diabetic individuals who are non-secretors of blood group antigens are prone to superficial infections by Candida albicans. In this study, 216 patients with diabetes mellitus who were denture wearers were examined for the presence or absence of denture stomatitis. There was an overall trend for non-secretors to be prone to denture stomatitis compared with secretors. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis was used to dissect the contribution of secretor status and other variables to the development of the disease. Secretor status was found to be a contributory factor among patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes but not among those with insulin-dependent diabetes. The possible reasons for this are discussed.
Toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus have been suggested to play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In this study we examined two factors that might enhance binding of toxigenic staphylococci to epithelial cells of infants in the age range in which cot deaths are prevalent: expression of the Lewisa antigen and infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). By flow cytometry we demonstrated that binding of three toxigenic strains of S. aureus to cells from non-secretors was significantly greater than to cells of secretors. Pre-treatment of epithelial cells with monoclonal anti-Lewisa or anti-type-1 precursor significantly reduced bacterial binding (P < 0·01); however, attachment of the bacteria correlated only with the amount of Lewisa antigen detected on the cells (P < 0·01). HEp-2 cells infected with RSV bound significantly more bacteria than uninfected cells. These findings are discussed in context of factors previously associated with SIDS (mother's smoking, bottle feeding and the prone sleeping position) and a hypothesis proposed to explain some cases of SIDS.
Background. Patients with schizophrenia have an impaired ability to generate activity that is appropriate to current circumstances and goals.
Method. We report a study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine cerebral activity during a three-tone auditory oddball target detection task in a sample of 28 patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy controls.
Results. The patients exhibited significantly less activation in response to target stimuli relative to baseline in an extensive set of sites in association neocortex, paralimbic cortex, limbic structures and subcortical nuclei, yet demonstrated a normal level of activation in the sensorimotor cortex. Comparison of activity elicited by rare target stimuli with that elicited by equally rare novel stimuli makes it possible to distinguish cerebral activity associated with attention to behaviourally salient stimuli from activity associated with attending to other attention-capturing stimuli. This comparison revealed that the patients with schizophrenia also exhibited a deficit in activation of basal forebrain areas that mediate motivation during the processing of behaviourally salient stimuli, including the amygdala, ventral striatum, orbital frontal cortex and rostral anterior cingulate cortex.
Conclusion. Patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in function of the brain system concerned with mediating motivation, in addition to a more general deficit in the cerebral response to attention-captivating stimuli.
Many people take dietary supplements, but information on characteristics associated with their use is lacking. The relationship between lifestyle behaviours, morbidity and use of dietary supplements has not been examined and earlier studies have limited applicability to a general population. These issues were addressed in the current study. Information was obtained by postal questionnaire sent to a sample of the general population. The questionnaire was completed by 70·5% of the sample (15465 from a total sample of 21923), with at least one-third (35·5%) taking dietary supplements. In adjusted analyses, supplement users were more likely to be women, white, home-owners, non-smokers and physically active. Use of vitamin, mineral and/or antioxidant supplements was associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, and taking fish-oil supplements was associated with eating oil-rich fish. A history of CVD or risk factors for CVD reduced the risk of taking vitamins, minerals and/or antioxidants or fish-oil supplements. Those reporting musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis were more likely to take fish-oil supplements For the first time, we have shown that dietary supplement use is related to different types of morbidity. In particular, people at risk of primary or secondary CVD seem less likely to use dietary supplements, despite possible benefits shown in clinical trials. Public health organisations need to develop guidelines for the public and health professionals regarding the uncontrolled use of dietary supplements in the community.
We report a technique for the formation of infiltrated and inverse opal structures that produces high quality, low porosity conformal material structures. ZnS:Mn and TiO2 were deposited within the void space of an opal lattice by atomic layer deposition. The resulting structures were etched with HF to remove the silica opal template. Infiltrated and inverse opals were characterized by SEM, XRD, and transmission/reflection spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra exhibited features corresponding to strong low and high order photonic band gaps in the (111) direction (γ-L). In addition, deliberate partial infiltrations and multi-layered inverse opals have been formed. The effectiveness of a post-deposition heat treatment for converting TiO2 films to rutile was also studied.
The relationship between ponderal, linear and lower leg growth in children recovering from severe malnutrition remains unclear. We report on the early growth of 141 severely malnourished Bangladeshi children aged 6 to 36 months of age who were followed for 90 d. Mean (SD) weight for height (WHZ) and height for age (HAZ) catch-up growth Z scores over the 90 d were 1.6 (0.85) and 0.47 (0.325) respectively. mean (SD) lower leg length growth was 10.35 (4.5) mm. Change in HAZ was significantly associated with initial WHZ, but linear growth occurred in the presence of severe wasting and no threshold WHZ score was identified. Lower leg length gain correlated throughout with ponderal indices but with change in HAZ score only after day 45. Only initial WHZ score and maternal height predicted for linear growth and only accounted for 20 % of total variance. We conclude that linear growth occurs early in severely malnourished children but that knemometry behaves as a ponderal index acutely.
