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If G = (G, τ) is a topological group with topology τ, then there is a smallest topology τ* ⊇ τ such that G* = (G, τ*) is a topological group with equal left and right uniformities (1). Bagley and Wu introduced this topology in (1), and studied the relationship between Gand G*. In this paper we prove some additional results concerning G* and groups with equal uniformities in general. The structure of locally compact groups with equal uniformities has been studied extensively. If G is a locally compact connected group, then G has equal uniformities if and only if G ≅ V× K,where F is a vector group and Kis a compact group (5). More generally, every locally compact group with equal uniformities has an open normal subgroup of the form V× K(4).
The 9th meeting of the African Society of Human Genetics, in partnership with the Senegalese Cancer Research and Study Group and the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, was held in Dakar, Senegal. The theme was Strengthening Human Genetics Research in Africa. The 210 delegates came from 21 African countries and from France, Switzerland, UK, UAE, Canada and the USA. The goal was to highlight genetic and genomic science across the African continent with the ultimate goal of improving the health of Africans and those across the globe, and to promote the careers of young African scientists in the field. A session on the sustainability of genomic research in Africa brought to light innovative and practical approaches to supporting research in resource-limited settings and the importance of promoting genetics in academic, research funding, governmental and private sectors. This meeting led to the formation of the Senegalese Society for Human Genetics.
Cerebral blood volume and metabolism of oxygen decline as part of human ageing, and this has been previously shown to be related to cognitive decline. There is some evidence to suggest that polyphenol-rich foods can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders such as CVD and Alzheimer’s disease and to improve cognitive function. In the present study, an acute, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over, randomised Latin-square design study with a washout period of at least 14 d was conducted on twenty-seven, middle-aged (defined as 45–60 years) volunteers. Participants received either a 60 ml dose of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC), which contained 68·0 (sd 0·26) mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/l, 160·75 (sd 0·55) mean gallic acid equivalent/l and 0·59 (sd 0·02) mean Trolox equivalent/l, respectively, or a placebo. Cerebrovascular responses, cognitive performance and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 5 h following consumption. There were significant differences in concentrations of total Hb and oxygenated Hb during the task period 1 h after MC consumption (P≤0·05). Furthermore, MC consumption significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (P≤0·05) over a period of 3 h, with peak reductions of 6±2 mmHg at 1 h after MC consumption relative to the placebo. Cognitive function and mood were not affected. These results show that a single dose of MC concentrate can modulate certain variables of vascular function; however, this does not translate to improvements in cognition or mood.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
Older people with dementia are at increased risk of physical decline and falls. Balance and mood are significant predictors of falls in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a tailored home-based exercise program in community-dwelling older people with dementia.
Forty-two participants with mild to moderate dementia were recruited from routine health services. All participants were offered a six-month home-based, carer-enhanced, progressive, and individually tailored exercise program. Physical activity, quality of life, physical, and psychological assessments were administered at the beginning and end of the trial.
Of 33 participants (78.6%) who completed the six-month reassessment ten (30%) reported falls and six (18%) multiple falls during the follow-up period. At reassessment, participants had better balance (sway on floor and foam), reduced concern about falls, increased planned physical activity, but worse knee extension strength and no change in depression scores. The average adherence to the prescribed exercise sessions was 45% and 22 participants (52%) were still exercising at trial completion. Those who adhered to ≥70% of prescribed sessions had significantly better balance at reassessment compared with those who adhered to <70% of sessions.
This trial of a tailored home-based exercise intervention presents preliminary evidence that this intervention can improve balance, concern about falls, and planned physical activity in community-dwelling older people with dementia. Future research should determine whether exercise interventions are effective in reducing falls and elucidate strategies for enhancing uptake and adherence in this population.
Photodissociation regions (PDRs) and shocks give rise to conspicuous emission from rotationally and vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen. This line emission has now been studied with ISO and from the ground in great detail. A remarkable discovery has been that toward the Orion outflow and other shock-excited regions, the H2 level populations show a very high excitation component. We suggest that these high-excitation populations may arise from non-thermal pumping processes, such as H2 formation and high-velocity ion-molecule collision in partially dissociative shocks. In PDRs such as NGC 7023 however, formation pumping is always less important than fluorescent pumping.
We furthermore present two HD emission line detections toward Orion Peak 1. This enables the first comparison of the H2 and the HD excitation, which surprisingly turn out to be identical.
The Culgoora magnetograph (Ramsay et al., 1970) produces simultaneous filtergrams in opposite circular polarizations at a wavelength selected by a filter bandwidth 0.005 nm (Ramsay et al., 1970). In the blue wing of the 610.27 nm line of CaI, regions of magnetic fields in strong or weak plages are very obvious in one or other polarization, depending on polarity, even before subtraction; in one polarization they are bright, but almost invisible in the other. They are more difficult to discern at equal intervals from the line centre in the other wing (Figure 1). When subtractions are carried out to yield magnetograms of the same sense, the two magnetograms from opposite wings give results which appear to be much the same. An example is shown in Figure 2. Similar results are obtained over a wide range of positions in the wings of the 610.27 nm line.
The magnetograph is based on a high-resolution filter which serves in place of a spectrograph, except that a reasonably large field of view (one-quarter of the Sun's diameter) can be observed at the one instant. Observations are made by obtaining filtergrams of opposite circular polarizations simultaneously in the wing of a magnetically sensitive line. Exposure times are about 0.3 s, the angular resolution of the magnetic field is about 2 arc s, closest frame repetition rates about 8 s. The filtergrams are processed subsequently by photographic or television subtraction. Semiautomatic photographic and/or TV subtractions yield magnetograms suitable for cinematographic projection though the subtractions are not yet as perfect as those obtained by individual subtraction.
