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In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) using [C11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C11]PiB) has previously been shown to detect amyloid-β (Aβ) in late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) brain; however, the sensitivity of this technique for detecting β-amyloidosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) has not been systematically investigated. To validate [C11]PiB PET as a useful biomarker of β-amyloidosis, we measured the cortical and regional standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) in 16 ADAD and 15 LOAD cases and compared them with histopathologic measures of β-amyloidosis in postmortem brain. The PiB-PET data were obtained between 40–70 min after bolus injection of ∼15 mCi of [11C]PiB. MRI and PiB-PET images were co-registered and SUVRs were generated for several brain regions. Using Aβ immunohistochemistry (10D5, Eli Lilly), the burden of Aβ plaques was quantified in 16 regions of interest using an area fraction fractionator probe (Stereo Investigator, MicroBrightfield, VT). There were regional variations in Aβ plaque burden with highest densities observed in the neocortical areas and the striatum. On spearman correlations, in vivo PiB-PET correlated with postmortem Aβ plaque burden in both LOAD and ADAD, with strongest correlations seen in neocortical areas. In summary, [C11]PiB-PET has utility as a biomarker in both ADAD and LOAD.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Discuss how PET-PiB beta-amyloid imaging is used as a potential biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD)
2.Correlate postmortem neuropathologic evidence of beta-amyloidosis with PET-PiB data, and learn that PET-PiB is a potentially useful tool to detect beta-amyloidosis in presymptomatic and symptomatic individuals
This paper describes a model of electron energization and cyclotron-maser emission applicable to astrophysical magnetized collisionless shocks. It is motivated by the work of Begelman, Ergun and Rees [Astrophys. J. 625, 51 (2005)] who argued that the cyclotron-maser instability occurs in localized magnetized collisionless shocks such as those expected in blazar jets. We report on recent research carried out to investigate electron acceleration at collisionless shocks and maser radiation associated with the accelerated electrons. We describe how electrons accelerated by lower-hybrid waves at collisionless shocks generate cyclotron-maser radiation when the accelerated electrons move into regions of stronger magnetic fields. The electrons are accelerated along the magnetic field and magnetically compressed leading to the formation of an electron velocity distribution having a horseshoe shape due to conservation of the electron magnetic moment. Under certain conditions the horseshoe electron velocity distribution function is unstable to the cyclotron-maser instability [Bingham and Cairns, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3089 (2000); Melrose, Rev. Mod. Plasma Phys. 1, 5 (2017)].
Increasing attention is currently focused on the generation of characteristic x-ray by proton irradiation. This has the advantage of yielding “clean” x-ray- i. e. free from background brerasstrahlung radiation, from even the lightest elements. The disadvantage is that the yields are naturally much lower than those produced by electrons of the same energy. A recent study has extended characteristic x-ray production to a variety of heavy ions and has shown that the cross- sections for the production of clean x-rays are often higher , by as much as several orders of magnitude, than those produced by protons of the same energy. In addition, there has emerged a further advantage, viz. the ability of specially chosen heavy ions to excite characteristic x-ray from a particular element in a selective manner. Since heavy ions penetrate only a few hundred Angstroms in to most solids, the phenomenon can be used as the basis of a technique for the examination of surface deposits, or to measure depth distributions of impurities. For example, Kr ions can be used t o determine the range distribution of antimony which had been implanted in to silicon at 100 keV. The antimony concentration was determined as a function of ∼ 150 Å steps, and was found to exhibit a maximum concentration of ∼ 1 part in 103 of silicon at 450 Å below the surface, falling to zero concentration at ∼2000 Å a depth. In the past, in order to obtain the required degree of sensitivity, such range determinations have relied on radio active tracer techniques.
An entirely new type of proportional counter has been developed during the course of these studies. This instrument, because of its special construction, can be positioned very close to targets in non-dispersive studies, so as to collect the highest possible fraction of emitted x-ray. It incorporates a replaceable anode unit, together with a built- in miniature head amplifier, and exhibits extremely good performance, particularly for ultra-soft x-ray. In addition, rotation of a dial on the end of the counter body allows alteration of the active gas volume during operation, and so permits tuning into x-rays of a particular energy.
