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In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
Ice shelves restrain flow from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Climate-ocean warming could force thinning or collapse of floating ice shelves and subsequently accelerate flow, increase ice discharge and raise global mean sea levels. Petermann Glacier (PG), northwest Greenland, recently lost large sections of its ice shelf, but its response to total ice shelf loss in the future remains uncertain. Here, we use the ice flow model Úa to assess the sensitivity of PG to changes in ice shelf extent, and to estimate the resultant loss of grounded ice and contribution to sea level rise. Our results have shown that under several scenarios of ice shelf thinning and retreat, removal of the shelf will not contribute substantially to global mean sea level (<1 mm). We hypothesize that grounded ice loss was limited by the stabilization of the grounding line at a topographic high ~12 km inland of its current grounding line position. Further inland, the likelihood of a narrow fjord that slopes seawards suggests that PG is likely to remain insensitive to terminus changes in the near future.
Pollination services are critical for food production. Although domesticated honey bees are important pollinators in agriculture, there is growing interest in supporting naturally occurring wild bees. Diversifying pollination management strategies by encouraging healthy wild bee communities may be especially useful for growers of insect-pollinated crops, such as apples. Although research has identified several land management practices that can enhance local pollinator communities on farms, there are few studies on the factors that influence growers to adopt pollinator-supporting actions on their land. Here, we surveyed 75 Canadian apple growers and used regression models to explore the influence of farm characteristics and perceptions about bees on the likelihood of adopting 15 unique pollinator-supporting practices. We also provide a descriptive analysis of growers' pollination management practices and self-assessed resourcefulness on the ability to improve habitat for wild pollinators on the farm. We found that an increase in three variables: awareness of wild bees, perception of the severity of threats facing wild populations, and the perception of the benefits provided by wild bees is associated with more pollinator-supporting practices on the farm. Overall, growers were less likely to adopt pollinator-friendly practices as the fraction of rented land increased and as the perceived costs of implementing these practices rose. We found ‘low-hanging fruit’ (i.e., pollinator-supporting practices that could be easily and inexpensively implemented) were adopted by less than one-third of growers and that the majority of those surveyed had little to no knowledge on what actions to take if they wanted to improve their farms for wild bees or where to go for that knowledge. Our results suggest that policies and programs that focus on raising grower awareness of wild bees, increasing grower perception of their benefits, and reducing the perceived costs of implementing pollinator-supporting practices may positively affect their uptake. A deeper understanding of grower perceptions will provide essential insight into how growers may contribute to wild pollinator conservation while potentially increasing agricultural production and reducing vulnerability borne of heavy reliance on managed pollinators.
To examine children’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and water intakes in relation to implemented intervention activities across the social ecological model (SEM) during a multilevel community trial.
Children’s Healthy Living was a multilevel, multicomponent community trial that reduced young child obesity (2013–2015). Baseline and 24-month cross-sectional data were analysed from nine intervention arm communities. Implemented intervention activities targeting reduced SSB and increased water consumption were coded by SEM level (child, caregiver, organisation, community and policy). Child SSB and water intakes were assessed by caregiver-completed 2-day dietary records. Multilevel linear regression models examined associations of changes in beverage intakes with activity frequencies at each SEM level.
US-Affiliated Pacific region.
Children aged 2–8 years (baseline: n 1343; 24 months: n 1158).
On average (± sd), communities implemented 74 ± 39 SSB and 72 ± 40 water activities. More than 90 % of activities targeted both beverages together. Community-level activities (e.g. social marketing campaign) were most common (61 % of total activities), and child-level activities (e.g. sugar counting game) were least common (4 %). SSB activities across SEM levels were not associated with SSB intake changes. Additional community-level water activities were associated with increased water intake (0·62 ml/d/activity; 95 % CI: 0·09, 1·15) and water-for-SSB substitution (operationalised as SSB minus water: –0·88 ml/d/activity; 95 % CI: –1·72, –0·03). Activities implemented at the organization level (e.g. strengthening preschool wellness guidelines) and policy level (e.g. SSB tax advocacy) also suggested greater water-for-SSB substitution (P < 0·10).
Community-level intervention activities were associated with increased water intake, alone and relative to SSB intake, among young children in the Pacific region.
Women in academic publishing and academic psychiatry face many challenges of gender inequality, including significant pay differentials, poor visibility in senior positions and a male-dominated hierarchical system. We discuss this problem and outline how the BJPsych plans to tackle these issues it in its own publishing.
