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Three stellar-like objects, previously identified as planetary nebulae, were observed with the Image Intensifier-SIT multichannel spectrograph at the 2.1 m telescope in San Pedro Mártir. The mis-identified planetaries are B1 3-11, He 2-417 and He 2-468. All of them show strong permitted H and He lines, detectable stellar continuum with absorption late-type bands and several other emission lines, including the unidentified λ 6830 Å feature. Clearly, the three objects are symbiotic stars, and not planetary nebulae. We present low-dispersion spectra for the three objects in the 3800-7000 Å spectral range.
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals’ species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil. Out of 322 bat samples collected, while 17 (5·28%) were positive to quantitative PCR for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene, 45 samples (13·97%) were positive to cPCR assays for hemoplasmas based on 16S rRNA gene. While seven sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG) (n = 3), gltA (n = 2), rpoB (n = 1), ftsZ (n = 1), five 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for hemoplasmas. In the phylogenetic analysis, the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats sampled in Latin America countries. All five hemoplasmas sequences clustered together as a monophyletic group by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses. The present work showed the first evidence of circulation of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas among bats in Brazil.
The stellar occultation technique is a powerful tool to study distant small solar system bodies. Currently, around 2 500 trans-neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs are known. With the astrometry from Gaia and large surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), accurate predictions of occultation events will be available to tens of thousands of TNOs and Centaurs and boost the knowledge of the outer solar system.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
The luminosity function of galaxies is central to many problems in cosmology, including the interpretation of faint number counts. The near-infrared provides several advantages over the optical for statistical studies of galaxies, including smooth and well-understood K-corrections and expected luminosity evolution. The K–band is dominated by near-solar mass stars which make up the bulk of the galaxy. The absolute K magnitude is a measure of the visible mass in a galaxy, and thus the K–band luminosity function is an observational counterpart of the mass function of galaxies.
The president calls attention to the large and increasing membership of Commission 12 and the policy of concentrating in it all matters relating to the sun. The result makes it comparable in breadth of field and in membership to the former Union for Co-operation in Solar Research. The main point in favour of this policy is the increased interest in the meetings of the Commission and the larger number of individuals reached compared with the meetings of small committees. One recalls the general sessions of the Solar Union in which each one present felt himself a part of the Union and in real touch with the work of different sections and after the discussions went away with fuller knowledge of what it was all about. This was a valuable result not attained to the same degree from the general sessions of the present Union, but in a measure it does follow from the meetings of the Solar Physics Committee. On the other hand the question may be raised whether or not the merging of independent commissions into subdivisions of a large commission lessens their interest to an extent not balanced by the advantages. If the present policy holds, it seems to the president that a re-organisation of Commission 12 is advisable by which more responsibility is laid upon the directors of centres. The basis of membership in the Commission may well be considered and recommendations formulated for transmission to the Executive Committee.
In view of the considerable ground covered by the Commission at its Paris meetings and the fairly complete record of the activities of institutes and observatories, etc. published in the Minutes, it has not been deemed profitable by the president to call for further reports in advance of the Stockholm meeting. At the Paris meeting it was agreed that such reports be printed independently before each meeting of the Union and that reprints of or references to the published reports be sent to the president. It is hoped that all such reports if ready will be made available before the Stockholm meeting so that they may be summarized by the representatives in attendance or by the president and recorded in the Minutes. With reference to the pronouncement at the Paris meeting “that it is eminently desirable that more attention be given to the development of accurate general perturbations and mean elements on the basis of accurate osculating elements”, the president has visited the Planeten-Institut at Frankfurt and the Rechen-Institut at Berlin and has been in correspondence with the Leningrad Institute. From these sources particularly valuable material has been received.
As the first step of the Multiwavelength AGN Survey (MWAS), we have started the FIRST-APM QSO Survey (FAQS). The main goal of FAQS is to compile the most complete sample of bright QSOs, located in the area of the sky covered by the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS). Here we report the current status of an ongoing study based on the cross-identification of the FIRST radio catalog and the APM optical catalog. The overlapping sky area between FIRST and SBS is about 700 deg2. The compiled list of sources for this overlapping region contains ~ 400 quasar candidates brighter than . About 90 objects were already spectroscopically classified. During 1999-2000, we observed spectroscopically more than 150 FAQS objects with the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Astropysical Observatory (GHAO). We have found 51 new QSOs (4 BAL QSOs), 13 Seyfert Galaxies (5 NLSyl’s), 23 emission line galaxies, 3 BL Lac objects and 57 stars.
We describe an instrumental configuration for detecting large gas-giant planets orbiting main sequence stars via the small drop in stellar brightness that occurs when the planet transits the stellar disk. Our proposed scheme involves the long-term monitoring of the light-curves of tens of thousands of stars using a Schmidt telescope coupled to a CCD via a bundle of 10,000 optical fibres. Using an existing theoretical model of planetary system formation we calculate a detection rate of 14 transits per year for our proposed system.
