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The University of Wisconsin Institute for Clinical and Translational Research hub supports multiple pilot award programs that engage cross-disciplinary Translational Teams. To support those teams, our Team Science group aims to offer a learning experience that is accessible, active, and actionable. We identified Collaboration Planning as a high-impact intervention to stimulate team-building activities that provide Translational Team members with the skills to lead and participate in high-impact teams.
We adapted the published materials on Collaboration Planning to develop a 90-minute facilitated intervention with questions in 10 areas, presuming no previous knowledge of Science of Team Science (SciTS) or team-science best practices. Attendees received a short follow-up survey and submitted a written collaboration plan with their first quarterly progress report.
Thirty-nine participants from 13 pilot teams from a wide range of disciplines engaged in these sessions. We found that teams struggled to know who to invite, that some of our questions were confusing and too grounded in the language of SciTS, and groups lacked plans for managing their information and communications. We identified several areas for improvement including ensuring that the process is flexible to meet the needs of different teams, continuing to evolve the questions so they resonate with teams, and the need to provide resources for areas where teams needed additional guidance, including information and data management, authorship policies, and conflict management.
With further development and testing, Collaboration Planning has the potential to support Translational Teams in developing strong team dynamics and team functioning.
To assess the outcome of conservative management of vestibular schwannoma.
Tertiary referral centre.
Four hundred and thirty-six patients with vestibular schwannoma (490 tumours), including 327 sporadic tumours and 163 tumours in 109 patients with neurofibromatosis type two.
Main outcome measures:
The relationship of tumour growth to tumour size at presentation, and to certain demographic features.
The initial tumour size was significantly larger in the neurofibromatosis type two group (11 mm) than in the sporadic vestibular schwannoma group (5.1 mm). In both groups, 68 per cent of tumours did not grow during follow up (mean 3.6 years; range one to 14 years). The mean growth rate was 1.1 mm/year (range 0–15 mm/year) for sporadic tumours and 1.7 mm/year (range 0–18 mm/year) for neurofibromatosis type two tumours. The tumour growth rate correlated positively with tumour size in the sporadic tumour group, and correlated negatively with age in the neurofibromatosis type two group.
Two-thirds of vestibular schwannomas did not grow. Radiological surveillance is an acceptable approach in carefully selected patients. Once a sporadic vestibular schwannoma reaches 2 cm in intracranial diameter, it is likely to continue growing. We do not recommend conservative management for sporadic tumours with an intracranial diameter of 1.5 cm or more. Vestibular schwannoma management is more complex in patients with neurofibromatosis type two.
To report the coexistence of multiple tegmen defects, forming a ‘honeycomb’ pattern, together with dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal.
We describe three cases in which the above findings were noted, and we review the relevant literature.
Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is defined as the absence of portions of bone over the canal along the floor of the middle fossa. Most published articles describe the defect as an isolated finding which is either unilateral or bilateral. Studies on temporal bones show either a defect over the superior semicircular canal or isolated defects over the tegmen. We describe three cases in which we found multiple tegmen defects, giving a characteristic honeycomb appearance, coexisting with dehiscence over the superior semicircular canal. This finding, which supports the theory of a developmental defect as the origin of the condition, has not previously been reported. A literature review is presented, with discussion of the aetiology and management of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.
In endonasal surgery, approaching the anterior maxillary wall via the ipsilateral nostril is difficult. It is necessary to have good visual and instrument control when removing lesions such as inverted papilloma. We describe an approach through a temporary septotomy which provides good access from the contralateral nostril. The contralateral mucoperichondrial incision is anterior and the ipsilateral one posterior. The cartilage is hinged superiorly. There is minimal chance of perforation.
To assess the long term outcome of gentamicin inner-ear perfusion using the Silverstein MicroWick™ in the treatment of Ménière's disease.
Retrospective questionnaire survey of patients and review of medical records.
A district general hospital.
All 15 patients who completed a minimum follow up of at least 24 months were included.
Main outcome measures:
Subjective symptoms, change in hearing thresholds and Glasgow benefit inventory scores.
Based on the American Association of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (1995) guidelines for reporting, 80 per cent of respondents obtained class A vertigo control and 20 per cent obtained class B control. Respondents' functional level improved from pre-operative levels of between three and six to post-operative levels of between one and three. Three respondents had pre-operative ‘dead ears’ and one developed the condition post-operatively. Hearing deteriorated further in three respondents, improved in two and remained unchanged in the rest. Respondents with class A control demonstrated improved quality of life, with a mean Glasgow benefit inventory total score of +34.
Transtympanic gentamicin therapy via the Silverstein MicroWick results in good vertigo control. Patients should however be made fully aware of the risk of hearing deterioration.