This paper updates Living with Mortality published in 2006. It describes how the longevity risk transfer market has developed over the intervening period, and, in particular, how insurance-based solutions – buy-outs, buy-ins and longevity insurance – have triumphed over capital markets solutions that were expected to dominate at the time. Some capital markets solutions – longevity-spread bonds, longevity swaps, q-forwards and tail-risk protection – have come to market, but the volume of business has been disappointingly low. The reason for this is that when market participants compare the index-based solutions of the capital markets with the customised solutions of insurance companies in terms of basis risk, credit risk, regulatory capital, collateral and liquidity, the former perform on balance less favourably despite a lower potential cost. We discuss the importance of stochastic mortality models for forecasting future longevity and examine some applications of these models, e.g. determining the longevity risk premium and estimating regulatory capital relief. The longevity risk transfer market is now beginning to recognise that there is insufficient capacity in the insurance and reinsurance industries to deal fully with demand and new solutions for attracting capital markets investors are now being examined – such as longevity-linked securities and reinsurance sidecars.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
We present techniques developed to calibrate and correct Murchison Widefield Array low-frequency (72–300 MHz) radio observations for polarimetry. The extremely wide field-of-view, excellent instantaneous (u, v)-coverage and sensitivity to degree-scale structure that the Murchison Widefield Array provides enable instrumental calibration, removal of instrumental artefacts, and correction for ionospheric Faraday rotation through imaging techniques. With the demonstrated polarimetric capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array, we discuss future directions for polarimetric science at low frequencies to answer outstanding questions relating to polarised source counts, source depolarisation, pulsar science, low-mass stars, exoplanets, the nature of the interstellar and intergalactic media, and the solar environment.
During the early afternoon of June 29, 2012, a line of destructive thunderstorms producing straight line winds known as a derecho developed near Chicago (Illinois, USA). The storm moved southeast with wind speeds recorded from 100 to 160 kilometers per hour (kph, 60 to 100 miles per hour [mph]). The storm swept across much of West Virginia (USA) later that evening. Power outage was substantial as an estimated 1,300,000 West Virginians (more than half) were without power in the aftermath of the storm and approximately 600,000 citizens were still without power a week later. This was one of the worst storms to strike this area and occurred as residents were enduring a prolonged heat wave. The wind damage left much of the community without electricity and the crippling effect compromised or destroyed critical infrastructure including communications, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water and sewer pumps. This report describes utilization of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital resources in West Virginia in response to the storm. Also reported is a review of the weather phenomena and the findings and discussion of the disaster and implications.
KearnsRD, WigalMS, FernandezA, TuckerMAJr, ZuidgeestGR, MillsMR, CairnsBA, CairnsCB. The 2012 Derecho: Emergency Medical Services and Hospital Response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4.
The increasing demand for food from limited available land, in light of declining soil fertility and future threats of climate variability and change have increased the need for more sustainable crop management systems. Conservation agriculture (CA) is based on the three principles of minimum soil disturbance, surface crop residue retention and crop rotations, and is one of the available options. In Southern Africa, CA has been intensively promoted for more than a decade to combat declining soil fertility and to stabilize crop yields. The objective of this review is to summarize recent advances in knowledge about the benefits of CA and highlight constraints to its widespread adoption within Southern Africa. Research results from Southern Africa showed that CA generally increased water infiltration, reduced soil erosion and run-off, thereby increasing available soil moisture and deeper drainage. Physical, chemical and biological soil parameters were also improved under CA in the medium to long term. CA increased crop productivity and also reduced on-farm labor, especially when direct seeding techniques and herbicides were used. As with other cropping systems, CA has constraints at both the field and farm level. Challenges to adoption in Southern Africa include the retention of sufficient crop residues, crop rotations, weed control, pest and diseases, farmer perception and economic limitations, including poorly developed markets. It was concluded that CA is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution and often needs significant adaptation and flexibility when implementing it across farming systems. However, CA may potentially reduce future soil fertility decline, the effects of seasonal dry-spells and may have a large impact on food security and farmers’ livelihoods if the challenges can be overcome.
Some years ago, a group including the present author and Padma Shukla showed that a suitable non-thermal electron distribution allows the formation of ion sound solitary waves with either positive or negative density perturbations, whereas with Maxwellian electrons only a positive density perturbation is possible. The present paper discusses the qualitative features of this distribution allowing the negative waves and shared with suitable two-temperature distributions.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Hydrophobic-oleophobic coatings are often used to provide the transparent electrodes in devices like touch panels and smart windows with protection from fingerprints and other contaminants which may degrade electronic and optical performance. Conventional fluorosilane monolayers or co-condensed films are often surface-enriched with fluorinated moieties due to the thermodynamic drive of these components to migrate to low-surface energy interfaces. Consequently, these conventional coatings may be strongly non-wetting and have low-surface energy when pristine, but upon wear and exposure of the bulk subsurface regions, the films are much less functional. This work explores the use of surfactant templated sol-gel silica films as scaffolds for encapsulating surface-segregating functional organic moieties as a mesoscopically dispersed phase with the goal of imparting sustained functionality. The results show that surfactant template concentration may be used to tune the dispersion of the fluorosilane-rich phase within the silica film in order to allow worn and exposed internal surfaces to maintain much of the original functionality of the pristine top surface.
