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The Australian prime lamb industry is seeking to improve lean meat yield (LMY) as a means to increasing efficiency and profitability across the whole value chain. The LMY of prime lambs is affected by genetics and on-farm nutrition from birth to slaughter and is the total muscle weight relative to the total carcass weight. Under the production conditions of south eastern Australia, many ewe flocks experience a moderate reduction in nutrition in mid to late pregnancy due to a decrease in pasture availability and quality. Correcting nutritional deficits throughout gestation requires the feeding of supplements. This enables the pregnant ewe to meet condition score (CS) targets at lambing. However, limited resources on farm often mean it is difficult to effectively manage nutritional supplementation of the pregnant ewe flock. The impact of reduced ewe nutrition in mid to late pregnancy on the body composition of finishing lambs and subsequent carcass composition remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of moderately reducing ewe nutrition in mid to late gestation on the body composition of finishing lambs and carcass composition at slaughter on a commercial scale. Multiple born lambs to CS2.5 target ewes were lighter at birth and weaning, had lower feedlot entry and exit weights with lower pre-slaughter and carcass weights compared with CS3.0 and CS3.5 target ewes. These lambs also had significantly lower eye muscle and fat depth when measured by ultrasound prior to slaughter and carcass subcutaneous fat depth measured 110 mm from the spine along the 12th rib (GR 12th) and at the C-site (C-fat). Although carcasses were ~5% lighter, results showed that male progeny born to ewes with reduced nutrition from day 50 gestation to a target CS2.5 at lambing had a higher percentage of lean tissue mass as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and a lower percentage of fat during finishing and at slaughter, with the multiple born progeny from CS3.0 and CS3.5 target ewes being similar. These data suggest lambs produced from multiple bearing ewes that have had a moderate reduction in nutrition during pregnancy are less mature. This effect was also independent of lamb finishing system. The 5% reduction in carcass weight observed in this study would have commercially relevant consequences for prime lamb producers, despite a small gain in LMY.
The crystal structure of cefprozil monohydrate has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and optimized using density functional techniques. Cefprozil monohydrate crystallizes in space group P21 (#4) with a = 11.26513(6), b = 11.34004(5), c = 14.72649(11) Å, β = 90.1250(4)°, V = 1881.262(15) Å3, and Z = 4. Although a reasonable fit was obtained using an orthorhombic model, closer examination showed that many peaks were split and/or had shoulders, and thus the true symmetry was monoclinic. DFT calculations revealed that one carboxylic acid proton moved to an amino group. The structure thus contains one ion pair and one pair of neutral molecules. This protonation was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. There is an extensive array of hydrogen bonds resulting in a three-dimensional network. The powder pattern has been submitted to ICDD® for inclusion in the Powder Diffraction File™.
The crystal structure of prednicarbate has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. Prednicarbate crystallizes in space group P212121 (#19) with a = 7.69990(3), b = 10.75725(3), c = 31.36008(11) Å, V = 2597.55(1) Å3, and Z = 4. In the crystal structure the long axis of the steroid ring system lies roughly parallel to the c-axis. The oxygenated side chains are orientated roughly perpendicular to the steroid ring system and are adjacent to each other, parallel to the ab-plane. The only traditional hydrogen bond donor in the prednicarbate molecule is the hydroxyl group O32–H33, but this does not participate in an O–H···O hydrogen bond. The nearest oxygen atoms to O32 are symmetry-related O32 at 4.495 Å, precluding the expected O–H···O hydrogen bond. The powder pattern has been submitted to ICDD® for inclusion in the Powder Diffraction File™.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