Food insecurity is associated with a greater risk of depression among low-income adults in the United States. Members of food-insecure households have lower diet diversity than their food-secure counterparts. This study examined whether diet diversity moderates the association between food insecurity and depression.
Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine independent associations between food insecurity and depression, between diet diversity and depression, and the moderating effect of diet diversity in the food insecurity-depression link.
Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013-14).
2,636 low-income adults aged 18 years and older.
There was a positive association between food insecurity and depression among low-income adults. Diet diversity was not associated with depression. Diet diversity had a moderating effect on the association between food insecurity and depression among low-income adults
Food insecurity is independently associated with depression among low-income adults in the United States. However, this association differs across levels of diet diversity. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the role diet diversity may play in the pathway between food insecurity and depression.
In a global society experiencing an increasing shortage of qualified workers and the recognition that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be effective employees, there is an uptick in private sector initiatives to address employment needs through the recruitment of workers with ASD. A case study methodology with consensual qualitative research analysis was used to gain a rich understanding of employment of people with ASD at a medium-sized clothier in collaboration with a service provider for people with ASD. Perceptions of implementation and effectiveness were collected. Results suggest the hiring of people with ASD was positively perceived by employees. Components of this success included changes to the physical work environment, diversity training specific to individuals with disabilities, and a company climate of engaging and supporting employees with ASD. This research suggests that the collaborative initiative may prove a meaningful model for other companies interested in employing people with ASD.
The Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) has been shown to have good reliability and comparative validity for ranking nutrient intakes in young children. With the addition of food items (n 4), we aimed to re-assess the validity of the EAT FFQ and estimate calibration factors in a sub-sample of children (n 97) participating in the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) randomised control trial (2015–2017). Participants completed the ninety-nine-item GUMLi EAT FFQ and record-assisted 24-h recalls (24HR) on two occasions. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed at months 9 and 12 post-randomisation and calibration factors calculated to determine predicted estimates from the GUMLi EAT FFQ. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, weighted kappa (κ) and exact quartile categorisation. Calibration was calculated using linear regression models on 24HR, adjusted for sex and treatment group. Nutrient intakes were significantly correlated between the GUMLi EAT FFQ and 24HR at both time points. Energy-adjusted, de-attenuated Pearson correlations ranged from 0·3 (fibre) to 0·8 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·3 (Ca) to 0·7 (Fe) at 12 months. Weighted κ for the quartiles ranged from 0·2 (Zn) to 0·6 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·1 (total fat) to 0·5 (Fe) at 12 months. Exact agreement ranged from 30 to 74 %. Calibration factors predicted up to 56 % of the variation in the 24HR at 9 months and 44 % at 12 months. The GUMLi EAT FFQ remained a useful tool for ranking nutrient intakes with similar estimated validity compared with other FFQ used in children under 2 years.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Donor insemination (DI) has undergone radical changes in the last 25 years, for example exclusive use of frozen semen, and increasing use of DI for single women. A summary of these is presented as are the potential challenges we still face. The latter include key questions such as what are the key methods for optimising treatment. Can we improve our success rates? If so, how can this be done? Moreover, the use of DI as a research tool, often ignored, is presented.
Nocturnal animals are difficult to see and follow, especially in dense rainforest conditions. Nocturnal research is fraught with difficulties not encountered by individuals who study animals in the day, from the need for expensive equipment, constant access to power supplies to run lights and potential for increased encounters with dangerous wildlife. The main drawback of nocturnal fieldwork is that it is simply more difficult to find and continuously observe an animal at night. Through hard work and perseverance it is possible to obtain ecological data on lorises and pottos in the absence of radio tracking (e.g. Das et al., 2014; Nekaris, 2001; Pliosungnoen et al., 2010). Much more detail can be obtained, however, through capturing, measuring, collaring and monitoring nocturnal primates. The essential nature of radio tracking for the study of the behaviour and ecology of nocturnal primates has been recognised since the 1970s (e.g. Charles-Dominique, 1977a; Charles-Dominique and Bearder, 1979), and is by most researchers considered a must for thorough research (Sterling et al., 2000). Radio-tracking studies of lorises and pottos remain limited (2000; Millspaugh and Marzluff, 2001). In this chapter, we review the methods for trapping and collaring slow lorises and pottos, as well as provide a case study of the importance of red light for observing their behaviour in a humane and productive manner (see Box 24.1).
