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John R. Schneider explores the problem that animal suffering, caused by the inherent nature of Darwinian evolution, poses to belief in theism. Examining the aesthetic aspects of this moral problem, Schneider focuses on the three prevailing approaches to it: that the Fall caused animal suffering in nature (Lapsarian Theodicy), that Darwinian evolution was the only way for God to create an acceptably good and valuable world (Only-Way Theodicy), and that evolution is the source of major, God-justifying beauty (Aesthetic Theodicy). He also uses canonical texts and doctrines from Judaism and Christianity - notably the book of Job, and the doctrines of the incarnation, atonement, and resurrection - to build on insights taken from the non-lapsarian alternative approaches. Schneider thus constructs an original, God-justifying account of God and the evolutionary suffering of animals. His book enables readers to see that the Darwinian configuration of animal suffering unveiled by scientists is not as implausible on Christian theism as commonly supposed.
Reciprocal space mapping can be efficiently carried out using a position-sensitive x-ray detector (PSD) coupled to a traditional double-axis diffractometer. The PSD offers parallel measurement of the total scattering angle of all diffracted x-rays during a single rocking-curve scan. As a result, a two-dimensional reciprocal space map can be made in a very short time similar to that of a one-dimensional rocking-curve scan. Fast, efficient reciprocal space mapping offers numerous routine advantages to the x-ray diffraction analyst. Some of these advantages arc the explicit differentiation of lattice strain from crystal orientation effects in strain-relaxed heteroepitaxial layers; the nondestructive characterization of the size, shape and orientation of nanocrystalline domains in ordered-alloy epilayers; and the ability to measure the average size and shape of voids in porous epilayers. Here, the PSD-based diffractometer is described, and specific examples clearly illustrating the advantages of complete reciprocal space analysis are presented.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Peer groups are one of the strongest determinants of alcohol use and misuse. Furthermore, social influence plays a significant role in alcohol use across the lifespan. One of the factors that most consistently predicts successful treatment outcomes for alcohol use disorders is one’s ability to change their social network. However, the concept of social influence as defined by suggestibility or susceptibility to social influence has not yet been studied as it relates to drinking behavior and acute subjective response to alcohol. Our objective was to examine the relationship between suggestibility and alcohol consumption and responses, using an intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) paradigm in social drinkers. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Healthy, social drinkers (n=20) completed a human laboratory session in which they underwent the IV-ASA paradigm. This consisted of an initial 25-minute priming phase, where participants were prompted to push a button to receive individually standardized IV alcohol infusions, followed by a 125-minute phase during which they could push the button for additional infusions. IV-ASA measures included the peak and average breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and number of button presses. Subjective responses were assessed using the Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) and Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ) collected serially during the session. Participants completed the Multidimensional Iowa Suggestibility Scale (MISS) to assess suggestibility. The Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (AEFQ) was used to assess alcohol expectancies and the Timeline Followback questionnaire measured recent drinking history. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After controlling for drinking history, greater suggestibility significantly predicted greater average BrAC, greater peak BrAC, and a greater number of button presses (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.04, respectively) during the early open bar phase. Suggestibility significantly predicted subjective alcohol effects following the priming phase which included “Feel,” “Want,” “High,” and “Intoxicated” and was trending for “Like” (p=0.02, p=0.03, p=0.01, p=0.03, p=0.054, respectively) as well as AUQ (p=0.03). After controlling for drinking history, suggestibility significantly predicted “Feel,” “Like,” “High,” and “Intoxicated” peak scores during the open bar phase (p=0.03, p=0.009, p=0.03, p=0.03, respectively). There was no association between suggestibility and “Want More” alcohol. Suggestibility was positively associated with three positive expectancies (global positive; p=0.04, social expressiveness; p=0.005, relaxation; p=0.03), and one negative expectancy (cognitive and physical impairment; p=0.02). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results indicate that social drinkers that were more suggestible had higher alcohol consumption, greater acute subjective response to alcohol, and more positive alcohol expectancies. As such, susceptibility to social influence may be an important determinant of alcohol consumption, and may provide insight into harmful drinking behavior such as binge drinking. Future analyses should examine the impact of suggestibility on alcohol-related phenotypes across the spectrum of drinking from social to binge and heavy drinking patterns.