A case of pneumosinus dilatans of the frontal sinus is presented. The findings on serial skull X-rays, performed on three occasions over a 10-year period, seem to support a developmental aetiology for this rare condition.
Secondary deposits in the temporal bone are uncommon but well recognized. Such tumours may involve the facial nerve by direct extension of the destructive process into the fallopian canal. We present a rare case of metastasis from a breast carcinoma in the facial nerve itself, involving the nerve in the internal acoustic meatus with extension into the labyrinthine segment, the first genu and into the middle-ear segment. The rest of the temporal bone was not involved. The lesion resembled a facial schwannoma on a routine magnetic resonance (MR) image. The diagnosis was confirmed after a post-operative computed tomography (CT) scan showed another separate secondary deposit in the basisphenoid. Histology was consistent with secondary tumour from a breast carcinoma. The case highlights the importance of keeping a high degree of suspicion for metastatic tumours in patients with a previous history of malignancy and the usefulness of CT scan in the evaluation of such cases.
Zn1−xCoxO (x = 0.0 – 0.047) thin films (thickness ∼0.5 – 1 μm) have been prepared on sapphire substrates using metalorganic decomposition (MOD) method. The X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering studies indicate films to be polycrystalline ZnO with wurtzite structure. The optical absorption spectra show an expected bandgap of ∼3.2 eV. The magnetization studies show that the as prepared films lack the room temperature ferromagnetic order, whereas the films when vacuum annealed at a temperature 500 – 600 °C acquire ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. Further, the observed ferromagnetism (FM) appears only for a limited range of Co concentration, 0.03 < x < 0.10 (after heat treating in vacuum at 550 °C), and it reversibly disappears upon re-annealing in air. The data presented here seem to suggest that the appearance of ferromagnetic order is dictated by both the oxygen defects and the critical concentration of Co, and thus may lend support to a recent model proposed by Coey et al. [Nature Materials4, 173 (2005)].
Chemical perfusion of the inner ear is an increasingly popular treatment for Ménière’s disease. The authors report on the long-term results of 22 patients treated with gentamicin delivered via a round window micro-catheter. Patients with Ménière’s disease underwent continuous, low dose (10 mg/ml) gentamicin infusion at 5 microlitre per hour for 10 days, through a micro-catheter placed into the round window niche. Vertigo was controlled in 95 per cent, whilst preserving hearing in 77 per cent. Hearing improved in three patients. Three patients with pre-operative serviceable hearing (PTA < 50 db) demonstrated reduced hearing; two patients with pre-operative non-serviceable hearing developed a dead ear. Tinnitus and aural fullness remained unchanged or improved in 86 per cent and 68 per cent respectively. Long-term vertigo control can be achieved using low dose gentamicin, whilst preserving hearing and vestibular function in the majority of patients. This procedure appears to stabilize the vestibular function, enhancing the chance of effective vestibular rehabilitation.
SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) samples have been prepared by sol-gel technique with varying amount of excess Bi added to the starting composition. The excess Bi profoundly affects the dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The dielectric constant (ε) and remnant polarization increases from 80 and 1.4 μ C/cm2 for SBT with 1 mole % of excess Bi to 120 and 6.5 μ C/cm2 for SBT with 20 mole % of excess Bi. The Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy images and the x-ray diffraction analysis show an improvement in structural quality of the samples with addition of excess Bi to the starting composition. The effect of Mn doping has also been studied by preparing SrBi2Ta2-x Mnx O9 (SBT-Mn) with x = 0 – 0.1. In the case of SBT-Mn samples, the XRD spectra revealed an unknown phase when x > 0.025. However, Raman spectra reveal the retention of Bi layer structure for all Mn compositions, with possibly small distortions. With Mn addition, ε increased to ∼ 140 for x < 0.005, but decreased to ≤ 120 when x > 0.015. The value of ε is independent of frequency from 60 to 85 kHz for all compositions of Mn. The effect of Mn addition resulted in a strong decrease in the area of the hysteresis loops.
The crystal structure of anhydrous δ-D-mannitol (C6H14O6) was solved from high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data collected on a mixture containing 20% and 80% w/w of β- and δ-D-mannitol, respectively. The direct space simulated annealing program PSSP, and Rietveld analysis employing GSAS were used to determine and refine the structure. The polymorph has monoclinic symmetry, space group P21 with a=5.089 41(5) Å, b=18.2504(2) Å, c=4.917 02(5) Å, and β=118.303(2)°. There is one molecule in the irreducible volume of the unit cell. The pattern of hydrogen bonding is significantly different than the previously known α and β forms.
The application of a reliable adequate pressure dressing to one side of the neck has always proved difficult, because of the risk of occluding the airway and the vasculature. We describe a method of maintaining well-localized pressure to one side of the neck without undue pressure on the vasculature and the airway by using a stiff cervical collar. This method was used successfully in the conservative management of neck haematoma in two patients.
