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To determine whether a threshold apparent diffusion coefficient value may help to differentiate laryngeal carcinomas from benign lesions.
Fifty-three patients with laryngeal masses were recruited; four of them were excluded because of susceptibility artefacts. In the remaining 49 patients, the pathological results showed 32 laryngeal carcinomas and 17 benign lesions. The diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the identification of malignant lesions was determined. In addition, the agreement between diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology was assessed. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the apparent diffusion coefficient in detecting benign and malignant lesions were analysed. An apparent diffusion coefficient histogram was also produced.
An apparent diffusion coefficient value of 1.1 × 10−3 mm2/second produced the best result when used as the cut-off point to differentiate malignant from benign masses.
An apparent diffusion coefficient threshold of 1.1 × 10−3 mm2/second is optimal for distinguishing laryngeal carcinomas from benign lesions. Apparent diffusion coefficient values were lower for patients with laryngeal carcinomas than for those with benign lesions.
This chapter describes the interface of mental health and disaster. The burden of mental illness for families, communities, and nations is substantial, and the mental illness that follows extreme traumatic events is part of this global burden. Accurate and real-time health surveillance information on the population rates of mental health and illness and the barriers to care are needed to address the mental and behavioral health-care needs of disaster populations. The chapter discusses the range of psychological and behavioral responses to disaster, from subsyndromal symptoms of distress, to initial behavior, distress and health risk behaviors, to the development of specific psychiatric disorders. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic interventions for children and adults with complex grief are under investigation. The chapter focuses on the complexity of modeling psychopathology after disaster-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The conceptualization of postdisaster pathology and PTSD requires a broader view across domains of suffering, altered functional capacity, and disability.