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The present work aims to explore the tribological behavior of the laser texturing process with different patterns on a Co based alloy using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser. Different parameters such as peak power, speed and spot diameter of the laser were explored for the experimental setting. The microstructural analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nanoindentation tests. The influence of the different textured patterns of the tribological performance tested with a pin-on-disc tribometer under lubricated sliding condition was evaluated. The results showed that typical interdendritic structures in the as-cast CoCr alloy condition were refined due to the heat input and fast cooling rate during the laser treatment. The refined microstructure showed less volumetric loss resulting in a increment of wear resistance and a better tribological performance than as-cast alloy. The correlation among laser parameters, microstructural effect and their influence in wear resistance is discussed.
Although both obesity and ageing are risk factors for cognitive impairment, there is no evidence in Chile on how obesity levels are associated with cognitive function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adiposity levels and cognitive impairment in older Chilean adults. This cross-sectional study includes 1384 participants, over 60 years of age, from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as measures of adiposity. Compared with people with a normal BMI, the odds of cognitive impairment were higher in participants who were underweight (OR 4·44; 95 % CI 2·43, 6·45; P < 0·0001), overweight (OR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·06, 2·66; P = 0·031) and obese (OR 2·26; 95 % CI 1·31, 3·21; P = 0·003). The associations were robust after adjustment for confounding variables. Similar results were observed for WC. Low and high levels of adiposity are associated with an increased likelihood of cognitive impairment in older adults in Chile.
Vaccination coverage (VC) against pertussis can increase when management practices and policies at primary care centres (PCCs) are reinforced. From 2011 to 2015, we performed a case–control study to evaluate VC among pertussis patients treated at PCCs in Barcelona, Spain. We recorded pertussis in patients from 8- to 16-year-olds at 52 PCCs. Pertussis cases had laboratory diagnostic and controls were healthy outpatients visiting the same facility for reasons other than cough. DTaP/dTap VC was recorded as either proper vaccination status (five doses recorded) or improper vaccination status (<5 doses recorded). We used a logistic regression model to estimate OR and 95% CI. We included 229 cases and 576 controls. VC was higher in cases (mean 5.01, s.e.: 0.57) than in controls (4.89, s.e.: 0.73). Around 69% of the cases had received DTaP primary immunisation after 2–5 years and 31.4% of cases had the dTap booster immunisation after 7–10 years. The 87% of children 5–9 years were properly vaccinated. We found no protection from becoming ill among properly vaccinated children (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.22–2.85). The highest VC was observed in patients with confirmed pertussis, which was likely due to a more exhaustive follow-up of the VC in these patients. Being properly vaccinated against pertussis will probably not increase VC.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project between the University of Puerto Rico- Medical Sciences Campus (UPR-MSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC) has trained US, GS and F (participants) of HSPs to engage them in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: First stage of the training sessions (TS) dealt with the theory of CTR. After TS and responding to their research interests, as answered in a questionnaire, the participants formed a CTMT, under the mentorship of a well-established CT researcher. This, as a prelude to their hands-on experiences in Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO), for which a research proposal is needed. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Five (5) CTMTs were formed in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–, as submitted in their research concept papers.Eight (8) CT researchers are currently mentoring 2 US, 7 GS and 6 F of HSPs through the CTMTs. They have submitted a research proposal, as a bridge between the theory in the TS and the practice in IDEARIO. Five (5) proposals were received and 2 of them approved, while the other 3 are in the evaluation process. We will present the composition, research topics, development of research and the feedback of participants in IDEARIO and CTMTs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The CTMTs and their respective proposals are effective strategies for the mentoring of US, GS and F in CTR.
Does attentiveness matter in survey responses? Do more attentive survey participants give higher quality responses? Using data from a recent online survey that identified inattentive respondents using instructed-response items, we demonstrate that ignoring attentiveness provides a biased portrait of the distribution of critical political attitudes and behavior. We show that this bias occurs in the context of both typical closed-ended questions and in list experiments. Inattentive respondents are common and are more prevalent among the young and less educated. Those who do not pass the trap questions interact with the survey instrument in distinctive ways: they take less time to respond; are more likely to report nonattitudes; and display lower consistency in their reported choices. Inattentiveness does not occur completely at random and failing to properly account for it may lead to inaccurate estimates of the prevalence of key political attitudes and behaviors, of both sensitive and more prosaic nature.
