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The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
As indicated by the sporadic Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases reported from the districts of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, the disease is endemic in the state despite the fact that a JE vaccination programme has been ongoing in the state since 2006. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the annual trend of JE in UP during January 2011 to December 2013. CSF and/or serum samples collected from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases were referred to the virology laboratory at King George's Medical University, Lucknow and were tested for anti-JEV IgM antibodies by JEV MAC-ELISA kit. The study reveals that 26·9%, 9·9% and 14·8% of AES cases were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of the total JE confirmed cases, 30% were adults. Males were more commonly affected than females. A distinct peak of JE was seen in the monsoon and post-monsoon season, although sporadic cases were also reported in other months. JE vaccination by district in UP is discussed. This study reports that the proportion of JE positives in AES cases is decreasing in UP although the number of AES cases has not decreased. The study also discusses the probable causes of this decrease, including JE vaccination and natural periodicity due to herd immunity.
Since 1997, and following our detection of the first mm afterglow, we have followed-up 70
GRBs, mainly with the IRAMś Plateau de Bure Interferometer, what can be considered as the
IRAM Legacy GRB Sample. 66 events were observed at 3 mm, with 19 of them being detected
(with another 3 having marginal detections). 32 GRBs were followed up at 1 mm, with 6 of
them being detected. Redshifts for the GRB afterglows lie in the range z = 0.03–8.3, with
measured flux densities (at 3 mm) varying between 0.25 and 60 mJy (but usually <1.5
mJy) with first observations taking place around 1–2 days after the GRB. Forward shock
emission expleains the observations with the exception of one particular case (GRB 090423
at z = 8.2) for which reverse shock emission is required.
Due to the poor positive predictive value of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for gonorrhoea when applied to a low-prevalence setting, current guidelines recommend the use of supplementary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a different gene for confirmation of true positives in urogenital specimens. This study sought to standardize and evaluate performance of an in-house opa gene-based PCR assay for gonorrhoea compared to assays targeting the porA pseudogene and 16S rRNA gene. Four hundred samples (300 endocervical, 100 urethral swabs) from patients attending STD clinics in New Delhi, India were used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the opa-based PCR were 100%, 97·9%, 89·5% and 100%, respectively. In females, the use of NAATs provided enhanced diagnosis of gonorrhoea.
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression was measured within frontal cortex of male Holtzman rats subjected to repeated inescapable shocks at days 1 and 7, tested for learned helplessness (LH) at days 2 and 8, and sacrificed at day 15. We compared rats that did vs. did not exhibit LH, as well as rats that were placed in the apparatus and tested for avoidance but not given shocks (tested controls, TC). Non-learned helpless (NLH) rats showed a robust adaptive miRNA response to inescapable shock whereas LH rats showed a markedly blunted response. One set of 12 miRNAs showed particularly large, significant down-regulation in NLH rats relative to tested controls (mir-96, 141, 182, 183, 183*, 298, 200a, 200a*, 200b, 200b*, 200c, 429). These were encoded at a few shared polycistronic loci, suggesting that the down-regulation was coordinately controlled at the level of transcription. Most of these miRNAs are enriched in synaptic fractions. Moreover, almost all of these share 5′-seed motifs with other members of the same set, suggesting that they will hit similar or overlapping sets of target mRNAs. Finally, half of this set is predicted to hit Creb1 as a target. We also identified a core miRNA co-expression module consisting of 36 miRNAs that are highly correlated with each other across individuals of the LH group (but not in the NLH or TC groups). Thus, miRNAs participate in the alterations of gene expression networks that underlie the normal (NLH) as well as aberrant (LH) response to repeated shocks.
In vitro gas production (GP) of substrate incubated with cow rumen liquor is commonly used to evaluate feed nutritional quality; GP is correlated with organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy content. The hypothesis tested was that GP differs among liquors of ruminant species and is dependent on the natural dietary intake of the donors. Measurements were of 24 h GP of seven browse species using rumen liquor from a large (cow) and small (sheep) grazer and from a small intermediate feeder (goat). Mean GP for browse with goat liquor (7±2·4 ml per 200 mg substrate) was significantly (P=0·019) higher than that with cow liquor (5±1·9 ml), and GP with sheep liquor (6±1·1 ml) was intermediate, not significantly different from the cow liquor (P=0·197) and the goat liquor (P=0·061). There was a significant correlation in the ranking of the browses between goat and sheep (P=0·013) liquor using a Mantel test with 9999 permutations, which indicated a similar ranking of browses when using rumen liquor of either of these small ruminants. There were trends between both cow and sheep (P=0·096) and cow and goat (P=0·092) liquors. It was concluded that the dietary habits of ruminant species donors may affect in vitro nutritional studies when using rumen liquor.
The theory of particle aspect analysis is extended to the drift wave in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The dispersion relation and growth rate of the wave are evaluated and discussed when the magnetic field gradient is directed opposite to the density gradient. The plasma under consideration is assumed to be anisotropic and the effects of temperature anisotropy on the dispersion characteristics and growth rate of the wave are also studied. The dispersion relation and the growth rate are evaluated for the space plasma parameters.
The landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess wide diversity, which needs to be properly characterized for their use in genetic improvement. Replicated field studies were conducted in 1998, 1999 and 2000 at two sites in Nepal to determine diversity in 183 landraces of rice adapted to the lowlands and the hills in Nepal. Fourteen improved genotypes were also used for comparison. Thirteen agronomic traits were investigated. Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H) and Simpson's index of diversity (D) were estimated to determine the level of genetic richness among the landraces. The landraces differed significantly for all traits. Except for plant height and maturity, at least one of the landraces compared well with the performance of improved cultivars. A principal component analysis separated the lowland- and hill-adapted landraces into two broad groups.
