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We assessed whether paternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical factors influence the risk of an infant being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA). We examined the data on 3659 fathers of term offspring (including 662 LGA infants) born to primiparous women from Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). LGA was defined as birth weight >90th centile as per INTERGROWTH 21st standards, with reference group being infants ⩽90th centile. Associations between paternal factors and likelihood of an LGA infant were examined using univariable and multivariable models. Men who fathered LGA babies were 180 g heavier at birth (P<0.001) and were more likely to have been born macrosomic (P<0.001) than those whose infants were not LGA. Fathers of LGA infants were 2.1 cm taller (P<0.001), 2.8 kg heavier (P<0.001) and had similar body mass index (BMI). In multivariable models, increasing paternal birth weight and height were independently associated with greater odds of having an LGA infant, irrespective of maternal factors. One unit increase in paternal BMI was associated with 2.9% greater odds of having an LGA boy but not girl; however, this association disappeared after adjustment for maternal BMI. There were no associations between paternal demographic factors or clinical history and infant LGA. In conclusion, fathers who were heavier at birth and were taller were more likely to have an LGA infant, but maternal BMI had a dominant influence on LGA.
Psychiatric patients are at increased risk to become victim of violence. It remains unknown whether subjects of the general population with mental disorders are at risk of victimisation as well. In addition, it remains unclear whether the risk of victimisation differs across specific disorders. This study aimed to determine whether a broad range of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders at baseline predict adult violent (physical and/or sexual) and psychological victimisation at 3-year follow-up, also after adjustment for childhood trauma. Furthermore, this study aimed to examine whether specific types of childhood trauma predict violent and psychological victimisation at follow-up, after adjustment for mental disorder. Finally, this study aimed to examine whether the co-occurrence of childhood trauma and any baseline mental disorder leads to an incrementally increased risk of future victimisation.
Data were derived from the first two waves of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2): a psychiatric epidemiological cohort study among a nationally representative adult population. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Longitudinal associations between 12 mental disorders at baseline and violent and psychological victimisation at 3-year follow-up (n = 5303) were studied using logistic regression analyses, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and childhood trauma. Furthermore, the moderating effect of childhood trauma on these associations was examined.
Associations with victimisation varied considerably across specific mental disorders. Only alcohol dependence predicted both violent and psychological victimisation after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and childhood trauma. Depression, panic disorder, social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence predicted subsequent psychological victimisation in the fully adjusted models. All types of childhood trauma independently predicted violent and psychological victimisation after adjustment for any mental disorder. The presence of any childhood trauma moderated the association between any anxiety disorder and psychological victimisation, whereas no interaction between mental disorder and childhood trauma on violent victimisation existed.
The current study shows that members of the general population with mental disorders are at increased risk of future victimisation. However, the associations with violent and psychological victimisation vary considerably across specific disorders. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of violent and psychological victimisation in individuals with these mental disorders – especially those with alcohol dependence – and individuals with a history of childhood trauma. Violence prevention programmes should be developed for people at risk. These programmes should not only address violent victimisation, but also psychological victimisation.
This study used a single case experimental design to investigate the use of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) among a sample of individuals with depression and anxiety who also presented with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Eight women received individual treatment with the UP over the course of 14–16 treatment sessions, and were assessed for anxiety and depression severity on a weekly basis over a 2–6 week baseline period and throughout treatment. Three of the eight participants demonstrated reliable pre- to post-treatment clinical improvements on depression and stress scales, and one participant demonstrated a reliable reduction on an anxiety scale. Two participants demonstrated a reliable improvement in overall anxiety. The results indicate that the UP applied to individuals diagnosed with primary BPD may lead to clinical improvement in depression, stress and anxiety for some individuals. However, the majority of individuals with BPD in our sample did not show strong improvement, and this suggests the need for additional sessions of UP or an intervention that focuses on the symptoms of BPD specifically for some women.
Key learning aims
(1)To describe the applicability of the Unified Protocol in the treatment of individuals with borderline personality and co-occurring anxiety or depression.
(2)To understand the value of utilizing a transdiagnostic approach as an alternative to diagnosis-specific approaches to treatment.
(3)To identify the four core modules of the Unified Protocol and describe the general format for individual treatment.
Several authors claimed that expression of suicidal ideation is one of the most important predictors of completed suicide. However, the strength of the association between suicidal ideation and subsequent completed suicide has not been firmly established in different populations. Furthermore, the absolute suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation is unknown. In this meta-analysis, we examined whether the expression of suicidal ideation predicted subsequent completed suicide in various populations, including both psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations.
A meta-analysis of cohort and case–control studies that assessed suicidal ideation as determinant for completed suicide in adults. Two independent reviewers screened 5726 articles for eligibility and extracted data of the 81 included studies. Pooled risk ratios were estimated in a random effects model stratified for different populations. Meta-regression analysis was used to determine suicide risk during the first year of follow-up.
The risk for completed suicide was clearly higher in people who had expressed suicidal ideation compared with people who had not, with substantial variation between the different populations: risk ratio ranging from 2.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.87) in affective disorder populations to 8.00 (95% CI 5.46–11.7) in non-psychiatric populations. In contrast, the suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation in the first year of follow-up was higher in psychiatric patients (risk 1.40%, 95% CI 0.74–2.64) than in non-psychiatric participants (risk 0.23%, 95% CI 0.10–0.54). Past suicide attempt-adjusted risk ratios were not pooled due to large underreporting.
Assessment of suicidal ideation is of priority in psychiatric patients. Expression of suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients should prompt secondary prevention strategies to reduce their substantial increased risk of suicide.
Fatigue life is a random variable. Thus, the reliability of a conservative fatigue life prediction for a component in the helicopter dynamic system needs to be substantiated. A standard analytical substantiation method uses averaged manoeuvre loads instead of seeing manoeuvre loads as a random variable whose distribution is estimated with limited precision. This simplification may lead to inaccuracies. A new simulation-based method is developed to conservatively predict fatigue life, while also accounting for the full random distribution and uncertainty of manoeuvre loads. Both methods fully account for uncertain fatigue strength but assume that the mission profile is known or can at least be conservatively estimated. Simulations under synthetic but realistic engineering conditions demonstrate that both methods may be used for accurate substantiation of conservative fatigue life predictions. The simulations also demonstrate that, under the tested conditions, uncertainties from manoeuvre loads may be neglected in fatigue life substantiations as the resulting error is not significant with respect to uncertainties in component fatigue strength.
Patients with a severe mental illness (SMI) are more likely to experience
victimisation than the general population.
To examine the prevalence of victimisation in people with SMI, and the
relationship between symptoms, treatment facility and indices of
substance use/misuse and perpetration, in comparison with the general
Victimisation was assessed among both randomly selected patients with SMI
(n = 216) and the general population
Compared with the general population, a high prevalence of violent
victimisation was found among the SMI group (22.7% v.
8.5%). Compared with out-patients and patients in a sheltered housing
facility, in-patients were most often victimised (violent crimes: 35.3%;
property crimes: 47.1%). Risk factors among the SMI group for violent
victimisation included young age and disorganisation, and risk factors
for property crimes included being an in-patient, disorganisation and
cannabis use. The SMI group were most often assaulted by someone they
Caregivers should be aware that patients with SMI are at risk of violent
victimisation. Interventions need to be developed to reduce this
Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is an important technology to analyse gene expression levels during plant development or in response to different treatments. An important requirement to measure gene expression levels accurately is a properly validated set of reference genes. In this context, we analysed the potential use of 17 candidate reference genes across a diverse set of samples, including several tissues, different stages and environmental conditions, encompassing seed germination and seedling growth in Ricinus communis L. These genes were tested by RT-qPCR and ranked according to the stability of their expression using two different approaches: GeNorm and NormFinder. GeNorm and Normfinder indicated that ACT, POB and PP2AA1 comprise the optimal combination for normalization of gene expression data in inter-tissue (heterogeneous sample panel) studies. We also describe the optimal combination of reference genes for a subset of root, endosperm and cotyledon samples. In general, the most stable genes suggested by GeNorm are very consistent with those indicated by NormFinder, which highlights the strength of the selection of reference genes in our study. We also validated the selected reference genes by normalizing the expression levels of three target genes involved in energy metabolism with the reference genes suggested by GeNorm and NormFinder. The approach used in this study to identify stably expressed genes, and thus potential reference genes, was applied successfully for R. communis and it provides important guidelines for RT-qPCR studies in seeds and seedlings for other species (especially in those cases where extensive microarray data are not available).
The effect of prenatal distress on the risk of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant is uncertain. We have addressed the influences of prenatal stress, anxiety and depression on the risk of SGA. We also examined the effects of infant sex and timing of distress during pregnancy on any observed associations.
The study population comprised 5606 healthy nulliparous pregnant women who participated in the international prospective Screening for Obstetric and Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Women completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the short form of the Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 15 ± 1 and 20 ± 1 weeks' gestation. SGA was defined as birthweight below the 10th customized percentile. Logistic regression was used for data analysis, adjusting for several potential confounders such as maternal age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, socio-economic status and physical exercise.
The risk of SGA was increased in relation to mild [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–1.71], moderate (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06–1.49), high (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08–1.95) and very high stress scores (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03–2.37); very high anxiety score (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.13–1.86); and very high depression score (aOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05–1.24) at 20 ± 1 weeks' gestation. Sensitivity analyses showed that very high anxiety and very high depression increases the risk of SGA in males but not in females whereas stress increases the risk of SGA in both males and females.
These findings suggest that prenatal stress, anxiety and depression measured at 20 weeks' gestation increase the risk of SGA. The effects of maternal anxiety and depression on SGA were strongest in male infants.
Endothelial dysfunction (ED), low-grade inflammation (LGI) and oxidative stress (OxS) may be involved in the pathobiology of depression. Previous studies on the association of these processes in depression have yielded contradictory results. We therefore investigated comprehensively, in a population-based cohort study, the association between ED, LGI and OxS on the one hand and depressive symptoms on the other.
We used data from the Hoorn Study and determined biomarkers of ED [flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), von Willebrand factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, soluble thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial selectin], LGI [C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, serum amyloid A, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and sICAM-1] and OxS (oxidized low density lipoprotein and MPO). Depressive symptoms were quantified by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire (n = 493; age 68 years; 49.9% female). Regression analyses were performed with the use of biomarker Z scores. Adjustments were made for age, sex and glucose metabolism status (cohort stratification variables) and prior cardiovascular disease, hypertension, waist-to-hip ratio, cholesterol levels, education level, physical activity, dietary habits, and the use of antihypertensive and/or lipid-lowering medication and/or metformin (potential confounders).
After adjustment for age, sex and glucose metabolism status, one standard deviation increase in the ED Z score was associated with a 1.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–3.1] higher CES-D score. Additional adjustments did not materially change this result. LGI and OxS were not associated with the CES-D score.
ED, as quantified by an array of circulating biomarkers and FMD, was independently associated with depressive symptoms. This study supports the hypothesis that ED plays an important role in the pathobiology of depression.
Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age at onset of psychotic illness. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this association is confounded by gender or other substance use in a large cohort of patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder.
In 785 patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder, regression analysis was used to investigate the independent effects of gender, cannabis use and other drug use on age at onset of first psychosis.
Age at onset was 1.8 years earlier in cannabis users compared to non-users, controlling for gender and other possible confounders. Use of other drugs did not have an additional effect on age at onset when cannabis use was taken into account. In 63.5% of cannabis-using patients, age at most intense cannabis use preceded the age at onset of first psychosis. In males, the mean age at onset was 1.3 years lower than in females, controlling for cannabis use and other confounders.
Cannabis use and gender are independently associated with an earlier onset of psychotic illness. Our findings also suggest that cannabis use may precipitate psychosis. More research is needed to clarify the neurobiological factors that make people vulnerable to this precipitating effect of cannabis.
Cannabis use by people with schizophrenia has been found to be associated with family distress and poor clinical outcomes. Interventions to reduce drug use in this patient group have had limited efficacy. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a novel intervention for parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia consisting of family-based motivational interviewing and interaction skills (Family Motivational Intervention, FMI) in comparison with routine family support (RFS).
In a trial with 75 patients who used cannabis and received treatment for recent-onset schizophrenia, 97 parents were randomly assigned to either FMI (n=53) or RFS (n=44). Assessments were conducted at baseline and 3 months after completion of the family intervention by an investigator who remained blind throughout the study about the assignment of the parents.
At follow-up, patients' frequency and quantity of cannabis use was significantly more reduced in FMI than in RFS (p<0.05 and p<0.04 respectively). Patients' craving for cannabis was also significantly reduced in FMI whereas there was a small increase in RFS (p=0.01). There was no difference between FMI and RFS with regard to patients' other substance use and general level of functioning. Both groups showed significant improvements in parental distress and sense of burden.
Training parents in motivational interviewing and interaction skills is feasible and effective in reducing cannabis use among young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia. However, FMI was not more effective than RFS in increasing patients' general level of functioning and in reducing parents' stress and sense of burden.
This study tested the hypothesis that late weaning and the availability of creep feed during the suckling period compared with early weaning, improves feed intake, decreases stress and improves the integrity of the intestinal tract. In this study with 160 piglets of 16 litters, late weaning at 7 weeks of age was compared with early weaning at 4 weeks, with or without creep feeding during the suckling period, on post-weaning feed intake, plasma cortisol (as an indicator of stress) and plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP; a marker for mild intestinal injury) concentrations, intestinal morphology, intestinal (macro)molecular permeability and intestinal fluid absorption as indicators of small intestinal integrity. Post-weaning feed intake was similar in piglets weaned at 4 weeks and offered creep feed or not, but higher (P < 0.001) in piglets weaned at 7 weeks with a higher (P < 0.05) intake for piglets offered creep feed compared with piglets from whom creep feed was witheld. Plasma cortisol response at the day of weaning was lower in piglets weaned at 7 weeks compared with piglets weaned at 4 weeks, and creep feed did not affect cortisol concentration. Plasma I-FABP concentration was not affected by the age of weaning and creep feeding. Intestinal (macro)molecular permeability was not affected by the age of weaning and creep feeding. Both in uninfected and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-infected small intestinal segments net fluid absorption was not affected by the age of weaning or creep feeding. Creep feeding, but not the age of weaning, resulted in higher villi and increased crypt depth. In conclusion, weaning at 7 weeks of age in combination with creep feeding improves post-weaning feed intake and reduces weaning stress but does not improve functional characteristics of the small intestinal mucosa.
Cannabis use is common in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and this is associated with poor disease outcome. More insight in the cognitive-motivational processes related to cannabis use in schizophrenia may inform treatment strategies. The present study is the first known to compare implicit and explicit cannabis associations in individuals with and without psychotic disorder.
Participants consisted of 70 patients with recent-onset psychotic disorder and 61 healthy controls with various levels of cannabis use. Three Single-Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT) were used to assess ‘relaxed’, ‘active’ and ‘negative’ implicit associations towards cannabis use. Explicit expectancies of cannabis use were assessed with a questionnaire using the same words as the SC-IAT.
There were no differences in implicit associations between patients and controls; however, patients scored significantly higher on explicit negative affect expectancies than controls. Both groups demonstrated strong negative implicit associations towards cannabis use. Explicit relaxed expectancies were the strongest predictors of cannabis use and craving. There was a trend for implicit active associations to predict craving.
The findings indicate that patients suffering from schizophrenia have associations towards cannabis similar to controls, but they have stronger negative explicit cannabis associations. The strong negative implicit associations towards cannabis could imply that users of cannabis engage in a behaviour they do not implicitly like. Explicit relaxing expectancies of cannabis might be an important mediator in the continuation of cannabis use in patients and controls.