We present the characteristics of a high temperature CMOS integrated circuit process based on 4H silicon carbide designed to operate at temperatures beyond 300°C. N-channel and P-channel transistor characteristics at room and elevated temperatures are presented. Both channel types show the expected low values of field effect mobility well known in SiC MOSFETS. However the performance achieved is easily capable of exploitation in CMOS digital logic circuits and certain analogue circuits, over a wide temperature range.
Data is also presented for the performance of digital logic demonstrator circuits, in particular a 4 to 1 analogue multiplexer and a configurable timer operating over a wide temperature range. Devices are packaged in high temperature ceramic dual in line (DIL) packages, which are capable of greater than 300°C operation. A high temperature “micro-oven” system has been designed and built to enable testing and stressing of units assembled in these package types. This system heats a group of devices together to temperatures of up to 300°C while keeping the electrical connections at much lower temperatures. In addition, long term reliability data for some structures such as contact chains to n-type and p-type SiC and simple logic circuits is summarized.
We have studied methods of improving glow-discharge-deposited a-Si1−x Gex :H alloys deposited using silane and germane gas mixtures. Material processing methods studied include (1) varying the substrate temperature from 170° to 280°C, (2) varying the process gas composition and pressure, (3) dilution of the feed gas by hydrogen, argon, or helium, (4) enhancing etching during deposition by adding small amounts of XeF2 vapor into the process gas, and (5) postdeposition annealing and/or hydrogenation.
Between March and June 2008, 12 cases of hepatitis A were notified in Winchester. Cases were from a primary school and a nursery school with no direct linkage. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA sequenced from nine cases confirmed the strain in both schools to be identical. The outbreak could have affected three other schools and a maternity unit and was controlled by immunization and screening of neonates in the maternity unit by dried blood spots. No neonates were infected and no further cases were reported until 5 months later when the index case's mother became infected with same strain of virus associated with the outbreak despite vaccination. Neither the source of the outbreak or the subsequent infection of the index case's mother was identified; however, with the timing of the cases continued transmission in the community by children with asymptomatic infection or a recurrent source cannot be ruled out.
Between 3 April and 18 May 2007, 21 confirmed cases of measles were reported in members of the Irish traveller ethnic group who attended a funeral in London, England. The Health Protection Agency conducted an investigation to determine the extent of this outbreak in order to inform prevention of future outbreaks. From 23 March to 30 June, 173 outbreak-associated cases from seven regions throughout England were identified; 156 cases were in Irish travellers and 17 were epidemiologically linked to cases in that community. In total, 124 cases were laboratory confirmed (IgM or RNA); none were vaccinated against measles. MMR vaccination was offered on traveller sites. Low vaccination coverage and the movement of traveller communities present particular challenges for measles elimination in Europe. We recommend parallel approaches to improve integration of Irish travellers within routine health services whilst offering targeted interventions to increase vaccine uptake in this marginalized community.
Maternal, cord and infant measles antibody levels were measured and compared in a group of 411 vaccinated mothers and 240 unvaccinated mothers, and their babies, between 1983 and 1991. Maternal and cord sera were tested by haemagglutination inhibition and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and plaque reduction neutralization tests were also used to test infant sera. Geometric mean litres were significantly higher in the unvaccinated than in the vaccinated mothers (P < 0·001). Infants born to mothers with a history of measles had higher antibody levels at birth than infants of vaccinated mothers and, although the difference narrowed over time, continued to have higher levels up to 30 weeks of age. Between 5 and 7 months of age significantly more of the children of vaccinated mothers had plaque reduction neutralization antibody levels below that which would interfere with vaccination. As the boosting effect of circulating natural measles disappears, earlier measles vaccination may need to be considered, perhaps as part of a two-dose policy.
In the first paragraph in the “Description of Studies” subsection and the sole paragraph of the “Procedure Time” subsection of the “RESULTS” section on page 257 of Volume 23 Number 2 of International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, two tables are listed as “published on the Web site.” However, no link was provided.
A rise in invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections occurred 8 years after vaccine introduction in the United Kingdom. Aspects of Hib vaccine delivery unique to the United Kingdom have been implicated. The authors developed a fully age-structured deterministic susceptible–infected–resistant–susceptible mathematical model, expressed as a set of partial differential equations, to better understand the causes of declining vaccine effectiveness. We also investigated the consequences of the vaccine's impact on reducing Hib transmission for maintenance of immunity. Our findings emphasized the importance of maintaining high post-immunization antibody titres among age groups at greatest risk of invasive infections. In keeping with UK population-based estimates, low direct efficacy of immunological memory against disease was found, cautioning against over-reliance on evidence of priming alone as a correlate of population protection. The contribution of herd immunity to disease control was reinforced. Possible intervention strategies will be explored in subsequent work.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether a literature review of a technology can allow a learning curve to be quantified.
Methods: The literature for fiberoptic intubation was searched for studies reporting information relevant to the learning curve. The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Science Citation index were searched. Studies that reported a procedure time were included. Data were abstracted on the three features of learning: initial level, rate of learning, and asymptote level. Random effects meta-analysis was performed.
Results: Only twenty-one studies gave explicit information concerning the previous experience of the operator(s). There were thirty-two different definitions of procedure time. From four studies of fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation, the mean starting level and time for the 10th procedure was estimated to be 133 seconds (95 percent confidence interval, 113–153) and 71 seconds (95 percent confidence interval, 62–79), respectively.
Conclusions: The review approach allowed learning to be quantified for our example technology. Poor and insufficient reporting constrained formal statistical estimation. Standardized reporting of nondrug techniques with adequate learning curve details is needed to inform trial design and cost-effectiveness analysis.