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Subcutaneous fat thickness and fatty acid composition (FAC) play an important role on seasoning loss and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned hams. Dry-cured ham industry prefers meats with low contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) because these negatively affect fat firmness and ham quality, whereas consumers require higher contents in those fatty acids (FA) for their positive effect on human health. A population of 950 Italian Large White pigs from the Italian National Sib Test Selection Programme was investigated with the aim to estimate heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations of backfat FAC, Semimembranosus muscle intramuscular fat (IMF) content and other carcass traits. The pigs were reared in controlled environmental condition at the same central testing station and were slaughtered at reaching 150 kg live weight. Backfat samples were collected to analyze FAC by gas chromatography. Carcass traits showed heritability levels from 0.087 for estimated carcass lean percentage to 0.361 for hot carcass weight. Heritability values of FA classes were low-to-moderate, all in the range 0.245 for n-3 PUFA to 0.264 for monounsaturated FA (MUFA). Polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a significant genetic correlation with loin thickness (0.128), backfat thickness (−0.124 for backfat measured by Fat-O-Meat’er and −0.175 for backfat measured by calibre) and IMF (−0.102). Obviously, C18:2(n-6) shows similar genetic correlations with the same traits (0.211 with loin thickness, −0.206 with backfat measured by Fat-O-Meat’er, −0.291 with backfat measured by calibre and −0.171 with IMF). Monounsaturated FA, except with the backfat measured by calibre (0.068; P<0.01), do not show genetic correlations with carcass characteristics, whereas a negative genetic correlation was found between MUFA and saturated FA (SFA; −0.339; P<0.001). These results suggest that MUFA/SFA ratio could be increased without interfering with carcass traits. The level of genetic correlations between FA and carcass traits should be taken into account in dealing with the development of selection schemes addressed to modify carcass composition and/or backfat FAC.
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer and the prevalence of HPV types varies depending on the geographic region. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of HPV types in women with cervical lesions from Sergipe state, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in women with cervical lesions from March to December 2014. These lesions were investigated by PCR and HPV types were identified by DNA sequencing. 432 patients were included, of which 337 patients tested positive for HPV. Eighteen different HPV types were detected, and high-risk HPV types were detected in 69.2%. HPV 16 (63.4%) was the most prevalent HPV type found, followed by HPV 66 (4.6%), HPV 18 (1.6%) and HPV 45 (1.4%). These results highlight the importance of the high prevalence of HPV 66, which is a possibly carcinogenic virus type not covered by the available vaccines. The prevalence of HPV 16 was high in the studied population, reaffirming the importance of young vaccination. However, the high prevalence of HPV 66 found in this study shows the importance of monitoring the diversity of HPV types in different populations and geographic regions to better understand the impacts of current HPV vaccines.
In serious emergency situations such as the aircraft crash, the medical staff can also be in danger. The risk for the medical and paramedical staff has two sources: (a) factors related to the cause of the accident; and (b) dangers occurring during rescue operations. It is necessary that the emergency staff look to their own security, and avoid exposing themselves to the risks associated with the panicking movements of frightened people (herd effect). The first aid station should be established in a position down-wind, to avoid the toxic smoke from fire. An essential condition is that the medical emergency staff is composed of people physically and psychologically suitable to the sudden effort and the acute stress.
To reduce the risks associated with rescue operations training is essential, conducted under the supervision of experts from the Fire Brigade. A minimum program of training must be arranged between the physician in charge and the airport authorities, so as to reconcile the activities of the two parties and achieve co-ordination. The medical and paramedical staff must be trained to operate with a gas-mask or oxygen auto-respirator, necessary to prevent intoxication with compounds such as tri-o-cresyl phosphate, fire extinguisher compounds such as dibromodil-fluoromethane and bromocloromethane. Metabolites of air contaminants found in airport disasters are not well known. We summarize in the table some toxicologic data of interest.
