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Introduction: With the increasing volume of medical literature published each year, it is difficult for clinicians to translate the latest research into practice. Awareness is the first step of knowledge translation and journals have begun using social media to increase the dissemination and awareness of their publications. Infographics can describe research findings visually, are shared broadly on social media, and may be a more effective way to convey information. We hypothesized that infographic abstracts would increase the social media dissemination and online readership of research articles relative to traditional abstracts. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 24 original research articles were chosen from the six issues of the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM) published between July 2016 and May 2017 (4 articles per issue). Half were randomized to the infographic and control groups within each issue. Infographic articles were promoted using a visual infographic outlining the findings of the article. Control articles were promoted using a screen capture image of each articles abstract. Both were disseminated through the journals social media accounts (Twitter and Facebook) along with the link to the selected article. Infographics were also published on CanadiEM.org. Abstract views, full text views, and the change in Altmetric score were tracked for 30 days and compared between groups. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests were used to detect significant differences. Results: Abstract views (mean, SD) were significantly higher for infographic articles (378.9, 162.0) than control articles (175.5, 69.2, p<0.001). Mean Altmetric scores were significantly higher for infographic articles (26.4, 13.8) than control articles (3.4, 1.7, p<0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in full-text views between infographic (49.7, 90.4) and control articles (25.3, 12.3). Conclusion: CJEM articles promoted on social media using infographics had higher abstract viewership and Altmetric scores than those promoted with traditional abstracts. Although there was no difference in full-text readership, our results suggest that infographic abstracts may have a role in increasing the dissemination of medical literature.
The automation of existing in vitro gas production methods (Beuvink et al., 1992) and the development of new ones (Theodorou et al., 1994) have created a need for suitable mathematical models to describe and interpret cumulative gas production profiles. Ideally a function is required which is capable of modelling a range of shapes with no inflexion point and also a range of sigmoidal shapes in which the inflexion point is variable. Several models have been proposed to describe gas production profiles (e.g. Blümmel and Ørskov, 1993; Beuvink and Kogut, 1993; Schofield et al ., 1994), sometimes blending empiricism with a more mechanistic view based on a compartmental scheme. The primary objectives of this paper are to present a unifying analysis of this area, pointing out compartmental interpretations of some of the candidate models and to link the gas production technique to animal performance by determining the extent of ruminal degradation for each model.
The worked stone, other than sarsen, was kindly examined macroscopically by Mr R W Sanderson of the Petrological Department of the Institute of Geological Sciences, and the following notes were compiled from his verbal comments. Apart from the polished stone axes, the majority of the rocks are not very distinctive in type, and except for a few specimens (eg S2, S15, and S20 and possibly S3, S6, and S5), it has not been possible to identify their sources.
Invertebrates are of particular interest on heather moorlands because of their rapid response to small scale habitat changes. Spiders constitute a variable proportion of the diet of heather moorland bird, mammal and reptile species. Furthermore, spiders may be an important indicator of habitat change resulting from management practices, especially those that exert a large- scale spatial impact, e.g. grazing. The component families and species of spider assemblages indicate, through their differing preference for web attachments and web structure, the vegetation density, height and structure (Marc et al., 1999). This effect may be especially pronounced where continued grazing at a particular stocking rate results in characteristic patterns in the vegetation structure. Species and family specific hunting strategies determine prey type and so the presence of some spider species may indicate the presence of a preferred prey species. This study aims to investigate the effect of grazing with sheep alone or in combination with cattle grazing on an upland heather moorland in the north of England.
The Dacron bag technique has been widely used to estimate degradation in the rumen. The drawbacks, such as variation in rinsing losses and inability to correct for microbial contamination, are well known. However, these effects also suggest the potential to use the technique in studies of microbial colonisation. Other studies in our laboratory have investigated the use of odd-chain fatty acids (C15:0 and C17:0) as markers of rumen microbial activity (Fievez et al, 2003) because they are generally rare or absent from feeds. The objective of this work was to use multivariate statistical analysis to explore the relationships between plant and microbial fatty acids in ingested herbage.
Rapid breakdown of herbage proteins in the rumen and inefficient capture of nitrogen (N) by the rumen microbial populations are a major source of N loss and pollution in pasture-based ruminant agriculture. Degree of cell damage during mastication and ingestion varies between grass species with consequences for release of cell contents (protein, sugars and lipids) into the rumen (Kim et al., 2008). Consequently, grazing cattle on different grass species may provide an opportunity to manipulate N efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare N utilisation efficiency by dairy cattle grazing grass species differing in chemical and morphological characteristics.
