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To analyse the relationship of altered birth weight with metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes among adolescents, as well as to identify if sports participation is able to attenuate or even eliminate the impact of birth weight on health outcomes.
Cross-sectional study (Analysis of Behaviours of Children During Growth [ABCD Growth Study]). Adolescents with age ranging from 11 to 18 years old (14.7±2.1) stratified according to normal (n = 230) and altered (n = 35) birth weight composed the sample. Birth weight was self-reported by adolescent’s parents. Sports participation was assessed by face-to-face interview. Carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) and femoral intima–media thickness (FIMT) were measured using an ultrasound device. C-reactive protein levels were used to assess the inflammatory status. Blood pressure, Z score of metabolic risk (dyslipidemia and glucose), adiposity, and insulin resistance were covariates.
In the crude model, FIMT (p value = 0.037) and C-reactive protein (p value = 0.029) were affected by altered birth weight. In the adjusted models, altered birth weight affected FIMT (p value = 0.048; small effect size of 1.7%), independently of sports participation. For C-reactive protein, previous time of engagement in sports (p value = 0.001; small effect size of 4.8%) affected C-reactive protein, independently of birth weight.
Vascular structure seems to be affected by birth weight in adolescents, while its impact on inflammation seems to be attenuated by the regular engagement in sports.
The aim of this study was to analyse whether changes in physical activity and body fatness are related to modifications in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents.
Material and methods
A sample of 89 healthy adolescents was recruited for this study. We assessed habitual physical activity, body fat percentage, arterial thickness, blood sample, and biological maturation. Multivariate models were used to analyse the relationships between independent and dependent variables.
Physical activity (mean difference: 429.4 steps [95% confidence interval=−427 to 1286]) and body fatness (mean difference: −0.7% [95% confidence interval=−1.6–0.2]) remained stable during the study period. Independent of changes in physical activity, for each percentage increase in body fatness, femoral intima-media thickness increased by 0.007 mm (β=0.007 [95% confidence interval=0.001–0.013]). Longitudinal relationships were found for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (β=−0.477 mg/dl [95% confidence interval=−0.805 to −0.149]) and triacylglycerol (β=2.329 mg/dl [95% confidence interval=0.275–4.384]).
Changes in body fatness are more important than the amount of physical activity on cardiovascular and metabolic risks.
To analyse the relationship between different heart rate variability indices, resting heart rate, and cardiovascular markers in adolescents.
A cross-sectional study was carried out with information from an ongoing cohort study. The sample was composed of 99 adolescents who complied with the following inclusion criteria: aged between 11 and 14 years; enrolled in a school unit of elementary education; absence of any known diseases; no drug consumption; and a formal consent signed by the parents or legal guardians. Weight, height, heart rate variability, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, blood pressure, resting heart rate, intima-media thickness, blood flow, and trunk fatness were measured. Partial correlation and linear regression (expressed by β and 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]) analyses were used to analyse the relationships between the variables.
In the linear regression analysis, even after adjustments for sex, age, trunk fatness, and somatic maturation, parasympathetic activity presented significant correlations with maximum carotid artery blood flow (β=−0.111 [95%CI=−0.216; −0.007]), systolic blood pressure (β=−0.319 [95%CI=−0.638; −0.001]), and resting heat rate (β=−0.005 [95%CI=−0.009; −0.002]).
Parasympathetic activity at rest is inversely related to maximum and minimum blood flow, triacylglycerol levels, and systolic blood pressure. These findings suggest that heart rate variability has the potential to discriminate pre-pubertal adolescents at increased risk.
To analyse the relationship between skipping breakfast and haemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.
A cross-sectional study was carried out with information from an ongoing cohort study in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample comprised of 120 adolescents (11.7±0.8 years old) who met the following inclusion criteria: age between 11 and 14 years; enrolled in the school unit of elementary education; absence of any known disease; and no drug consumption. The parents or legal guardians of the patients signed a formal informed consent. Skipping breakfast was self-reported through face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure, intima-media thickness, trunk fatness, total and fractional cholesterol levels – high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol – triacylglycerol levels, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were measured.
In this study, 47.5% (95% CI: 38.5–56.4%) of the adolescents reported skipping breakfast at least 1 day/week. Adolescents who skipped breakfast had higher values of trunk fatness and systolic blood pressure. Breakfast frequency was negatively related to systolic blood pressure (β −1.99 [−3.67; −0.31]) and z score dyslipidaemia (β −0.46 [−0.90; −0.01]), but this relationship was mediated by trunk fatness.
Skipping breakfast is related to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents, and this relationship was mainly mediated by trunk fatness.
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