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries. To encourage establishment of actionable and standardized SSI surveillance in these countries, we propose simplified surveillance case definitions. Here, we use NHSN reports to explore concordance of these simplified definitions to NHSN as ‘reference standard.’
Little is known about emotional quality-of-life in paediatric heart disease in low- and middle-income countries where the prevalence of uncorrected lesions is high. Research on emotional quality-of-life and its predictors in these settings is key to planning interventions.
Ten-year retrospective cross-sectional study of children aged 6–17 years with uncorrected congenital or acquired heart disease in 12 low- and middle-income countries was conducted. Emotional functioning score of the PedsQL TM 4.0 generic core scale and data on patient-reported limitation in sports participation were collected via in-person interview and analysed using regression analyses.
Ninety-four children reported mean emotional functioning scores of 71.94 (SD 25.32) [95% CI 66.75–77.13] with lower scores independently associated with having a parent with a chronic illness or who had died (p = 0.005), having less than three siblings (p = 0.007), and reporting a subjective limitation in carrying an item equivalent to a 4 lb load (p = 0.021). Patient-reported limitation in sports participation at least “sometimes” was present in 69% and was independently associated with experiencing symptoms at least once a month (p < 0.001).
Some of the factors which were associated with better emotional quality-of-life were similar to those identified in previous studies in patients with corrected defects. Patient-reported limitation in sports participation is common. In addition to corrective surgery and exercise, numerous other interventions which are practicable during surgical missions might improve emotional quality-of-life.
Exposure to adverse events is prevalent among youths and robustly associated with risk for depression, particularly during adolescence. The Dimensional Model of Adversity and Psychopathology (DMAP) distinguishes between adverse events that expose youths to deprivation versus threat, positing unique mechanisms of risk (cognitive functioning deficits for deprivation, and altered fear and emotion learning for threat) that may require different approaches to intervention. We examined whether deprivation and threat were distinctly associated with behavioral measures of cognitive processes and autonomic nervous system function in relation to depression symptom severity in a community sample of early adolescents (n = 117; mean age 12.73 years; 54.7% male). Consistent with DMAP, associations between threat and depression symptoms, and between economic deprivation and depression symptoms, were distinctly moderated by physiological and cognitive functions, respectively, at baseline but not follow-up. Under conditions of greater cognitive inhibition, less exposure to deprivation was associated with lower symptom severity. Under conditions of blunted resting-state autonomic response (electrodermal activity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia), greater exposure to threat was associated with higher symptom severity. Our findings support the view that understanding risk for youth depression requires parsing adversity: examining distinct roles played by deprivation and threat, and the associated cognitive and biological processes.
This chapter reviews key findings from analyses of spectral reflectance measurements of Mercury taken by the MESSENGER mission. Mercury’s crust lacks the 1-µm crystal field absorption due to ferrous iron that is common on other silicate bodies, yet is unusually low in reflectance. The most likely darkening phase is carbon as graphite. Variations in reflectance and color reveal that volcanic plains averaging >5 km in thickness overlie graphite-rich low-reflectance material, which may have originated as a graphite flotation crust from a magma ocean. The one unambiguous absorption due to an oxidized transition metal, an ultraviolet oxygen–metal charge transfer band in bright, pyroclastic deposits, may originate by oxidation of carbon and sulfides, reducing 0.3–1 wt.% ferrous iron in silicates to a metallic state, unsaturating the very strong oxygen–metal charge transfer band.
Research participants want to receive results from studies in which they participate. However, health researchers rarely share the results of their studies beyond scientific publication. Little is known about the barriers researchers face in returning study results to participants.
Using a mixed-methods design, health researchers (N = 414) from more than 40 US universities were asked about barriers to providing results to participants. Respondents were recruited from universities with Clinical and Translational Science Award programs and Prevention Research Centers.
Respondents reported the percent of their research where they experienced each of the four barriers to disseminating results to participants: logistical/methodological, financial, systems, and regulatory. A fifth barrier, investigator capacity, emerged from data analysis. Training for research faculty and staff, promotion and tenure incentives, and funding agencies supporting dissemination of results to participants were solutions offered to overcoming barriers.
Study findings add to literature on research dissemination by documenting health researchers’ perceived barriers to sharing study results with participants. Implications for policy and practice suggest that additional resources and training could help reduce dissemination barriers and increase the return of results to participants.