The turmoil in the universities in the later 1960s produced, among other things, an addiction to so-called minority history – history seen through the eyes of minority groups and rewritten to suit their supposed needs and interests. Of the specialities then introduced only women's history has survived as a serious academic preoccupation. Neither gays' nor blacks' history, for instance, ever settled into a regular part of the curriculum, whereas women's history has become an accepted feature in many American institutions and in publishers' lists. Nor is this surprising. Women, after all, are the only human minority that forms a majority of the population, and – however fiercely feminists may deny this –they started from a position of power not available to other groups. The men whose supposed distortion of history they attacked could hardly avoid frequent contact with them. Moreover, men (especially American men) had for long regarded women as a sex with a mixture of respect and apprehension which reflected their understanding of female power and induced them to accept the often unrestrained criticism hurled at them. The common reaction of the liberal mind is to feel guilty when accused, and most historians, especially in the United States, are of a liberal mind. Women's history also benefited from the contemporaneous and powerful swing towards social history, as it is called – the somewhat static study of social groupings in the past and their relationships to one another. Thus women's history had little difficulty in achieving academic recognition.
The combination of passionate assault and conscience-stricken response produced, predictably, a state of affairs in which women's history has received little serious criticism.
Zunächst muβ man definieren, denn beide BegrifFe – Renaissance und Reformation – sind in der englischen Geschichte nicht eindeutig. Handelt es sich bei der Reformation ursprünglich um den Bruch mit dem Papst unter Heinrich VIII. oder um die vorübergehende Einführung des Protestantismus unter Eduard VI. oder um die scheinbar endgültige Bekehrung zum Protestantismus von 1559? Ein paar Historiker behaupten sogar, der Protestantismus habe selbst in der zweiten Hälfte des 16. Jahrhunderts noch keinen sicheren Sieg erreicht: Erst durch den Bürgerkrieg im folgenden Jahrhundert sei sein Fortdauern garantiert worden. Diese Ansicht halte ich für etwas bedenklich, obwohl gewiß die Weiterentwicklung der englischen Kirche nach 1559 neue Probleme im Verhältnis zur Renaissance aufwarf. Nur die Königin Elisabeth blieb bei der Ansicht, die Supremats- und Uniformitätsakte ihres ersten Parlaments hätten die Umwälzung beendet. Heute betont man (m. E. zu einseitig) den langsamen und mehrfach unterbrochenen Fortschritt des Protestantismus im Volke. Jedenfalls ist es klar, daß man nicht von einer einzigen Reformation reden kann, die sich in direkter Linie von der Ausschaltung des Papstes zur calvinistischen Kirche der 90er Jahre entwickelte. Dazu kommt noch die Einsicht der jüngsten Forschung, die den nicht unwichtigen Einfluß der einheimischen, vorlutherischen Häresie der Lollarden wiederentdeckt hat. Man muß also drei separate Stadien bis zum Triumph der Reformation berßcksichtigen und danach auch die weitere Geschichte der Kirche bis zur Restauration der Monarchic im Jahre 1660, die in der Entwicklung des englischen Protestantismus eine wahre Zäsur darstellt.
Henry VII, the son of Edmund earl of Richmond and the Lady Margaret Beaufort, a few weeks ago and 500 years before that won the battle of Bosworth (on 22 August 1485) and thereby won the crown of England; he then settled down to become king of England. He was twenty-eight years old when he won the crown, and he had twenty-four more years during which he held it. Thus his victory at Bosworth, which was a narrow thing, came effectively halfway through his life. For half his life he worked towards the crown, for much of the time not aware that he was doing so; for half his life he held it and became, in the opinion of many, a new king, a man who really set about making kingship into an effective force again in England.
In the first place I should like to see what Henry VII did to make himself king–what sort of kingship he ran and what inheritance he left to his successor. Henry became king at the end of a muddle of civil wars and disputes which had been going on for the best part of a hundred years, and he had first of all to restore the repute and honour to that position. His predecessors, the Yorkist kings Edward IV and Richard III, had very nearly achieved this but had then fallen short of accomplishing it. Henry therefore had to build up on past memory, a memory which by this time was well out of date, so as to revive the notion that the king of England was the ruler of England, to be obeyed and respected and to provide continuity, peace, order and law.
The English people early acquired a high degree of national selfconsciousness – if by this term we mean an awareness of their own identity and their difference from other nations. Geography helped, in two quite different ways which on the face of it one might have thought contradictory. The boundaries of an island identified themselves with a precision that was lacking in the rest of Europe – a part of the medieval world in which apparent frontiers served rather to mingle the members of adjacent kingdoms and separate them from their own hinterlands, creating a dark area of marches in which national self-identification retreated before a common consciousness resting on a difference shared along the border. In England, the fact that there existed one such march right into the sixteenth century happened to increase the national feelings of the people. The march against Scotland displayed many of the characteristics of such frontier belts as they were found, for instance, in the Iberian peninsula (Moors and Christians confronting each other but growing like each other in the course of time), or along the eastern edge of the Holy Roman Empire. Along the Anglo–Scottish border, too, a broad strip of territory extending south and north stood apart from both England and Scotland away from the march; and here also common experience and private relations across the supposed divide brought into existence a marcher people of both English and Scots who were more clearly marked by these experiences and relations than by their supposed English and Scottish nationhoods. Yet on the English side at least the fact of Englishness was also never forgotten.