As grazing ruminants rely almost entirely on mastication to disrupt plant tissues, a series of processes (mastication, bolus formation and ingestion) will impact on the viability and number of cells that remain intact, and consequently alive, after ingestion (Kingston-Smith and Theodorou, 2000). Preliminary work in our group has shown substantial variation in the degree of cell damage during mastication and ingestion between grass species, resulting in differences in the rate of release of cell contents (protein, sugars and lipids) into the rumen (E.J. Kim, unpublished). These differences may affect nutrient utilisation by ruminal micro-organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the extent of nutrient release from three contrasting grass species following ingestion of the fresh forage by dairy cows.
Research has shown both production and health benefits for the use of chicory (Cichorium intybus) within ruminant diets. Despite this, little was known about the effects of this forage, containing differing fatty acid profiles and secondary plant compounds compared with ryegrass, on beef stability, fatty acid composition or sensory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether the inclusion of chicory in the diet of grazing beef steers would alter these three properties in the M. Longissimus muscle when compared with beef steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Triplicate 2 ha plots were established with a chicory (cv. Puna II)/perennial ryegrass mix or a perennial ryegrass control. A core group of 36 Belgian Blue – cross steers were used within a 2-year beef finishing experiment (n=6/replicate plot). In the 2nd grazing year, steers were slaughtered as they reached a target fat class of 3. Muscle pH was checked 2 and 48 h post-slaughter. A section of the hindloin joint containing the M. Longissimus lumborum muscle was removed and a 20 mm-thick steak was cut and muscle samples were taken for analysis of vitamin E and fatty acid analysis. The remaining section of the loin was vacuum packed in modified atmosphere packs and subjected to simulated retail display. A section of the conditioned loin was used for sensory analysis. Data on pH, vitamin E concentration and colour stability in a simulated retail display showed there were no effects of including chicory in the diet of grazing beef steers on meat stability. There were also no differences found in the fatty acid composition or the overall eating quality of the steaks from the two treatments. In conclusion, there were no substantive effects of including chicory in the swards of grazing beef cattle on meat stability, fatty acid composition or sensory properties of the M. Longissimus muscle when compared with beef steers grazing ryegrass-only swards.
Introduction: The CJEM Social Media Team was created in 2014 to assist the journal with the dissemination of its research online. It consists of two Social Media Editors (Junior and Senior) and a team of volunteer medical students and residents to assist their work. Collaborative promotional agreements were developed to promote CJEM articles on the Skeptics’ Guide to Emergency Medicine (SGEM) podcast through the ‘Hot off the Press’ (HOP) series and the CanadiEM blog through an infographic series. Methods:CJEM papers were selected for promotion by the Team based on their perceived interest to the online community of emergency physicians. Altmetric scores, which are a measure of online dissemination derived from a weighted algorithm of social media metrics, were collated for articles promoted using the SGEM HOP or CanadiEM blogs. A control group was created using the articles with the top two Altmetric scores in each CJEM issue in 2015 and 2016. Erratum, Letters, and articles written by the social media editors were excluded from the control groups. The success of the social media promotion was quantified through the measurement of Altmetric scores as of January 1, 2017. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests with unequal variance were used to test for significant differences. Results: 106 and 82 eligible articles were published in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Four articles in 2015 and two articles in 2016 were excluded from the control groups because they were written by the social media editors. SGEM HOP podcasts promoted one article in 2015 and five articles in 2016. CanadiEM infographics promoted three articles in 2015 and eight articles in 2016. No articles were promoted in both series. The average Altmetric score was higher for SGEM HOP (61.0) than CanadiEM Infographics (31.5, p<0.04), 2015 controls (15.8, p<0.01), and 2016 controls (13.6, p<0.01). The average Altmetric score for CanadiEM Infographics was higher than 2015 controls (p<0.04) and 2016 controls (p<0.02). There was no significant difference between the control groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that collaborating with established social media websites to promote CJEM articles using podcasts and infographics increases their social media dissemination. Given the nonrandomized design of these results, causative conclusions cannot be drawn. A randomized study of the impact of social media promotion on readership is underway.