A sensitive tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) technique operating at 4MHz is used to probe the dynamic response of La1−xSrxMnO3 single crystals for x = 0.125, 0.175, 0.28 and 0.33 doping. Systematics of the measured change in reactance (δX) as a function of temperature (30K < T < 320K) and DC magnetic field (0 < H < 6kOe) reveal distinct temperature and field scales associated with the dynamic response of spin. It is notable that these features are far more striking than the corresponding features in static measurements. The results are discussed in the context of structural changes leading to polaron ordering.
This paper addresses tension-tension (R=0) low cycle fatigue behavior of thin film Al structures released from a substrate. Al beam specimens 2 µm thick, 50 µm wide and 500 µm long (gauge length) were micromachined over a window in a Si substrate. Cyclic load-displacement behavior was investigated using a multiple step test method, in which each specimen was cycled with several blocks of constant maximum displacement amplitude. Load, displacement and temperature were recorded continuously. A load drop and a corresponding stabilized state were observed for each displacement block. Monotonic tension tests to failure were also performed for comparison. Evidence of cyclic creep was observed. SEM images revealed fatigue markings on cyclically loaded specimens but not on monotonically loaded beams.
Nanocrystalline copper powder was produced by a NaBH4 reduction of CuCl in a simple solution phase room temperature reaction. Uniaxial hot pressing in a closed tungsten die was used to compact powder into dense specimens. Samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, precision densitometry, electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and selected area diffraction. Mechanical properties of the consolidated samples were determined by microhardness measurements, three-point bending of rectangular specimens, and compression tests. Yield strength measured for nanocrystalline Cu in the present work was over two times that reported in literature for Cu with comparable grain size and over five times that of conventional Cu. Restricted grain growth observed in the hot-pressed samples and improved mechanical properties are attributed to the presence of boron. A unique method of obtaining homogeneous in situ nanosized reinforcements to strengthen the grain boundaries in nanocrystalline materials is identified.
Nanocrystalline copper produced by a solution-phase chemistry approach and compacted by hot pressing was subjected to room temperature deformation. Uniaxial compression and rolling were used to deform the samples to °90% reduction in thickness. Samples were subjected to several heat treatments to study microstructure and property evolution as a function of heat treatment. Thermal response of the as-pressed and deformed nanocrystalline Cu was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and selected area diffraction were used to characterize microstructures after heat treatments. Samples exhibited an endotherm upon heating at 322 °C which was reversible upon cooling. This was attributed to either dissolution and formation of Cu–B precipitates or the diffusion of B from the grain boundaries to the bulk and back to the grain boundaries. Exaggerated recrystallization occurs in the temperature range of 399–422 °C. Samples maintained high dislocation density, deformation bands, and fine grain size up to 322 °C. Beyond the recrystallization temperature, grains grew at a faster rate to submicron or micron levels. The strain hardening observed in the samples of the present study is attributed to the presence of boron. Two mechanisms are suggested for the role of B: (i) segregation of B to the grain boundaries leading to strengthening of grain boundaries, and (ii) formation of Cu–B nanoprecipitates leading to precipitation strengthening.
Substantial improvements have been reported in high temperature strength and creep resistance, and room temperature fracture toughness of molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) reinforced with ductile or brittle reinforcements. The influence of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) process parameters on the mechanical properties of MoSi2 based alloys was studied. Monolithic MoSi2 powder and MoSi2 powder blended with either niobium powder or silicon carbide whisker reinforcements were consolidated by HIP at 1200 − 1400°C, 207 MPa, and 1 - 4 hrs. The HIP'ed compacts were characterized for compression strength and creep resistance at 1100-1300°C. Fracture toughness was measured on single edge notched rectangular specimens at room temperature. Mechanical properties were correlated with post-HIP microstructural features.
A powder x-ray diffraction technique has been developed for the quantification of carbamazepine in tablets. The other tablet ingredients were microcrystalline cellulose, starch, stearic acid and silicon dioxide. The tablets were ground in a ball mill and the powder mixed with lithium fluoride (20% w/w) which was the internal standard. Five lines of carbamazepine with d-spacings of 3.38, 3.34, 3.28, 3.26 and 3.23 Å and the 2.01 Å line of lithium fluoride were used for the quantitative analysis. A plot of the intensity ratio (sum of the intensities of the lines of carbamazepine/intensity of die lithium fluoride line) as a function of the weight fraction of carbamazepine in the tablets resulted in a straight line. Using this standard curve, the carbamazepine content in “unknown” tablets was determined and ranged between 98.6 and 101.6% of the actual drug content. The coefficient of variation in the determinations ranged between 0.28 and 2.1%.
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