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For nearly 30 years, the business and scientific press has featured a constant stream of stories about the changing nature of work. While some organizations and occupations have changed substantially in recent years, the belief that such changes are relatively recent or relatively widespread is not well founded. First, the nature and organization of work has evolved continuously over time and the current changes are especially large. Second, there are very large sectors of the economy in which the changes in technology and the organization of work have been minimal. The belief that the nature of work is changing is in large part rooted in the tendency to mistake the brief period of economic stability and highly valued employment in the United Stats that followed the Second World War as the normal state rather than an anomaly. The nature of work is changing and will continue to change, but these changes are part of a long-term set of evolutionary changes, not a sudden or recent innovation.
Twins Research Australia (TRA) is a community of twins and researchers working on health research to benefit everyone, including twins. TRA leads multidisciplinary research through the application of twin and family study designs, with the aim of sustaining long-term twin research that, both now and in the future, gives back to the community. This article summarizes TRA’s recent achievements and future directions, including new methodologies addressing causation, linkage to health, economic and educational administrative datasets and to geospatial data to provide insight into health and disease. We also explain how TRA’s knowledge translation and exchange activities are key to communicating the impact of twin studies to twins and the wider community. Building researcher capability, providing registry resources and partnering with all key stakeholders, particularly the participants, are important for how TRA is advancing twin research to improve health outcomes for society. TRA provides researchers with open access to its vibrant volunteer membership of twins, higher order multiples (multiples) and families who are willing to consider participation in research. Established four decades ago, this resource facilitates and supports research across multiple stages and a breadth of health domains.
We have detected 27 new supernova remnants (SNRs) using a new data release of the GLEAM survey from the Murchison Widefield Array telescope, including the lowest surface brightness SNR ever detected, G 0.1 – 9.7. Our method uses spectral fitting to the radio continuum to derive spectral indices for 26/27 candidates, and our low-frequency observations probe a steeper spectrum population than previously discovered. None of the candidates have coincident WISE mid-IR emission, further showing that the emission is non-thermal. Using pulsar associations we derive physical properties for six candidate SNRs, finding G 0.1 – 9.7 may be younger than 10 kyr. Sixty per cent of the candidates subtend areas larger than 0.2 deg2 on the sky, compared to < 25% of previously detected SNRs. We also make the first detection of two SNRs in the Galactic longitude range 220°–240°.
This work makes available a further
of the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey, covering half of the accessible galactic plane, across 20 frequency bands sampling 72–231 MHz, with resolution
. Unlike previous GLEAM data releases, we used multi-scale CLEAN to better deconvolve large-scale galactic structure. For the galactic longitude ranges
$345^\circ < l < 67^\circ$
$180^\circ < l < 240^\circ$
, we provide a compact source catalogue of 22 037 components selected from a 60-MHz bandwidth image centred at 200 MHz, with RMS noise
and position accuracy better than 2 arcsec. The catalogue has a completeness of 50% at
, and a reliability of 99.86%. It covers galactic latitudes
towards the galactic centre and
for other regions, and is available from Vizier; images covering
for all longitudes are made available on the GLEAM Virtual Observatory (VO).server and SkyView.
We examined the latest data release from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey covering 345° < l < 60° and 180° < l < 240°, using these data and that of the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer to follow up proposed candidate Supernova Remnant (SNR) from other sources. Of the 101 candidates proposed in the region, we are able to definitively confirm ten as SNRs, tentatively confirm two as SNRs, and reclassify five as H ii regions. A further two are detectable in our images but difficult to classify; the remaining 82 are undetectable in these data. We also investigated the 18 unclassified Multi-Array Galactic Plane Imaging Survey (MAGPIS) candidate SNRs, newly confirming three as SNRs, reclassifying two as H ii regions, and exploring the unusual spectra and morphology of two others.