The stopping power of warm dense matter (WDM) is estimated by means of the individual contributions of free electrons and bound electrons existing in this special kind of matter, located between classical and degenerate plasmas. For free electrons, the dielectric formalism, well described in our studies, is used to estimate the free electron stopping power. For bound electrons, the mean excitation energy of ions is used. Excitation energies are obtained through atomic calculations of the whole atom or, shell by shell in order to estimate their stopping power. Influence of temperature and density is analyzed in case of an impinging projectile. This influence becomes important for low projectile velocities and is negligible for high ones. Using free and bound electron analysis, the stopping power of an extended WDM is inferred from a dynamical calculation of energy transferred from the projectile to the plasma, where the stopping range is calculated. Finally, this theoretical framework is used to study a typical plasma density profile of a WDM heated by lasers.
A similarity solution of the boundary layer equations for a wall jet on a heated horizontal surface at constant temperature taking into account the coupling of the temperature and velocity fields by buoyancy is described. This similarity solution exists for any value of
, characterizing this coupling between natural and forced convection over the horizontal plate, where
is a Grashof number and
is a Reynolds number, provided that the plate temperature is higher than the ambient temperature (
, say). Two main qualitative differences are found in the flow structure in relation to the well-known Glauert’s similarity solution for a wall jet without natural convection effects (i.e. when
): the first is that the similarity variable and structure of the horizontal velocity and temperature have the same functional form for both a radially spreading jet and a two-dimensional jet; the second is that the maximum of the horizontal velocity increases as the jet spreads over the surface, instead of decreasing like in Glauert’s solution, as the radial or horizontal distance to the power
. To check this similarity solution we solve numerically the boundary layer equations for the particular case of a jet with constant velocity and temperature emerging from a slot of height
(in the radially spreading case). An approximate, analytical similarity solution near the jet exit is also found that helps to start the numerical integration. Far from the jet exit the numerical solution tends to the similarity solution for any set of values of the non-dimensional parameters governing the problem, provided that the plate is heated (
). No similarity solution is found numerically for the case of a cooled plate (
Glauert’s similarity solution is recovered.
Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92–1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79–1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water.
In a 1-year survey at a university hospital we found that 20·6% (81/392) of patients with antibiotic associated diarrohea where positive for C. difficile. The most common PCR ribotypes were 012 (14·8%), 027 (12·3%), 046 (12·3%) and 014/020 (9·9). The incidence rate was 2·6 cases of C. difficile infection for every 1000 outpatients.
About 45 000 absolute and semi-absolute observations of right ascension of the FK4 stars were obtained during 1963–1972. The observations were made with the three instruments of the Cerro Calán Observatory jointly by Chilean and Soviet astronomers. As a result, systematic δαδ cosδ errors were found to exist in the FK4 catalogue. For the reduction of star observations according to the SRS program, it is necessary to derive the system of the δα corrections for the FK4.
We propose that most of the OB runaway stars are Old Disk Population objects in the same evolutionary phase as the hot UV-bright stars in globular clusters. Bimodal Gaussian fits to the peculiar radial velocity distribution are computed for 386 O-type and 1093 B-type stars. Both samples independently yield one Gaussian with σ ≃ 13 km s−1, a value typical of extreme Population I objects, and a second one with σ ≃ 28 km s−1 which is characteristic of the Old Disk Population. The fraction of stars under the high velocity-dispersion distribution (HVD stars) is 47% of the 0 and 23% of the B stars. We analyze the kinematics of the sample of OB stars divided into low peculiar radial velocity, |Vrp|<20 km s−1, and high-velocity stars, |Vrp|> 45 km s−1. The results for the solar motion and mean peculiar velocity of the groups are the expected ones for the extreme Population I objects in the case of the low-velocity group (U⊙= 9.1±0.1;V⊙= 14.8±0.1 km s−1) and an asymmetric drift of approximately 20 km s−1 for the high velocity stars (U⊙=2.7±1.4; V⊙= 32.7±1.4 km s−1). This lag behind circular motion also corresponds to Old Disk Population objects.
We have obtained the observed fraction of supergiant (luminosity classes I and II), giant (III) and dwarf (IV-V) stars of spectral types B2 and earlier. The stellar sample used was formed with all the stars with bi-dimensional spectral classification listed in the Catalogue of Galactic O stars by Cruz-González et al. (1974), the unpublished compilation of B0 and B0.5 stars by J.F. Rayo, and the B1-B2 stars listed by Morgan et al. (1955). The latter sample is by far the least complete one. The results are listed in Table I, together with the total number of stars (in parenthesis) considered in each spectral interval. A prominent conclusion is drawn from the table: The fractions remain approximately constant all over the spectral range considered.