Background: To determine whether exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in CSF of patients with FTD can serve as diagnostic biomarkers, we assessed miRNA expression in the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) cohort and in sporadic FTD. Methods: GENFI participants were either carriers of a pathogenic mutation or at risk of carrying a mutation because a first-degree relative was a symptomatic mutation carrier. Exosomes were isolated from CSF of 23 -pre-symptomatic and 15 symptomatic mutation carriers, and 11 healthy non-mutation carriers. Expression of miRNAs was measured using qPCR arrays. MiRNAs differentially expressed in symptomatic compared to pre-symptomatic mutation carriers were evaluated in 17 patients with sporadic FTD, 13 patients with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and 10 healthy controls (HCs). Results: In the GENFI cohort, miR-204-5p and miR-632 were significantly decreased in symptomatic compared to pre-symptomatic mutation carriers. Decrease of miR-204-5p and miR-632 revealed receiver operator characteristics with an area of 0.89 [90% CI: 0.79-0.98] and 0.81 [90% CI: 0.68-0.93], and when combined an area of 0.93 [90% CI: 0.87-0.99]. In sporadic FTD, only miR-632 was significantly decreased compared to sporadic AD and HCs. Decrease of miR-632 revealed an area of 0.89 [90% CI: 0.80-0.98]. Conclusions: Exosomal miR-204-5p and miR-632 have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for genetic FTD and miR-632 also for sporadic FTD.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Wholesale prices for electricity vary significantly due to high fluctuations and low elasticity of short-run demand. End-use customers have typically paid flat retail rates for their electricity consumption, and time-varying prices (TVPs) have been proposed to help reduce peak consumption and lower the overall cost of servicing demand. Unfortunately, the general practice is an opt-in system: a default rule in favor of TVPs would be far better. A behaviorally informed analysis also shows that when transaction costs and decision biases are taken into account, the most cost-reflective policies are not necessarily the most efficient. On reasonable assumptions, real-time prices can result in less peak conservation of manually controlled devices than time-of-use or critical-peak prices. For that reason, the trade-offs between engaging automated and manually controlled loads must be carefully considered in time-varying rate design. The rate type and accompanying program details should be designed with the behavioral biases of consumers in mind, while minimizing price distortions for automated devices.
Digital terrain models of the southern Chilean ice cap Gran Campo Nevado reflecting the terrain situations of the years 1984 and 2000 were compared in order to obtain the volumetric glacier changes that had occurred during this period. The result shows a slightly negative mean glacier change of 3.80 m. The outlet glacier tongues show a massive thinning, whereas the centre of the ice cap is characterized by a moderate thickening. Thus a distinct altitudinal variability of the glacier change is noticed. Hypothetically this could be explained by the combined effects of increased precipitation and increased mean annual air temperature. Both to verify and to quantify this pattern of climatic change, the mean glacier change as well as its hypsometric variation are compared with the results of a degree-day model. The observed volumetric glacier change is traced back to possible climate forcing and can be linked to an underlying climate change that must be comparable with the effects of a precipitation offset of at least 7–8% and a temperature offset of around 0.3 K compared to the steady-state conditions in the period 1984–2000.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Impulsivity is a significant predictor of alcohol use and drinking behavior, and has been shown to be a critical trait in those with alcohol use disorder. Suggestibility, or susceptibility to social influence, has been shown to correlate with impulsivity, with highly suggestible individuals being more likely to make impulsive decisions influenced by peer groups. However, the relationship between social influence and drinking behavior is unclear. Our objective was to describe the relationship between social influence and impulsivity traits using the social delayed discounting task and potential differences in intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) behavior. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Healthy, non-dependent drinkers (n=20) completed a CAIS session, which consisted of an initial 25-minute priming phase, where subjects were prompted to push a button to receive individually standardized IV alcohol infusions, followed by a 125-minute phase during which they could push the button for additional infusions. IV-ASA measures included the peak (PEAK) and average (AVG) BrAC and Number of Button Presses (NBP). Participants completed a social delayed discounting task (SDDT), where participants were presented with the choice of a small, sooner (SS) reward or a large, later (LL) reward. Before starting the task, participants chose peers who selected either the impulsive (SI) or non-impulsive choice (S). Intermittently, the peers’ choice was not shown (X) or different choices (D) were selected. Participants also completed the MISS, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, and the NEO personality inventory. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants with higher suggestibility scores had greater NBP, AVG, and PEAK BrAC in the early phase of the IV-ASA session. Higher scores on the MISS were also correlated with higher impulsivity scores including the NEO Neuroticism (N-factor) measure, BIS-11, and UPPS-P. Results also showed that the MISS score was inversely correlated with the percent of impulsive choices in the SDDT, but that this was independent of peers’ impulsive or nonimpulsive choices. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results indicate that non-dependent drinkers that were more susceptible to social influence had heavier drinking patterns, higher IV-ASA, and higher scores on impulsivity measures. In addition, individuals that were more susceptible to social influence made more impulsive choices in general, but those choices were not affected by peer decisions during the task. As such, susceptibility to social influence may be an important determinant of impulsive choices, particularly in relation to alcohol consumption.
To determine signs and symptoms for superior canal dehiscence syndrome caused by the superior petrosal sinus.
A review of the English-language literature on PubMed and Embase databases was conducted, in addition to a multi-centre case series report.
The most common symptoms of 17 patients with superior petrosal sinus related superior canal dehiscence syndrome were: hearing loss (53 per cent), aural fullness (47 per cent), pulsatile tinnitus (41 per cent) and pressure-induced vertigo (41 per cent). The diagnosis was made by demonstration of the characteristic bony groove of the superior petrosal sinus and the ‘cookie bite’ out of the superior semicircular canal on computed tomography imaging.
Pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, aural fullness and pressure-induced vertigo are the most common symptoms in superior petrosal sinus related superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Compared to superior canal dehiscence syndrome caused by the more common apical location of the dehiscence, pulsatile tinnitus and exercise-induced vertigo are more frequent, while sound-induced vertigo and autophony are less frequent. There is, however, considerable overlap between the two subtypes. The distinction cannot as yet be made on clinical signs and symptoms alone, and requires careful analysis of computed tomography imaging.
Ion angular current and energy distributions are important parameters for ion thrusters, which are typically measured at a few tens of centimetres to a few metres distance from the thruster exit. However, fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are not able to simulate such domain sizes due to high computational costs. Therefore, a parallelisation strategy of the code is presented to reduce computational time. The calculated ion beam angular distributions in the plume region are quite sensitive to boundary conditions of the potential, possible additional source contributions (e.g. from secondary electron emission at vessel walls) and charge exchange collisions. Within this work a model for secondary electrons emitted from the vessel wall is included. In order to account for limits of the model due to its limited domain size, a correction of the simulated angular ion energy distribution by the potential boundary is presented to represent the conditions at the location of the experimental measurement in
distance. In addition, a post-processing procedure is suggested to include charge exchange collisions in the plume region not covered by the original PIC simulation domain for the simulation of ion angular distributions measured at
Critical to the development of improved HIV elimination efforts is a greater understanding of how social networks and their dynamics are related to HIV risk and prevention. In this paper, we examine network stability of confidant and sexual networks among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). We use data from uConnect (2013–2016), a population-based, longitudinal cohort study. We use an innovative approach to measure both sexual and confidant network stability at three time points, and examine the relationship between each type of stability and HIV risk and prevention behaviors. This approach is consistent with a co-evolutionary perspective in which behavior is not only affected by static properties of an individual's network, but may also be associated with changes in the topology of his or her egocentric network. Our results indicate that although confidant and sexual network stability are moderately correlated, their dynamics are distinct with different predictors and differing associations with behavior. Both types of stability are associated with lower rates of risk behaviors, and both are reduced among those who have spent time in jail. Public health awareness and engagement with both types of networks may provide new opportunities for HIV prevention interventions.
A pilot study by 6 Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) explored how bibliometrics can be used to assess research influence.
Evaluators from 6 institutions shared data on publications (4202 total) they supported, and conducted a combined analysis with state-of-the-art tools. This paper presents selected results based on the tools from 2 widely used vendors for bibliometrics: Thomson Reuters and Elsevier.
Both vendors located a high percentage of publications within their proprietary databases (>90%) and provided similar but not equivalent bibliometrics for estimating productivity (number of publications) and influence (citation rates, percentage of papers in the top 10% of citations, observed citations relative to expected citations). A recently available bibliometric from the National Institutes of Health Office of Portfolio Analysis, examined after the initial analysis, showed tremendous potential for use in the CTSA context.
Despite challenges in making cross-CTSA comparisons, bibliometrics can enhance our understanding of the value of CTSA-supported clinical and translational research.
Conical mounds of ice have been observed to form in a few hours during violent winter storms along the edge of shore-fast ice near Dunkirk, New York. They occur in lines which parallel depth contours, and are evenly spaced in the manner of beach cusps. The height and spacing of mounds and number of rows vary from year to year depending on such factors as storm duration and intensity, and the position of the edge of the shore-fast ice at the beginning of the storm.
The evenly sloping conical mounds have central channels which increase in width lakeward. The ice between the channels forms headlands above the lake surface. Spray-formed levees develop along the headlands and slope gently away from the lake margin. Lake marginal walls of ice are usually vertical.
Spray, slush and ice blocks are ejected over the cone as each successive wave is focused by the converging channel walls. Ice blocks, interlayered with frozen slush and dirt, form bedding paralleling the sloping surface of cones, headlands and levees. These features are here termed “ice volcanoes” because their origin is in so many ways analogous to that of true volcanoes.
Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures
eV and electron densities
. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a
diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design,
of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the
mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining
directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.
There remains a large disparity in the quantity, quality and impact of mental health research carried out in sub-Saharan Africa, relative to both the burden and the amount of research carried out in other regions. We lack evidence on the capacity-building activities that are effective in achieving desired aims and appropriate methodologies for evaluating success.
AFFIRM was an NIMH-funded hub project including a capacity-building program with three components open to participants across six countries: (a) fellowships for an M.Phil. program; (b) funding for Ph.D. students conducting research nested within AFFIRM trials; (c) short courses in specialist research skills. We present findings on progression and outputs from the M.Phil. and Ph.D. programs, self-perceived impact of short courses, qualitative data on student experience, and reflections on experiences and lessons learnt from AFFIRM consortium members.
AFFIRM delivered funded research training opportunities to 25 mental health professionals, 90 researchers and five Ph.D. students across 6 countries over a period of 5 years. A number of challenges were identified and suggestions for improving the capacity-building activities explored.
Having protected time for research is a barrier to carrying out research activities for busy clinicians. Funders could support sustainability of capacity-building initiatives through funds for travel and study leave. Adoption of a train-the-trainers model for specialist skills training and strategies for improving the rigor of evaluation of capacity-building activities should be considered.