Dietary Zn has significant impacts on the growth and development of breeding rams. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of dietary Zn source and concentration on serum Zn concentration, growth performance, wool traits and reproductive performance in rams. Forty-four Targhee rams (14 months; 68 ± 18 kg BW) were used in an 84-day completely randomized design and were fed one of three pelleted dietary treatments: (1) a control without fortified Zn (CON; n = 15; ~1 × NRC); (2) a diet fortified with a Zn amino acid complex (ZnAA; n = 14; ~2 × NRC) and (3) a diet fortified with ZnSO4 (ZnSO4; n = 15; ~2 × NRC). Growth and wool characteristics measured throughout the course of the study were BW, average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency (G : F), longissimus dorsi muscle depth (LMD), back fat (BF), wool staple length (SL) and average fibre diameter (AFD). Blood was collected from each ram at four time periods to quantify serum Zn and testosterone concentrations. Semen was collected 1 to 2 days after the trial was completed. There were no differences in BW (P = 0.45), DMI (P = 0.18), LMD (P = 0.48), BF (P = 0.47) and AFD (P = 0.9) among treatment groups. ZnSO4 had greater (P ≤ 0.03) serum Zn concentrations compared with ZnAA and CON treatments. Rams consuming ZnAA had greater (P ≤ 0.03) ADG than ZnSO4 and CON. There tended to be differences among groups for G : F (P = 0.06), with ZnAA being numerically greater than ZnSO4 and CON. Wool staple length regrowth was greater (P < 0.001) in ZnSO4 and tended to be longer (P = 0.06) in ZnAA treatment group compared with CON. No differences were observed among treatments in scrotal circumference, testosterone, spermatozoa concentration within ram semen, % motility, % live sperm and % sperm abnormalities (P ≥ 0.23). Results indicated beneficial effects of feeding increased Zn concentrations to developing Targhee rams, although Zn source elicited differential responses in performance characteristics measured.
The Mediterranean diet offers a range of health benefits. However, previous studies indicate that the restricted consumption of red meat in the diet may affect long-term sustainability in non-Mediterranean countries. A 24-week randomised controlled parallel cross-over design compared a Mediterranean diet supplemented with 2–3 serves per week of fresh, lean pork (MedPork) with a low-fat control diet (LF). Thirty-three participants at risk of CVD followed each intervention for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. The primary outcome was home-measured systolic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included diastolic blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), body composition and dietary adherence. During the MedPork intervention, participants achieved high adherence to dietary guidelines. Compared with the MedPork intervention, the LF intervention led to greater reductions in weight (Δ = −0·65; 95 % CI −0·04, −1·25 kg, P = 0·04), BMI (Δ = −0·25; 95 % CI −0·03, −0·47 kg/m2, P = 0·01) and waist circumference (Δ = −1·40; 95 % CI −0·45, −2·34 cm, P < 0·01). No significant differences were observed for blood pressure, lipids, glucose, insulin or CRP. These findings indicate that Australians are capable of adhering to a Mediterranean diet with 2–3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork. Larger intervention studies are now required to demonstrate clinical efficacy of the diet in populations with elevated blood pressure.
Already a noted theorist and agitator on behalf of religious toleration in England when he turned his attention to American colonization, William Penn (1644–1718) played a central role in the development of liberty of conscience as a fundamental element of legitimate government. This chapter explores the foundations of Penn’s understanding of liberty of conscience and the important role he saw it playing as a foundational social, political, and legal principle. After an overview of Penn’s life and career, the focus turns to Penn’s role in the tolerationist movement during the 1670s in England and the main components of his theory as it developed over the course of his public career; his defense of representative institutions like juries and Parliament; his understanding of fundamental law; and his defense of “civil interest” as a social bond for uniting a religiously-diverse population like England and, later, Pennsylvania. The chapter concludes with a brief examination of the founding documents and early history of Penn’s colony.
