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This chapter discusses critical issues involved in the interpretation of the Corinthian correspondence, with special attention to various responses to Paul and his claims to apostolic authority, to different understandings of the resurrection in the early church, and to the collection for the saints in Jerusalem and its significance for interpreting Paul’s larger ministry.
Cognitive tasks are used to probe neuronal activity during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect signs of aberrant cognitive functioning in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ). However, nonlinear (inverted-U-shaped) associations between neuronal activity and task difficulty can lead to misinterpretation of group differences between patients and healthy comparison subjects (HCs). In this paper, we evaluated a novel method for correcting these misinterpretations based on conditional performance analysis.
Participants included 25 HCs and 27 SZs who performed a working memory (WM) task (N-back) with 5 load conditions while undergoing fMRI. Neuronal activity was regressed onto: 1) task load (i.e., parametric task levels), 2) marginal task performance (i.e., performance averaged over all load conditions), or 3) conditional task performance (i.e., performance within each load condition).
In most regions of interest, conditional performance analysis uniquely revealed inverted-U-shaped neuronal activity in both SZs and HCs. After accounting for conditional performance differences between groups, we observed few difference in both the pattern and level of neuronal activity between SZs and HCs within regions that are classically associated with WM functioning (e.g., posterior dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal association cortices). However, SZs did show aberrant activity within the anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Interpretations of differences in neuronal activity between groups, and of associations between neuronal activity and performance, should be considered within the context of task performance. Whether conditional performance-based differences reflect compensation, dedifferentiation, or other processes is not a question that is easily resolved by examining activation and performance data alone.
This study aims to describe the course of admission and clinical characteristics of admissions to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) in the Phoenix Care Centre (PCC), Dublin, Ireland.
This retrospective chart study was conducted at the PCC, Dublin, Ireland. The cohort included all admission episodes (n = 91 complete data) over a three-year study period between January 2014 and January 2017.
The mean age of admitted cases was 37.1 (s.d. = 11.3; range 18–63). The mean length of stay (LOS) was 59.3 days (s.d. = 61.0; median 39.5 days). All patients were admitted under Mental Health Act legislation. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was used in 61% (n = 55) of the admissions. A diagnosis of acute psychotic disorder (B = −1.027, p = 0.003, 95% CI: −1.691, −0.363) was associated with reduced LOS in PICU.
Our study describes the cohort of patients admitted as being predominantly male, younger-aged, single, having a diagnosis of schizophrenia and being legally detained. The primary indication for referral is risk of assault, which highlights the need for the intensive and secure treatment model that a PICU can provide.
Luskin and Bullock’s (2011) randomized experiment on live-interview respondents found no evidence that American National Election Studies and Time-Sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences respondents hide knowledge behind the “don’t know” (DK) option. We successfully replicated their finding using two online platforms, the Cooperative Congressional Election Study and Google Surveys. However, we obtained different results on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). We attribute this difference to MTurkers’ experience with attention checks and other quality-control mechanisms, which condition them to avoid errors. This conditioning leads MTurkers to hide knowledge behind DK in ways not observed on other platforms. Researchers conducting political knowledge experiments or piloting surveys on MTurk should be aware of these differences.
To assess extent of a healthcare-associated outbreak of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to evaluate the effectiveness of infection control measures, including universal masking.
Outbreak investigation including 4 large-scale point-prevalence surveys.
Integrated VA healthcare system with 2 facilities and 330 beds.
Index patient and 250 exposed patients and staff.
We identified exposed patients and staff and classified them as probable and confirmed cases based on symptoms and testing. We performed a field investigation and an assessment of patient and staff interactions to develop probable transmission routes. Infection prevention interventions included droplet and contact precautions, employee quarantine, and universal masking with medical and cloth face masks. We conducted 4 point-prevalence surveys of patient and staff subsets using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2.
Among 250 potentially exposed patients and staff, 14 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were identified. Patient roommates and staff with prolonged patient contact were most likely to be infected. The last potential date of transmission from staff to patient was day 22, the day universal masking was implemented. Subsequent point-prevalence surveys in 126 patients and 234 staff identified 0 patient cases and 5 staff cases of COVID-19, without evidence of healthcare-associated transmission.