We retrospectively evaluated the effect of penicillin adverse drug reaction (ADR) labeling on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Cefazolin was administered in 86% of penicillin ADR-negative (−) and 28% penicillin ADR-positive (+) cases. Broad-spectrum antibiotic use was more common in ADR(+) cases and was more commonly associated with perioperative adverse drug events.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The advent of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatments (HAART) has allowed HIV-positive individuals to live longer in recent years. This has resulted in a higher incidence of mortalities occurring in these individuals due to cardiovascular pathologies, as opposed to deaths due to HIV. Even with long-term HAART, persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) still exhibit inflammation, which is associated with deleterious cardiovascular outcomes. PLWHIV on HAART have a higher prevalence of hypertension, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Moreover, chronic inflammation has been shown to be related to the translocation of microbes and endotoxins across the gastrointestinal tract. Such microbial translocation (MT) is increased in individuals with digestive disorders and their associated symptoms (e.g., diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea). This study aims to explore the pathologies common to both MT-induced inflammation and cardiovascular symptoms by examining the associations between gastrointestinal symptoms and hypertension in PLWHIV on HAART. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The sample included 351 PLWHIV on HAART. Pre-existing de-identified data were analyzed. Sample demographics included 56.98 % African Americans, 41.31% Caucasians, ages 20–66 years (mean age=43.65years), 21% female, 89% male, HIV viral load, CD4 counts. Self-reported data from the Symptom Co-Morbidity Questionnaire and Socio-demographic questionnaire were analyzed with SPSS v.24. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In total, 86 PLWHIV (24.50%) stated that they have hypertension; 39 subjects (45.3%) reported having diarrhea, 30 subjects (34.8%) reported nausea, and 12 (13.9%) reported constipation and vomiting. Among ethnicities with hypertension and gastrointestinal symptoms, African Americans compared with Caucasians had a higher percentage of diarrhea (28% vs. 17%), nausea (21% vs. 11%), constipation (11% vs. 2%), and vomiting (8% vs. 5%). Women compared with men reported a higher percentage of nausea (28% vs. 24%) and constipation (8% vs. 6%). Men compared with women reported a higher percentage of diarrhea (38% vs. 7%) and vomiting (8% vs. 5%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These data support the need for targeted screening to include both blood pressure and associated gastrointestinal symptoms. Further studies supporting these results may assist practitioners to target treatments that may prevent cardiovascular comorbidities.
At the QEII Health Sciences Centre Emergency Department (ED) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, advanced care paramedics (ACPs) perform procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) for many indications, including orthopedic procedures. We have begun using ACPs as sedationists for emergent upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy. This study compares ACP-performed ED PSA for UGI endoscopy and orthopedic procedures in terms of adverse events, airway intervention, vasopressor requirement, and PSA medication use.
A data set was built from an ED PSA quality control database matching 61 UGI endoscopy PSAs to 183 orthopedic PSAs by propensity scores calculated using age, gender, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Outcomes assessed were hypotension (systolic BP<100 mm Hg or a 15% decrease from baseline), hypoxia (SaO2<90%), apnea (>30 sec), vomiting, arrhythmias, death, airway intervention, vasopressor requirement, and PSA medication use.
UGI endoscopy patients experienced hypotension more frequently than orthopedic patients (OR=4.11, CI: 2.05-8.22) and required airway repositioning less often (OR=0.24, CI: 0.10-0.59). They received ketamine more frequently (OR=15.7, CI: 4.75-67.7) and fentanyl less often (OR=0.30, CI: 0.15-0.63) than orthopedic patients. Four endoscopy patients received phenylephrine, and one required intubation. No patient died in either group.
In ACP-led sedation for UGI endoscopy and orthopedic procedures, adverse events were rare with the notable exception of hypotension, which was more frequent in the endoscopy group. Only endoscopy patients required vasopressor treatment and intubation. We provide preliminary evidence that ACPs can manage ED PSA for emergent UGI endoscopy, although priorities must shift from pain control to hemodynamic optimization.
Lyndochite from Tura dukas, 35 miles north of Nanyuki, Kenya, agrees closely with the type material from Canada in its chemical analysis, in the distribution of the rare earths, and in X-ray diffraction data for powder after heat treatment. The mineral is compared and contrasted with aeschynite. Uranium-poor euxenite is intimately associated with lyndochite at the type locality.