To gain insight into pertussis disease dynamics, we studied age-specific long-term periodicity and seasonality of pertussis in The Netherlands. Hierarchical time-series models were used to analyse the monthly reported pertussis incidence in January 1996–June 2006 by age group. The incidence of pertussis showed a slightly increasing long-term trend with highest incidence rates seen in 1996, 1999, 2001 and 2004. For all age groups the annual peak incidence was found in August, except for the 13–18 years age group where the peak occurred in November. Monthly trends in adults showed high correlation with trends in age groups 0–4 years (0·94) and 5–12 years (0·92). We found no evidence for a relationship between annual rises in pertussis and the opening of schools. Concurrent annual fluctuations of pertussis incidence in adults and infants suggest frequent transmission within and between these age groups. Studying trends offers insight into transmission dynamics and may facilitate decisions on future vaccination strategies.
Feeding regimens for horses are usually based on perceived workload (PW) together with body condition. This can lead to inappropriate energy intake and, in particular, excess weight. Therefore, a more detailed understanding of the factors influencing individual energy needs under practical field conditions would be valuable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate to what extent the variations in actual versus PW may influence the estimated energy intake required to maintain body weight (BW) in individual animals. Eight mature, experienced riding school horses, chosen at random and maintaining a constant BW, were observed in standard flat work lessons with four different instructors at an equine training college. Heart rate (HR) and the structure of the lessons were recorded. Relative workload (RW) was determined for each horse by dividing its average HR per lesson by its estimated maximum HR (HRmax). PW was estimated by each instructor for each horse using a scale of 1–5. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used to determine the differences and Spearman's and Pearson's correlations were used to determine the correlations. The mean estimated RW was 39.1% of the estimated HRmax ( ± 5.7%) and was not significantly different between instructors (P>0.05). Rider weight as a percentage of BW showed a weak but statistically significant positive correlation with mean HR (r2 = 0.14, P < 0.05). Estimated energy intake was negatively correlated with BCS (r2 = 0.65, P < 0.001) and differed significantly (P < 0.05) between light (BW = 455–532 kg) horses (mean 0.18 ± 0.04 MJ kg− 1 BW) and heavy (BW = 622–660 kg) horses (mean 0.15 ± 0.03 MJ kg− 1 BW). No difference was found in estimated energy intake between different workloads (flat work only or flat work and jumping) (P>0.05). When BW was compared with estimated energy intake, no relation was found either (P>0.05). These results suggest that the amount of energy needed to maintain BW in individual horses cannot necessarily be estimated simply on the basis of the intensity and the duration of structured exercise. Other factors including age, individual digestive and metabolic efficiency, body condition and possibly the energy utilized through non-structured activity (e.g. box walking) may need to be taken into account.
Data were records of daily food intake and milk production, periodic measures of milk composition and all health and reproductive information from 140 multiparous Holstein cows involved in various experiments at the Agriculture Canada dairy research station in Lennoxville, Quebec. Energy concentrations of the total mixed rations were also available. Daily energy balance was calculated by multiplying the food intake by the concentration of energy in the diet and then subtracting from this quantity the expected (National Research Council) amount of energy required for maintenance (based on parity and body weight) and for milk production (based on yield and concentrations of fat, protein and lactose). Four energy balance traits were defined: (1) average daily energy balance within the first 10 to 100 days of lactation, (2) minimum daily energy balance, (3) days in negative energy balance and (4) total energy deficit during the period of negative energy balance. Health traits were the numbers of incidences of each of the following: (1) all udder problems, (2) mastitis, (3) all locomotive problems, (4) laminitis, (5) digestive problems and (6) reproductive problems. Reproductive traits were the number of days to first observed oestrous and number of inseminations. Phenotypic relationships between energy balance and health were investigated by regressing the energy balance traits on each health trait. Parity and treatment (according to the research trial that the cow was involved with) were also included in the model. Genetic parameters were estimated with restricted maximum likelihood and a model that included effects of parity, treatment and animal. Phenotypically, several significant (P<0.10) relationships between energy balance and health were observed. Cows with longer periods of negative energy balance had increased digestive problems. Cows with greater total energy deficit had more digestive problems and laminitis. Estimates of heritabilities for energy intake and milk energy were 0.42 and 0.12, respectively but estimates of heritability for all energy balance traits were zero. The low estimates for these traits may have been due to (1) low true additive genetic variance, (2) small amount of data, or (3) relatively few genetic ties among cows.