Head and neck cancer care was analysed in 2167 unselected patients for management compliance and outcome. Median age was 55 years, with a male to female ratio of 5.5[ratio ]1. Major sites were oropharynx (32.4 per cent), larynx (19.8 per cent), oral (16.6 per cent) and hypopharynx (12.9 per cent). Stage-wise distribution was I–II=8.9 per cent, III=20.6 per cent and IV=60.3 per cent and unstaged=10.2 per cent. Squamous cell carcinoma was the dominant histology for 90.9 per cent. Clinic-based cancer-directed treatment decisions were made for 1905 patients: curative intent in 53 per cent, palliative in 35 per cent and for the remaining 262 (12 per cent) supportive care. Overall, 1209 (56 per cent) patients complied with the prescribed treatments; 62 per cent, 54 per cent, and 35 per cent of curative, palliative and supportive care intent groups, respectively. Modalities were radiotherapy alone (64.6 per cent), combined surgery with irradiation (17.6 per cent), and chemoradiotherapy (11.2 per cent). Median follow-up periods were 17.5 and three months in curative and palliative groups respectively. Overall, 712 (33 per cent) cases received curative therapy, with three-year disease-specific survival of 49 per cent. Patient compliance was a major obstacle. The comparison of this series with the USA, Canada and Norway showed wide disparities in stage of presentation and survival.
Aim: To evaluate the reliability of infrared tympanic thermometry in children who have undergone myringotomy with grommet insertion.
Method: Forty children who had undergone myringotomy with at least one grommet insertion had the tympanic temperature of each ear and the axillary temperature measured on admission and 30 minutes post-operatively.
Result: No difference was found between the pre- and post-operative temperatures measured by either method (p > 0.05, paired t-test, hypothesized difference of 0).
Conclusion: Infrared tympanic thermometry is reliable in monitoring body temperature in children who have had minor ear surgery.
Conjugation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with biomolecules having molecular recognition results in highly functionalized CNTs, which serve as the templates for self-assembly of novel nanomaterials. Here, we report the synthesis of novel nanocomponents by conjugating single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with peptide nucleic acid (PNA), an artificial DNA analogue by using carbodiimide coupling. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used as a primary tool for their characterization. SEM micrographs confirm the formation of desired structures. We also modeled and simulated the SWNT-PNA interface using the PM3 semi-empirical package in Gaussian03 RevB.03 program suite for electron transfer and found that there exists an extended set of orbitals.
The intubating laryngeal mask airway is a modification of the conventional laryngeal mask and is used as a tool for difficult intubation. It can be inserted without placing the head and neck in the Magill position and has been used successfully in cervical spine injuries. Reported is a case of successful insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask and subsequent intubation through it in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis with cervical involvement resulting in a fixed flexion deformity who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.
Many farmers are intensifying production systems by applying greater amounts of inorganic fertilizers, irrigation and pesticides, especially to cash crops. Such intensified systems, even though economically profitable in the short run, may not be sustainable. This paper analyses the economics and sustainability of an intensified rainfed rice-based system in Ilocos Norte, Philippines. Farmers use high levels of inorganic fertilizers for cash crops such as sweet pepper, garlic and tomato. Although these crops generate high levels of income, the high input systems may not be sustainable in the long run due to adverse on-site and off-site effects. Preliminary estimates of total factor productivity that include on-site effects only, display no clear time trend. However, negative externalities created by high nitrate contamination of groundwater and high rates of pesticide usage could make the system unsustainable by adversely affecting human health and the environment.
CdGeAs2 single crystals were prepared by low temperature crystallization from a nonstoichiometric melt. The results of the first study of the temperature dependencies of the electrical conductivity and the Hall coefficient of n-type CdGeAs2 single crystals prepared by this new technique are reported. All the as-grown crystals show n-type conductivity. These single crystals had free electron concentrations of (1 - 2) 1018 cm−3 and Hall mobilities of more than 10000 cm2/(Vs) at T=300 K. These room temperature electron mobility values are four times larger than previously reported. In the high temperature region (T> 150K), the temperature dependence of the Hall mobility exhibited a behavior characteristic of phonon scattering. Below 150 K, a deviation from this behavior indicated an increasing contribution of static lattice defects to scattering. The Hall mobility in these crystals was found to reach ∼ 36000 cm2/( V· s ) at 77 K. The first photosensitive n-type CdGeAs2/n-type InSe heterostructures were constructed by contact methods. Photosensitivities of 70-100 V/were observed. This is substantially better than for previous structures using conventionally grown CdGeAs2 and indicates the high quality of the crystals. It is concluded that the low temperature growth technique is promising for the preparation of more perfect CdGeAs2crystals.
The paper presents a paraxial theory of the relativistic cross-focusing
coaxial Gaussian laser beams of different frequencies in a homogeneous
We discuss the self-focusing of a weaker laser beam in the plasma due to
optical inhomogeneities introduced by another stronger copropagating laser
beam. In the presence of the second stronger beam
plasma behaves as an oscillatory waveguide for the first, weaker, beam
(P1<Pcr11) as it propagates
in the plasma. When both the beams are strong
the nonlinearities introduced by the relativistic effect are
additive in nature, such that one beam can undergo oscillatory self-focusing
the other simultaneously defocusing, and vice versa. A comparison reveals
cross-focusing due to relativistic nonlinearity is possible for a wider
powers of the laser pulses than is cross-focusing due to ponderomotive
nonlinearity. Relativistic cross-focusing is important in plasma beat-wave
excitation and collective laser particle accelerators.