Gluten is only partially digested by intestinal enzymes and can generate peptides that can alter intestinal permeability, facilitating bacterial translocation, thus affecting the immune system. Few studies addressed the role of diet with gluten in the development of colitis. Therefore, we investigate the effects of wheat gluten-containing diet on the evolution of sodium dextran sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice were fed a standard diet without (colitis group) or with 4·5 % wheat gluten (colitis + gluten) for 15 d and received DSS solution (1·5 %, w/v) instead of water during the last 7 d. Compared with the colitis group, colitis + gluten mice presented a worse clinical score, a larger extension of colonic injury area, and increased mucosal inflammation. Both intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation were increased, propitiating bacteria migration for peripheral organs. The mechanism by which diet with gluten exacerbates colitis appears to be related to changes in protein production and organisation in adhesion junctions and desmosomes. The protein α-E-catenin was especially reduced in mice fed gluten, which compromised the localisation of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, weakening the structure of desmosomes. The epithelial damage caused by gluten included shortening of microvilli, a high number of digestive vacuoles, and changes in the endosome/lysosome system. In conclusion, our results show that wheat gluten-containing diet exacerbates the mucosal damage caused by colitis, reducing intestinal barrier function and increasing bacterial translocation. These effects are related to the induction of weakness and disorganisation of adhesion junctions and desmosomes as well as shortening of microvilli and modification of the endocytic vesicle route.
Two new species of the genus Aporcelinus from the USA are described and illustrated. Aporcelinus floridensis sp. n. is characterized by its 1.12–1.52 mm long body, lip region offset by marked constriction and 14.5–17.0 μm broad with perioral liplets, odontostyle 16.5–20.0 μm at its ventral side and 1.1–1.2 times the lip region diameter, neck 316–395 μm long, pharyngeal expansion occupying 43–48% of total neck length, uterus simple and 33–56 μm long or 0.8–1.2 times the corresponding body diameter, V = 48–54, female tail conical (36–49 μm long, c = 27–41, c’ = 1.2–2.0) with finely rounded terminus and no hyaline portion, and male absent. Aporcelinus paolae sp. n. is characterized by its 1.29–1.80 mm long body, lip region offset by marked constriction and 14–16 μm broad, odontostyle 15–17 μm at its ventral side and 1.0–1.1 times the lip region diameter, neck 314–397 μm long, pharyngeal expansion occupying 43–53% of total neck length, uterus tripartite and 128–164 μm long or 2.6–3.6 times the corresponding body diameter, V = 53–57, female tail conical (30–39 μm long, c = 40–51, c’ = 1.1–1.3) with finely rounded terminus and variably re-curved dorsad, male tail conical (27–36 μm, c = 39–59, c’ = 0.9–1.2), ventrally straight and dorsally convex, spicules 48–54 μm long, and 7–9 irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements lacking hiatus. The analyses of the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA (LSU) gene sequences of the two new species confirmed the monophyly of the genus, based upon currently available data, showing a close relationship between the genera Aporcelinus and Makatinus, and justified the placement of Aporcelaimellus, Makatinus and Aporcelinus under the subfamily Aporcelaimellinae.
If (L, ≥) is a lattice or partial order we may think of its Hesse diagram as a directed graph, G, containing the single edge E(c, d) if and only if c covers d in (L, ≥). This graph we shall call the graph of (L, ≥). Strictly speaking it is the basis graph of (L, ≥) with the loops at each vertex removed; see (3, p. 170).
We shall say that an undirected graph Gu can be realized as the graph of a (modular) (distributive) lattice if and only if there is some (modular) (distributive) lattice whose graph has Gu as its associated undirected graph.
The prevalence of mental disorders among Black, Latino, and Asian adults is lower than among Whites. Factors that explain these differences are largely unknown. We examined whether racial/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events (TEs) or vulnerability to trauma-related psychopathology explained the lower rates of psychopathology among racial/ethnic minorities.
We estimated the prevalence of TE exposure and associations with onset of DSM-IV depression, anxiety and substance disorders and with lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a national sample (N = 13 775) with substantial proportions of Black (35.9%), Latino (18.9%), and Asian Americans (14.9%).
TE exposure varied across racial/ethnic groups. Asians were most likely to experience organized violence – particularly being a refugee – but had the lowest exposure to all other TEs. Blacks had the greatest exposure to participation in organized violence, sexual violence, and other TEs, Latinos had the highest exposure to physical violence, and Whites were most likely to experience accidents/injuries. Racial/ethnic minorities had lower odds ratios of depression, anxiety, and substance disorder onset relative to Whites. Neither variation in TE exposure nor vulnerability to psychopathology following TEs across racial/ethnic groups explained these differences. Vulnerability to PTSD did vary across groups, however, such that Asians were less likely and Blacks more likely to develop PTSD following TEs than Whites.
Lower prevalence of mental disorders among racial/ethnic minorities does not appear to reflect reduced vulnerability to TEs, with the exception of PTSD among Asians. This highlights the importance of investigating other potential mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic differences in psychopathology.