Invasive nonnative grasses pose a significant threat to rangelands of the Northern Great Plains. Long-term data from a grazing experiment near Mandan, ND (46°46′11.43″N, 100°54′55.16″W) revealed the invasion of native prairie by Kentucky bluegrass, an exotic grass. We hypothesized that bluegrass invasion altered soil 13C and 15N levels, tracking the increased abundance of invasive cool-season grass aboveground. In 2014, soil samples were collected to depths of 0 to 7.6 cm and 7.6 to 15.2 cm in pastures grazed similarly since 1916. Samples were analyzed for total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and 13C and 15N isotopes and compared against archived samples from 1991. Vegetation change from native to exotic grasses changed the isotopic composition of soil C. The soil δ13C at the 0- to 7.6-cm depth became more negative between 1991 and 2014. Soil δ13C became less negative with increasing stocking rate at both soil depths. Soil δ15N values at the 0- to 7.6-cm depth decreased between 1991 and 2014. Soil δ15N increased with increasing stocking rate at the 0- to 7.6-cm depth in 2014. Soil C and N concentrations at 0 to 7.6 cm increased by 35% (12 g C kg−1) and 27% (0.9 g N kg−1), respectively, from 1991 to 2014; however, concentrations at the 7.6- to 15.2-cm depth did not change. The shift from native C4 to invasive C3 grass did not reduce soil C storage in the long-term prairie pastures. The more deleterious effect of invasion, however, may have been the buildup of dead biomass, which alters vegetation structure and may reduce native species’ diversity and abundance.
Sleep disturbances are a common issue for those who provide informal care to someone with a life-limiting condition. The negative consequences of poor sleep are well documented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the sleep patterns of caregivers of patients with advanced cancer.
An extensive systematic review of studies reporting empirical sleep data was undertaken in 2015 in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. A total of eight electronic databases were searched, with no date restrictions imposed. Additionally, a search of the bibliographies of the studies identified during the electronic search was conducted. Search terms included: “sleep,” “insomnia,” “sleep disturbance,” “circadian rhythm,” “caregiver,” “carer,” “advanced cancer,” “palliative cancer,” and MESH suggestions. The inclusion criteria required studies to be in English and to report primary qualitative and/or quantitative research that examined sleep in caregivers of patients with advanced cancer. Unpublished studies, conference papers, and dissertations were excluded.
Overall, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Two major findings emerged from the data synthesis. First, at least 72% of caregivers reported moderate to severe sleep disturbance as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Second, objective measurement of caregivers' sleep identified that some caregivers experienced up to a 44% reduction in their total sleep time compared to the recommended eight hours.
Significance of Results:
Reduction in total sleep time appears to be the biggest issue facing caregivers' sleep. Future studies need to explore the specific factors that cause these sleep disturbances and thus help to identify interventions to optimize sleep.
Miniature gas counters have been in use since the early 1960s for the measurement of 14C but were for a long time seen as suitable for providing approximate indications of activity rather than measurements for more precise dates. In recent years the need for better measurements of small samples has posed a continuing challenge for the 14C laboratories. This paper examines how the challenge has been met across the world using conventional beta decay counting techniques and proportional gas counters of 50ml volume or less. A survey is made of the rise of these techniques and attention paid to the solution through modern technology of earlier problems. Some practical systems, now in routine use, are described and consideration is given to the future for miniature counter measurements. Such systems have several attractive features that will guarantee their usefulness in 14C measurements for the future.
In this chapter, we address the biophysical impacts of climate change, and the consequent impacts on socio-economic systems. Modelling the impacts associated with future climate change provides important information for society’s mitigation and adaptation responses. It also presents significant challenges for Earth system science. We discuss the ways in which uncertainty in impact modelling arises and how it can be managed.
Changes in climate, including those arising as a consequence of anthropogenic perturbations of the climate system, can result in a wide variety of impacts on Earth’s ecosystems and the human activities that depend on them. There are two good practical reasons why it is important to understand the processes involved and assess the possible magnitudes of impacts.
First, an assessment of the extent to which continued anthropogenic climate change could inflict damage is needed in order that well-informed decisions can be made about the reduction of human influences on climate. Our understanding of Earth system behaviour alerts us to the fact that action to mitigate climate change through reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions is not without consequences; so decisions to pursue mitigation options need to be weighed up on the basis of reliable estimates of the costs, risks and benefits of different courses of action.