In the event of a disaster, all personnel present in the airport area must modify their own everyday rules to ensure the best response to the emergency situation. For medical aid there are two main objectives: (a) organization of rescue operation; and (b) mustering medical resources. The initiators of the rescue operation must be the control tower staff and each Italian airport is provided with emergency plans which have been carefully studied.
Information systems between the accident site and the centers of available medical resources, however, are less well organized. These can be simplified by the use of a video terminal, connected with a data system elaborator. The Lombardy region plans to install a video-terminal in every Regional Hospital in order to be able to present the airport with the up-to-date situation of vacant beds and of medical staff present in the hospital for emergency tasks.
It is proposed that the alert from the accident site should be in two phases. Initially, a general alert must be given, followed after a short time by a more detailed specific alert. The first phase must be addressed to those departments that, independently of the type of the disaster, will always be involved in any critical situation, e.g., Ambulance Headquarters, ICUs, Blood Centers, Emergency Departments. The second phase will be used to inform hospital departments specializing in treating the pathology prevailing in the particular disaater. In airport disasters, the pathology which prevails will include major and multiple injuries with blood loss and burns.
The use of oxygen in emergency situations outside hospitals is limited by difficulties in supply. Low capacity cylinders (100-120 1) weigh 3-4 kg, and have cumbersome mechanisms for pressure and flow reduction. Disposable cylinders of oxygen from a chemical source create the possibility of the contents running out, and are fragile. Particularly when exposed to high pressures or temperature.
Mouth-to-mouth remains most rational and effective. Problems include aesthetic concern and exhaustion in rescuer. It is possible, however, to adapt a Brooke or a Safar airway for use with oxygen, by attaching a tube with tape near the proximal outlet of the airway. This apparatus has been tried on 4 patients during general anesthesia with thiopentone-succinylcholine-neuroleptics—for appendectomies using controlled ventilation with expired air with oxygen added. Tidal volumes of 350-500 ml of air/oxygen were delivered at a frequency of 6-8 breaths per minute. The nose was closed by a clip. Sellik's maneuver could prevent gastric inflation. The color of blood was normal, arterial pressure and pulse did not change, and skin was dry. No fatigue or other effects were reported by the anesthesiologist-“rescuer”. In outdoor use, where oxygen from a chemical source is used, the problems associated with the exothermic reaction can be limited by cylinder lagging with openings to disperse heat. A flow of O2 6-7 1/min is sufficient to support a critical situation. It allows O2 enrichment for mouth-to-mouth, mouth-to-mask, mouth-to-airway, or bag valve ventilation. Modest cost, and low weight allow large numbers to be stored for airport disasters, when resuscitation is performed on a large scale for many victims.
To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework – the Med Diet 4.0 – in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns.
A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0.
We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined.
The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet.
By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.
This study compared the antimicrobial susceptibility and genotypes of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from men who have sex with men (MSM) and from heterosexuals. One hundred and eleven strains were characterized from 107 patients, comprising 57 strains from 54 heterosexuals and 54 strains from 53 MSM. Antimicrobial resistance rates were higher in strains from heterosexual patients, with resistance to cefixime (P = 0·0159) and ciprofloxacin (P = 0·002) being significantly higher. Typing by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) showed that the most prevalent sequence types (ST) and genogroups (G) respectively were ST2400, ST2992, and ST5793, and G1407, G2992, and G2400. A statistically significant association was observed for MSM and genogroups G2400 (P = 0·0005) and G2992 (P = 0·0488), and G1407 with heterosexuals (P = 0·0002). We conclude that in our region distinct populations of gonococci are circulating among subjects with different sexual practices, with their corresponding transmission patterns. Furthermore, the high prevalence of genotype G2400 in MSM, has not to our knowledge been previously described.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Although the thick disk in our Galaxy was revealed more than thirty years ago, its formation scenario is still unclear. Here, we analyze a chemo-dynamical simulation of a primordial disk population representative of the Galactic thick disk and investigate how the spatial, kinematic, and chemical properties are affected by the presence of a central bar.
The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms.