We numerically model winds driven by super star clusters (SSC) using the hydrodynamic code ZEUS with the new radiative cooling procedure. The importance of cooling on the wind dynamics depends on the properties of the central cluster: the energy and mass deposition rates Lsc and Ṁsc, and the cluster radius Rsc. Low mass clusters behave adiabatically, and their winds are well described by the solution of Chevalier & Clegg (1985). However, for larger Lsc and Ṁsc and/or smaller Rsc, cooling becomes important, and the wind enters the radiative regime in which the wind temperature quickly drops to 104 K at a small distance away from the cluster (Silich et al., 2004). There is no stationary wind solution for very energetic and compact clusters. This is expressed by the line of the critical luminosity Lcrit shown by the left panel as a function of Rsc.
In the case of SSC above the threshold line, the stagnation point Rst appears inside the cluster. It splits the cluster volume into two parts: the outer one with r > Rst where the wind velocity is always positive, and the inner one r < Rst where it has a complicated time-dependent profile. The mass inserted into the outer region leaves the cluster in a form of quasi-stationary wind, while most of the mass from the inner region either accumulates there or passes the inner boundary and eventually feeds further star formation. The middle figure shows that the stagnation point Rst asymptotically approaches the cluster radius Rsc with the increasing Lsc.
The right figure summarises several of our calculations for a cluster with an Rsc = 10 pc. It shows the amount of the mass Ṁout outflowing from the cluster depending on Lsc. It can be seen that Ṁout grows with Lsc following the power-law fit of the simulations Ṁout ≈ Lsc0.54. However, the fraction of the outflowing mass to the total mass deposited by the cluster Ṁsc decreases with Lsc from 100% for Lsc = Lcrit to several percent for Lsc = 5 × 1044 erg s−1.