Since its discovery over thirty-five years ago, lyndochite has remained unrecorded outside its type locality of Lyndoch Township in Ontario, Canada. Its distinctive chemical composition sets it apart from almost all other Ti-rich metamiet niobates and, despite the many analyses that have been made on rare-earth niobate-tantalates, specimens that could have been regarded as similar to or approximating to lyndochite have rarely been mentioned. Its unusual characteristics include high ThO2 (about 10%) and appreciable rare-earth oxides (about 20%) with a lanthanon assemblage showing a peak concentration of Nd (and Ce), rather than any of the heavy lanthanons. The proportions of TiO2 (about 20%) and (Nb,Ta)2O5 (about 40%) are comparable to those in numerous niobate-tantalates, but are only associated with the percentages of ThO2 and Re2O3 mentioned above in some members of the aesehynite-priorite series. The lyndochite now described is chemically very close indeed to the Canadian lyndochite, and both specimens give closely similar X-ray diffraction patterns (after suitable heat treatment) which are distinct from those of any other metamict mineral.
Several photometric studies conducted in the 1970's indicate that at least half the stars in the Cepheid instability strip are stable at the level of 0.02 mag (Fernie & Hube 1971; Percy 1975; Fernie 1976; Percy, Baskerville, & Trevorrow 1979). A precision radial velocity survey of these “stable stars” is currently being conducted by the author. Radial velocity errors have been reduced to a few tens of meters per second with the use of an iodine absorption cell (Marcy & Butler 1992).
Extremely low amplitude (200 m/s) periodic radial velocity variations have been found for HR 7796, an F8Ib supergiant (Butler 1992). Two and a half complete cycles have been monitored over three observing runs. The period is found to be 11.87 days. Observations of the reference star HR 509 (G8 V) taken on the same nights, show no periodicities and a scatter of just 20 m/s. Both the period and the shape of the velocity curve appear similar to a normal F8Ib Cepheid. If HR 7796 is a Cepheid, it is the smallest amplitude Cepheid by more than an order of magnitude.
The early lactation period in dairy cattle is characterized by negative energy balance (NEB). Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have an important role in regulating nutrient utilization and act as a mediator of the effects of energy balance on reproduction. The capacity of IGF-I to access cell surface receptors is controlled by insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). Insulin is a key signal of metabolic status and its infusion altered IGF-I and IGFBP concentrations in plasma (Butler et al., 2003). The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of dietary supplementation of fish meal (FM) or Ca salts of fish oil fatty acids (CaFOFA) on energy balance during early lactation period and on the circulating concentrations of insulin and IGFBPs on d 32 post-partum (PP).
The DESGW program is a collaboration between members of the Dark Energy Survey, the wider astronomical community, and the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration to search for optical counterparts of gravitational wave events, such as those expected from binary neutron star mergers or neutron star-black hole mergers. While binary black hole (BBH) events are not expected to produce an electromagnetic (EM) signature, emission is certainly not impossible. The DESGW program has performed follow-up observations of four BBH events detected by LIGO in order to search for any possible EM counterpart. Failure to find such counterparts is still relevant in that it produces limits on optical emission from such events. This is a review of follow-up results from O1 BBH events and a discussion of the status of ongoing uniform re-analysis of all BBH events that DESGW has followed up to date.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Examination of ∼2000 sun–like stars has revealed 97 planets (as of 2002 Nov), all residing within our Milky Way Galaxy and within ∼200 light years of our Solar System. They have masses between 0.1 and 10 times that of Jupiter, and orbital sizes of 0.05–5 AU. Thus planets occupy the entire detectable domain of mass and orbits. News & summaries about extrasolar planets are provided at: http://exoplanets.org. These planets were all discovered by the wobble of the host stars, induced gravitationally by the planets, causing a periodicity in the measured Doppler effect of the starlight. Earth–mass planets remain undetectable, but space–based missions such as Kepler, COROT and SIM may provide detections of terrestrial planets within the next decade.
The number of planets increases with decreasing planet mass, indicating that nature makes more small planets than jupiter–mass planets. Extrapolation, though speculative, bodes well for an even larger number of earth–mass planets. These observations and the theory of planet formation suggests that single sun–like stars commonly harbor earth–sized rocky planets, as yet undetectable. The number of planets increases with increasing orbital distance from the host star, and most known planets reside in non–circular orbits. Many known planets reside in the habitable zone (albeit being gas giants) and most newly discovered planets orbit beyond 1 AU from their star. A population of Jupiter–like planets may reside at 5–10 AU from stars, not easily detectable at present. The sunlike star 55 Cancri harbors a planet of 4–10 Jupiter masses orbiting at 5.5 AU in a low eccentricity orbit, the first analog of our Jupiter, albeit with two large planets orbiting inward.