Introduction: Cardioactive steroid poisoning occurs worldwide with the use of pharmaceutical digoxin and botanical cardiac glycosides. The wholesale price of the antidote, digoxin immune fab, has increased over 300% from 2010 to 2015. Our objective was to identify gaps in the existing literature with respect to the use of digoxin immune fab in cardioactive steroid toxicity in acute care settings. Methods: We used scoping study methodology, as described by Arksey and O'Malley, to assess the range and scope of empiric research and will report: 1) sources of cardioactive steroid toxicity in acute settings; 2) doses of digoxin immune fab used in treatment; and, 3) intervention outcomes of acute cardioactive steroid toxicity following the administration of digoxin immune fab as first or second-line therapy. We collaborated with a library scientist to devise search strategies for PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Toxnet. We sought unpublished literature through the Canadian Electronic Library, Proquest, and Scopus and searched reference lists of included studies. We hand searched relevant conference proceedings and applicable guidelines. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts using predetermined criteria. Using a structured data abstraction form, two reviewers independently extracted data. All discrepancies were resolved through consensus. Results: Our search strategy yielded 3458 results. After screening titles and abstracts 384 underwent full text screening. We included 147 studies and are currently extracting data from 12 French studies and 135 English studies. To date we have extracted data from 90 case reports and case series. Conclusion: Given concerns over rising costs, our findings will shed light on the extent of the evidence for use of digoxin immune fab in acute care settings.
Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) is a common impediment to ecological restoration, because its seedbank remains viable after repeated treatment with herbicides. Soil solarization has been used in ecological restoration to control seedbanks of invasive plants. Here we test the efficacy of soil solarization to reduce B. tectorum cover and establish native plants at a site in B. tectorum’s core invasive range with a long history of disturbance and infestation. Solarization raised soil temperatures by as much as 13 C and reduced B. tectorum densities by approximately 20-fold. In 30 plots solarized for 0 to 101 d, B. tectorum emerged in inverse abundance to treatment duration. Broadleaf weeds were less abundant than B. tectorum before treatment, and diminished under solarization, but their response to solarization was weaker than B. tectorum’s, and they emerged in greater numbers than B. tectorum 2 to 3 yr after treatment. When seeded after solarization, a native perennial bunchgrass, squirreltail [Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey], did not differ in abundance between solarized and control plots. Solarization may facilitate B. tectorum control on a small scale without jeopardizing the establishment of native plants, but only if treatment durations are long and subsequent management of broadleaf weeds and remnant B. tectorum is planned.
The detection of a neutron star merger by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Advanced Virgo gravitational wave detectors, and the subsequent detection of an electromagnetic counterpart have opened a new era of transient astronomy. With upgrades to the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Advanced Virgo detectors and new detectors coming online in Japan and India, neutron star mergers will be detected at a higher rate in the future, starting with the O3 observing run which will begin in early 2019. The detection of electromagnetic emission from these mergers provides vital information about merger parameters and allows independent measurement of the Hubble constant. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder is expected to become fully operational in early 2019, and its 30 deg2 field of view will enable us to rapidly survey large areas of sky. In this work we explore prospects for detecting both prompt and long-term radio emission from neutron star mergers with Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder and determine an observing strategy that optimises the use of telescope time. We investigate different strategies to tile the sky with telescope pointings in order to detect radio counterparts with limited observing time, using 475 simulated gravitational wave events. Our results show a significant improvement in observing efficiency when compared with a naïve strategy of covering the entire localisation above some confidence threshold, even when achieving the same total probability covered.
To evaluate the impact of a hard stop in the electronic health record (EHR) on inappropriate gastrointestinal pathogen panel testing (GIPP).
We used a quasi-experimental study to evaluate testing before and after the implementation of an EHR alert to stop inappropriate GIPP ordering.
Midwest academic medical center.
Hospitalized patients with diarrhea for which GIPP testing was ordered, between January 2016 through March 2017 (period 1) and April 2017 through June 2018 (period 2).
A hard stop in the EHR prevented clinicians from ordering a GIPP more than once per admission or in patients hospitalized for >72 hours.
During period 1, 1,587 GIPP tests were ordered over 212,212 patient days, at a rate of 7.48 per 1,000 patient days. In period 2, 1,165 GIPP tests were ordered over 222,343 patient days, at a rate of 5.24 per 1,000 patient days. The Poisson model estimated a 30% reduction in total GIPP ordering rates between the 2 periods (relative risk, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.78; P < .001). The rate of inappropriate tests ordered decreased from 21.5% to 4.9% between the 2 periods (P < .001). The total savings calculated factoring only GIPP orders that triggered the hard stop was ∼$67,000, with potential savings of $168,000 when factoring silent best-practice alert data.