Megapodes: an action plan for their conservation 1995–1999) was published in 1995 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN – The World Conservation Union. It is the twenty-eighth publication in its Action Plan series and the first for any group of birds. Action Plans published under the auspices of the Species Survival Commission are perceived as a means of making information on the status, threats and action required to safeguard species available to conservation planners and others in a position to take action. They are compiled by the appropriate taxon Specialist Group of the Species Survival Commission and their production and implementation is central to the Commission's activities. As well as the megapodes, Action Plans have recently been compiled for the partridges, quails, francolins, snowcocks and guineafowl, and for the pheasants. Stimulating interest in the conservation of these three groups of birds is the responsibility of three Specialist Groups which operate under the joint parentage of the World Pheasant Association, BirdLife International and the Species Survival Commission. The World Pheasant Association is the umbrella organization for five Galliformes Specialist Groups and was the driving force behind the production of these Action Plans, providing the means for the Specialist Groups to compile the information. This paper outlines the scope of these Action Plans and explains how they were compiled in the hope that this may assist the production of Action Plans for other bird groups.
Selective Epitaxial Growth (SEG) of Si and SiGe suffers from pattern sensitivity. The growth rate and layer composition change with the pattern and the window size. In relation to growth at atmospheric pressure, the sensitivity to the window size is suppressed at reduced pressure, whereas some growth rate effects of a more global nature become more visible. The Si growth rate decreases when the area of exposed silicon on the wafer and the susceptor decreases. SiGe shows the opposite behavior: its growth rate increases with decreasing silicon area. Another difference between Si and SiGe is the range over which the loading effects are active. The influence of a large silicon area on the Si growth rate can be felt inches away, whereas the SiGe growth rate is affected over a much shorter distance. In common epi reactors the wafer rests on a susceptor, which extends beyond the wafer, exposing a large Si-coated surface area around the circumference of the wafer. Consequently, the Si growth rate varies unacceptably across the wafer. A sacrificial polysilicon layer has been successfully applied to improve the growth rate uniformity across the wafer.
Field experiments, conducted from 1991 to 1994, generated information on weed seedbank emergence for 22 site-years from Ohio to Colorado and Minnesota to Missouri. Early spring seedbank densities were estimated through direct extraction of viable seeds from soil cores. Emerged seedlings were recorded periodically, as were daily values for air and soil temperature, and precipitation. Percentages of weed seedbanks that emerged as seedlings were calculated from seedbank and seedling data for each species, and relationships between seedbank emergence and microclimatic variables were sought. Fifteen species were found in 3 or more site-years. Average emergence percentages (and coefficients of variation) of these species were as follows: giant foxtail, 31.2 (84%); velvetleaf, 28.2 (66); kochia, 25.7 (79); Pennsylvania smartweed, 25.1 (65); common purslane, 15.4 (135); common ragweed, 15.0 (110); green foxtail, 8.5 (72); wild proso millet, 6.6 (104); hairy nightshade, 5.2 (62); common sunflower, 5.0 (26); yellow foxtail, 3.4 (67); pigweed species, 3.3 (103); common lambsquarters, 2.7 (111); wild buckwheat, 2.5 (63), and prostrate knotweed, 0.6 (79). Variation among site-years, for some species, could be attributed to microclimate variables thought to induce secondary dormancy in spring. For example, total seasonal emergence percentage of giant foxtail was related positively to the 1st date at which average daily soil temperature at 5 to 10 cm soil depth reached 16 C. Thus, if soil warmed before mid April, secondary dormancy was induced and few seedlings emerged, whereas many seedlings emerged if soil remained cool until June.