Universal masking with medical face masks was effective in preventing further spread of SARS-CoV-2 in our facility in conjunction with other traditional infection prevention measures.
We examined whether Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)-informed measures of prenatal stress predicted newborn neurobehavior and whether these effects differed by newborn sex. Multilevel, prenatal markers of prenatal stress were obtained from 162 pregnant women. Markers of the Negative Valence System included physiological functioning (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] and electrodermal [EDA] reactivity to a speech task, hair cortisol), self-reported stress (state anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, daily stress, childhood trauma, economic hardship, and family resources), and interviewer-rated stress (episodic stress, chronic stress). Markers of the Arousal/Regulatory System included physiological functioning (baseline RSA, RSA, and EDA responses to infant cries) and self-reported affect intensity, urgency, emotion regulation strategies, and dispositional mindfulness. Newborns’ arousal and attention were assessed via the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Path analyses showed that high maternal episodic and daily stress, low economic hardship, few emotion regulation strategies, and high baseline RSA predicted female newborns’ low attention; maternal mindfulness predicted female newborns’ high arousal. As for male newborns, high episodic stress predicted low arousal, and high pregnancy-specific anxiety predicted high attention. Findings suggest that RDoC-informed markers of prenatal stress could aid detection of variance in newborn neurobehavioral outcomes within hours after birth. Implications for intergenerational transmission of risk for psychopathology are discussed.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as an acute respiratory illness leading to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. As the disease spread, demands on health care systems increased, specifically the need to expand hospital capacity. Alternative care hospitals (ACHs) have been used to mitigate these issues; however, establishing an ACH has many challenges. The goal of this session was to perform systems testing, using a simulation-based evaluation to identify areas in need of improvement.
Four simulation cases were designed to depict common and high acuity situations encountered in the ACH, using a high technology simulator and standardized patient. A multidisciplinary observer group was given debriefing forms listing the objectives, critical actions, and specific areas to focus their attention. These forms were compiled for data collection.
Logistical, operational, and patient safety issues were identified during the simulation and compiled into a simulation event report. Proposed solutions and protocol changes were made in response to the identified issues.
Simulation was successfully used for systems testing, supporting efforts to maximize patient care and provider safety in a rapidly developed ACH. The simulation event report identified operational deficiencies and safety concerns directly resulting in equipment modifications and protocol changes.
In their introduction to Probable Truth: Editing Medieval Texts from Britain in the Twenty-First Century, Vincent Gillespie and Anne Hudson note that there has historically been a divide, albeit an artificial one, between the literary critic and the textual editor. They suggest, though, that while critics can redirect or circumvent a problem that the text proposes, editors never can – they must confront head on the problems of the text and find a way to resolve or answer those problems in their product. The work of the critic is largely dependent on the work of the editor, but editorial work can be viewed as ‘drudgery’ and somehow less innovative than literary criticism. Of course, in medieval studies many people are both editors and critics, but this labour can still be seen as distinct, their work categorically divided. In these traditional senses, Michael Sargent is both editor and critic. However, he has from the start resisted this taxonomy and shown that the work of the editor is critical, the work of the critic, editorial.
This combination can be seen throughout Michael's career, but perhaps most clearly at its start – with his dissertation ‘James Grenehalgh as Textual Critic’, the formative article, ‘The Transmission by the English Carthusians of some Late Medieval Spiritual Writings’, and in his two major critical editions, Nicholas Love's The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ and, most recently, Walter Hilton's second book of The Scale of Perfection. There are many notable articles and contributions among Michael's works, but to list and discuss them all would constitute an entire volume in itself (all of his published works can be seen at the end of this volume). These works serve as signposts in his evolution as an editor and critic, pointing to the ways in which he has expanded and influenced the field of medieval devotional and editorial studies.
Michael's 1976 essay for the Journal of Ecclesiastical History, ‘The Transmission by the English Carthusians of some Late Medieval Spiritual Writings’, literally remapped the context for English medieval devotional texts and their transmission. It is one of his most cited essays with good reason, as it lays out the ways in which the Carthusian order deliberately translated and disseminated medieval devotional literature.