To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To (i) validate a recently proposed questionnaire tool for the simple assessment of physical activity (PA) in pre-school children by comparison with accelerometry and heart-rate recordings; and (ii) extend the tool by adding more questions to improve validity and to refine the classification from two to three categories (PA low, medium, high).
Baseline data of an intervention evaluation study.
Children were categorized as either physically active or non-active, based on their parents’ answers to the five-item questionnaire. Activity and heart rate were recorded for 6 d (Actiheart device; CamNtech, Cambridge, UK). Nightly sleeping periods were removed and mean accelerometry counts (MACT), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) were computed. In a second step, additional questions that improved validity were added, resulting in an extended seven-item questionnaire.
For 748 (90·4 %) of the participating children aged 2·3–6·7 years, the questionnaires were filled out sufficiently for classification. Children classified as physically active showed 9·6 % higher MACT (P < 0·0003), spent more time in MVPA and insignificantly less time in SB. Using the extended questionnaire, children with PA classified as medium (reference: low) showed 11·0 % more MACT, spent 11·8 % more time in MVPA and 4·8 % less time in SB. Children with PA classified as high showed 16·9 % more MACT, spent 20·2 % more time in MVPA and 7·2 % less time in SB.
With validated PA questionnaires for pre-school children lacking, the proposed questionnaire might be a reasonable option to include for PA assessment in epidemiological studies where more elaborate measurements are unavailable.
Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated.
Setting and subjects
Weight and height were measured in 12 556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004–5 and 2005–6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity.
The mean age of the children evaluated was 5·78 (sd 0·43) years, 6535 (52·1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0·786, 95 % CI 0·687, 0·898) or obese (OR = 0·655, 95 % CI 0·506, 0·849) and achieved 6·7 (95 % CI 5·8, 7·7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables.
Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.
A number of individual risk factors for childhood obesity have been identified, but only some of these are amenable to prevention. To assess the amount of cases in a general population attributable to these risk factors, adjusted population-attributable fractions were estimated.
Obligatory school entry examination in 2001/2002 in six Bavarian communities (Germany).
5472 children at age 5–6 years.
Anthropometric measures were ascertained by public health nurses, and measures concerning sociodemographics, lifestyle and child behaviour such as child's daily meal frequency were obtained with self-administered parental questionnaires. Obesity was defined according to sex- and age-specific body mass index cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Adjusted population-attributable fractions were calculated based on logistic regression.
A combination of the risk factors low meal frequency, decreased physical activity, watching television >1 h day− 1, formula feeding and smoking in pregnancy accounted for 48.2% of obese children. This combination yielded a maximal achievable prevalence reduction of 1.5% for obesity (3.2% observed prevalence).
A modification of five known risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity could reasonably lower obesity prevalences at school entry. These risk factors should be particularly considered in decision making on preventive measures.
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in children under 6 years old in China and to identify risk groups for VAD.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 14 provinces from coastal, inland and western geographic areas in China.
One city (urban) and two counties (rural) were randomly selected from each province as survey areas.
About 200 children aged 0–6 years were randomly selected in each survey area. A blood sample was collected from each child. Data on sociodemographics and nutrition were obtained by interview of the mother or principal caregiver. Fluorescence microanalysis was used to analyse serum retinol concentration.
VAD (serum retinol < 0.7 μmol l− 1) was observed in 957 out of 7826 children aged 0–6 years (12.2% of the entire study population), whereas severe VAD (serum retinol < 0.35 μmol l− 1) was found in 39 children (0.5%). The highest prevalences of VAD at >1 year of age were observed among children of mothers with minority ethnicity (22.7%) or poor education (19.8%) and in the poor western area (17.4%).
VAD is a nutritional problem in children in China. Children living in the poor western area, having a mother with minority ethnicity or a mother with poor education have a high risk of VAD.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.