A simple hard stop alert in the EHR resulted in significant reduction of inappropriate GIPP testing, which was associated with significant cost savings. Clinicians can practice diagnostic stewardship by avoiding ordering this test more than once per admission or in patients hospitalized >72 hours.
The use of targets with surface structures for laser-driven particle acceleration has potential to significantly boost the particle and radiation energies because of enhanced laser absorption. We investigate, via experiment and particle-in-cell simulations, the impact of micron-scale surface-structured targets on the spectrum of electrons and protons accelerated by a picosecond laser pulse at relativistic intensity. Our results show that, compared with flat-surfaced targets, structures on this scale give rise to a significant enhancement in particle and radiation emission over a wide range of laser–target interaction parameters. This is due to the longer plasma scale length when using micro-structures on the target front surface. We do not observe an increase in the proton cutoff energy with our microstructured targets, and this is due to the large volume of the relief.
A study to detect the diversity of endophytic Actinobacteria from Australian rice was conducted using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Rice samples were collected from the rice growing area near Yanco, New South Wales, Australia. Isolation of the endophytic Actinobacteria was done over two consecutive growing seasons. The results demonstrated that most isolates were obtained from plants 10 weeks and older, and only a few were found in younger plants. Microbispora spp. were the most commonly isolated endophytic Actinobacteria (94%) with Streptomyces spp. and other genera present at lower numbers (6%). The culture-dependent method findings were confirmed by T-RFLP profile analysis. Restriction digests using HhaI and RsaI also showed an abundance of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) profiles related to the genus Microbispora. Furthermore, other biological properties of the endophytic Actinobacteria isolates were also determined. Four isolates, Saccharothrix OSH21, Saccharopolyspora OSR26, Streptomyces OSR46 and Microbispora OSR61, were found to suppress the growth of the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Moreover, these isolates might be able to promote plant growth by producing indole acetic acid or to solubilise phosphate making this nutrient available for plant uptake.
Endophytes have the potential to contribute to the sustainable production of bioenergy crops such as the perennial rhizomatous grass Miscanthus. They can improve plant growth on marginal land that is otherwise unsuitable for conventional agriculture and can also reduce the need for environmentally damaging chemical inputs including fertilisers and pesticides. This chapter outlines current knowledge of Miscanthus endophytes and presents new data on the diversity of root and shoot fungal endophytes isolated from three Miscanthus species (M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis and M. ×giganteus). Malt extract, potato dextrose and Czapek Dox media were compared for isolation and growth of the endophytes. The endophytes were then identified using DNA barcoding with three DNA loci (nrITS, nrLSU and TEF). nrITS and nrLSU were found to be the most reliable and consistent barcoding regions. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) had the highest discriminating potential and is thus recommended for single locus barcoding of endophytes in Miscanthus. Most new isolates were Ascomycota belonging to Pezizomycotina with representatives from Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes. One Basidiomycota species was recovered (a known soil yeast Rhodotorula). Comparisons between Miscanthus endophyte species composition and its better-known sister genus Saccharum (including sugarcane) are provided.
Endophytes are any microbes that can live within plants. We divide them into three major functional groups: endosyms (endosymbionts), endopaths (pathogens) and endosympaths (those that exist in both forms along a mutualism–parasitism continuum). Within these groups, endophytologists recognise harmful pathogenic microbes and a diverse range of beneficial/commensal microbes, including bacteria and archaea, such as diazotrophs, and fungi, such as the vertically transmitted clavicipitaceous endophytes, the generally horizontally transmitted class 2 fungal endophytes, mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes. This chapter introduces the science of endophyte biology and its application for a world population that is projected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050. It explores the potential of endophytes for improved agricultural and silvicultural sustainability including: yield improvement and nutrition; biocontrol of pests and diseases; and abiotic stress resistance in the context of climate change. It outlines how bioprospectors are using endophytes as sources of novel metabolites for the pharmaceutical and biochemical industries, and describes how endophytes can be used in vitro to elicit the increased production of known secondary metabolites from plants.