A group of lawyers, psychiatrists, best interest assessors and independent mental capacity advocates were asked to make binary judgements about whether real-life situations in 12 vignettes amounted to deprivation of liberty. Kappa coefficients were calculated to describe the level of agreement within each professional group and for the total group of professionals.
There was total agreement between all professionals about deprivation of liberty in only 1 of the 12 cases. The overall level of agreement for judgements made by all professionals was ‘slight’ (κ=0.16, P < 0.01).
There are practical difficulties involved in making reliable deprivation of liberty judgements within the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS) legislation. A clear interpretation of deprivation of liberty is necessary to facilitate professionals' decision-making in this area.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited on polyester substrates are a key material in the development of two exciting technologies, touchscreens and flexible liquid crystal displays. The new generation “plastic” displays and touchscreens must be flexible and robust, have excellent optical properties, and be inexpensive. We report on the mechanical and electrical reliability of ITO on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate (PET). We show that the mechanical behavior of the ITO film is dominated by the properties of the substrate and that the deformation of the substrate is mapped by the crack patterns in the ITO. This is most strongly evidenced in the simulated wear of a touchscreen where failure after >50000 pen strokes is primarily due to cracking of the ITO as a result of increased substrate deformation over time. In addition the mechanical reliability of the ITO layer is dependent on the film thickness. Cracking was observed in a 105 nm thick ITO film at a strain of 0.022 and for a 16.8 nm thick film at 0.003. The thickness and hence sheet resistance of the film effectively limits the maximum allowable deformation of the substrate and must be considered in the design of suitable display and touchscreen devices. In addition we report on the change in resistance with time-at- temperature and relate this to the shrinkage of the substrate.
Laser induced fluorescence of CF2 has been observed in plasmas of CF4 and its mixtures with O2 and H2. Surface removal rates of the radical in pure CF4 were measured by observing the decay of the radical when the plasma is switched off. The reduction in CF2 concentration, and the increase in F atom concentrations (the latter measured by optical emission spectroscopy) on the addition of O2 is reproduced by a model of the plasma in which gas phase chemical reactions play a dominant role. The increase in CF2 concentration on the addition of H2 to a CF4 plasma is shown to be due to a reduction in the surface removal rate.
Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) with argon actinometry has been used to study the influence of machine parameters on the composition of a BCl3 RF plasma discharge in the absence and presence of aluminium. Two steady state models are proposed to account for the appearance of the various species seen, and to explain their relative abundances in response to changes in power and pressure. The validity of the actinometric technique for measuring relative changes in ground state concentrations is discussed also.
Catalyst supports are required to meet a wide range of objectives, including chemical purity and composition, optimised surface area/porosity and thermal stability. Gel processing offers means by which many of these requirements can be achieved. In addition, the use of sols of controlled rheology allows the support material to be prepared in a form which facilitates its application to substrates (including metals) as a coating, thereby greatly improving its versatility for producing novel catalysts. The preparation of typical support materials will be discussed, together with examples of their use in catalysis.
The application of non-equilibrium transport techniques to Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown InSb/InAlSb heterostructure diodes has produced practical devices such as midinfrared LED's and negative luminescent sources that operate at room temperature. By extending the epitaxial growth to vicinal InSb substrates it has been demonstrated that the temperature window for high quality epitaxy can be lowered by ∼12°C, giving greatly improved epilayer morphology. The degree of misorientation needed for given growth temperatures is shown from Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements to be only ∼2°. In addition, the lower growth temperature gives improved dopant activation, lower trap densities and lower reverse bias leakage currents, with consequent benefits to device performance.
We report on the change in electrical resistance of tin doped indium oxide thin films on polymer substrates with increasing uniaxial strain. The resistance increases rapidly but continuously above a threshold strain. The threshold strain at which the resistance increases is correlated to the onset of cracking in the oxide film. The strain for cracking and increase in resistance depend upon film thickness. We have measured the distance between neighboring ITO cracks as a function of strain in situ using an optical microscope. At high uniaxial strains the ITO layer fails in the orthogonal direction due to lateral contraction of the polymer substrate. The gradual increase in resistance is modeled assuming there is a conducting layer at the polymer/ITO interface.