Secondly, the increase in atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations since the Industrial Revolution means that further climate change is inevitable even if greenhouse-gas emissions were to be reduced soon ( Figure 6.1 ). It is therefore necessary for society to adapt to unavoidable changes. Since adaptation action is also not without consequences, it is important that adaptive action addresses credible risks , and represents an efficient allocation of resources.
Since the preliminary cytological work of Doncaster (1906) nothing has been recorded on the maturation of the thelytokously (female-producing) parthenogenetic saw-flies (Ten-thredinidæ). Doncaster worked with the four species now known, according to Enslin (1918), as Empria abdominalis F., E. pulverata Ritz., crœsus varus Vill., and Hemichroa crocea Geoffr., and he concluded (1907) that the chromosome number in the oocyte, polar nuclei and egg pronucleus was 8, there being two maturation divisions giving rise to an egg pronucleus and three polar nuclei. As stated in our note to Nature (1937) recent work on the thelytokously parthenogenetic species, Pristiphora pallipes Lep., by our colleague, Mr L. C. Comrie, confirms Doncaster regarding the number of maturation divisions and polar nuclei, but raises strong doubts on Doncaster's interpretations of chromosome number and behaviour. Doncaster did not make it clear whether the diploid number was 8 or 16, or whether auto regulation occurred during or after maturation. It appears probable that the real diploid number is 16, for intensive study of over twenty species of saw-flies, carried on mainly by Dr F. Greenshields in this department (unpublished work), shows that the characteristic diploid number for Tenthredinidæ is 16. Further, judging by Mr Comrie's research on Pristiphora pallipes, in which the diploid number is also found to be 16, it would appear probable that autoregulation in Doncaster's types is brought about by fusion of egg pronucleus and second polar nucleus.
Karyograms prepared from ovarian and blastoderm cells of the parthenogenetic Australian Brown Vegetable Weevil demonstrate a consistent triploid condition with 30 chromosomes which can be grouped into 10 sets of homologues. Meiosis is replaced by a single mitotic-like division in which 30 univalent chromosomes, each composed of two chromatids, divide equationally between an ootid nucleus and a single polar nucleus. Prior to the differentiation of the oocytes a peculiar bouquet stage occurs in the cells of the end chamber of each ovariole, but the significance of this phase is not known. Arrested development in eggs from individuals of low fertility is investigated and the relationship of body size and chromosome number is discussed.
Caryedon gonagra (F.) is a beetle pest in ground nut kernels and occurs in this country in stored nuts. The karyotype has been investigated in both sexes. The chromosome complement of 2n = i8 includes a heteromorphic sex-determining pair—a large metacentric X and a small spherical Y. Particular attention has been paid to the sex bivalent in the male since study of this character alone may prove sufficiently diagnostic in species separation in closely related members of the Bruchidae.
The chromosome constitution of the bisexual beetle Ptinus clavipes Panzer (2n = 18) and of its gynogenetic form P. clavipes f. mobilis Moore (3n = 27) have been investigated. The triploid mobilis lives in close association with the bisexual species and mates freely with the males. Eggs from virgin females never pass beyond the metaphase stage and successful completion of maturation is dependent on the presence of sperm. An endomitotic split is apparent in prophase chromosomes and leads to the formation of twenty-seven pseudobivalents which undergo a pseudomeiotic division. Only one maturation division has been observed. Although the fate of the activating sperm has not been resolved it is thought that sperm nuclei give rise to isolated haploid nuclei in some eggs and interfere with normal cleavage in others. Since the triploid form may also mate with males of Ptinus pusillus Sturm and P. fur. L. with reduced numbers of progeny the affinities of the gynogenetic form is discussed. This is the only known case of gynogenesis in Coleoptera.
The breeding season of Hypogastrura viatica (Tullberg 1872) appears to reach its peak in mid-April when both sexes occur in about equal numbers. Cytological examination reveals a karyotype of 14/XX in the female and 13X/O in the male. The investigation of spermateleosis and maturation of the egg is incomplete but arguments for and against the occurrence of parthenogenesis are presented.
Some time ago, in a short article on maturation in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (L.), Sanderson (1953) suggested that development might be gynogenetic on the grounds that she was unable to find any second maturation division nor any polar bodies. Nevertheless, the presence of two large “pronuclei” seemed to point to normal zygogenesis. Unable to come to any definite conclusion the author decided to investigate maturation in another digenetic trematode, Haplometra cylindracea (Zeder 1800) when ample supplies came to hand from class dissections of frogs.