To date, 10 multiple–planet systems have been discovered, with four revealing gravitational interactions between the planets in the form of resonances. GJ 876 has two planets with periods of 1 and 2 months. Other planetary systems are “hierarchical”, consisting of widely separated orbits. These two system architectures probably result from gravitational interactions among the planets and between the planets and the proto-planetary disk out of which they formed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Clinical guidelines recommend using predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk to inform treatment decisions. The objective was to compare the contribution of changes in modifiable risk factors Versus aging to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Prospective follow-up of the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African-American cohort, at visit 1 (2000–2004) and visit 3 (2009–2012). Analyses included 1115 African-American participants without a high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk (<7.5%), hypertension, diabetes, or ASCVD at visit 1. We used the Pooled Cohort equations to calculate the incidence of high (≥7.5%) 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3. We recalculated the percentage with a high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3 assuming each risk factor [age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), antihypertensive medication use, diabetes, smoking, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol], one at a time, did not change from visit 1. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The mean age at visit 1 was 45.2±9.5 years. Overall, 30.9% (95% CI 28.3%–33.4%) of participants developed high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. Aging accounted for 59.7% (95% CI 54.2%–65.1%) of the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk compared with 32.8% (95% CI 27.0%–38.2%) for increases in SBP or antihypertensive medication initiation and 12.8% (95% CI 9.6%–16.5%) for incident diabetes. Among participants <50 years, the contribution of increases in SBP or antihypertensive medication initiation was similar to aging. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Increases in SBP and antihypertensive medication initiation are major contributors to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk in African Americans, particularly among younger adults.
Phased VLA observations of the Galactic center magnetar J1745-2900 over 8-12 GHz reveal rich single pulse behavior. The average profile is comprised of several distinct components and is fairly stable over day timescales and GHz frequencies. The average profile is dominated by the jitter of relatively narrow pulses. The pulses in each of the four profile components are uncorrelated in phase and amplitude, although the occurrence of pulse components 1 and 2 appear to be correlated. Using a collection of the brightest individual pulses, we verify that the index of the dispersion law is consistent with the expected cold plasma value of 2. The scattering time is weakly constrained, but consistent with previous measurements, while the dispersion measure DM = 1763+3−10 pc cm−3 is lower than previous measurements, which could be a result of time variability in the line-of-sight column density or changing pulse profile shape over time or frequency.
Recent 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of sporopollenins (the inert biomolecule forming spore and pollen walls) from the major groups of extant plants. This substance is also the main constituent of fossil spore walls.
We have obtained 13C NMR spectra from three species of Carboniferous lycopod megaspores, and in one case, the associated microspores. Additionally, spores from the Devonian plant Parka decipiens Fleming have been analyzed. The spectra obtained are relatively similar although at present it is unclear how much of this similarity results from diagenesis.
The spectra of the fossil spores have been compared to those obtained from extant lycopods and from other plant groups. The fossil lycopod spores share some of the distinctive features of modern lycopod sporopollenin but are, none the less, very different. The spectra of the fossil species also demonstrate the loss of constituents known to form a significant part of the sporopollenin in extant species. Our studies show that some of the chemical characteristics of sporopollenins are retained in fossil spores, allowing the investigation of evolutionary changes of sporopollenin within a group and facilitating the assignment of taxonomically enigmatic fossil species. Further investigation of a range of fossil material, combined with data obtained from pyrolysis, should provide further information on the composition of sporopollenin from different plant groups and on its diagenesis.
Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the most common parotid malignancy in Australasia. Prognostic indicators are not clearly defined and the extent of surgical resection required is controversial.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of 63 patients who underwent surgery for metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the parotid gland at a tertiary hospital over a 10-year period.
The five-year overall survival rate was 53 per cent, the disease-specific survival rate was 78 per cent and the locoregional control rate was 72 per cent. Immunosuppression and no adjuvant radiotherapy were associated with a significant reduction in disease-specific survival. None of the factors analysed had a significant effect on locoregional control rates.
More extensive surgery, including lateral temporal bone resection, may improve local control rates in cases of more advanced disease. The reduced survival of immunocompromised patients must be considered when planning their management.