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The Flat Rocks locality in the Wonthaggi Formation (Strzelecki Group) of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia, hosts fossils of a late Barremian vertebrate fauna that inhabited the ancient rift between Australia and Antarctica. Known from its dentary, Qantassaurus intrepidus Rich and Vickers-Rich, 1999 has been the only dinosaur named from this locality. However, the plethora of vertebrate fossils collected from Flat Rocks suggests that further dinosaurs await discovery. From this locality, we name a new small-bodied ornithopod, Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. from craniodental remains. Five ornithopodan genera are now named from Victoria. Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. is known from five maxillae, from which the first description of jaw growth in an Australian dinosaur is provided. The holotype of Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. is the most complete dinosaur maxilla known from Victoria. Micro-CT imagery of the holotype reveals the complex internal anatomy of the neurovascular tract and antorbital fossa. We confirm that Q. intrepidus is uniquely characterized by a deep foreshortened dentary. Two dentaries originally referred to Q. intrepidus are reassigned to Q. ?intrepidus and a further maxilla is referred to cf. Atlascopcosaurus loadsi Rich and Rich, 1989. A further ornithopod dentary morphotype is identified, more elongate than those of Q. intrepidus and Q. ?intrepidus and with three more tooth positions. This dentary might pertain to Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. Phylogenetic analysis recovered Cretaceous Victorian and Argentinian nonstyracosternan ornithopods within the exclusively Gondwanan clade Elasmaria. However, the large-bodied taxon Muttaburrasaurus langdoni Bartholomai and Molnar, 1981 is hypothesised as a basal iguanodontian with closer affinities to dryomorphans than to rhabdodontids.
Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of adulthood depression and alterations to circulating levels of inflammatory markers is one putative mechanism mediating risk or resilience.
To determine the effects of childhood maltreatment on circulating levels of 41 inflammatory markers in healthy individuals and those with a major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis.
We investigated the association of childhood maltreatment with levels of 41 inflammatory markers in two groups, 164 patients with MDD and 301 controls, using multiplex electrochemiluminescence methods applied to blood serum.
Childhood maltreatment was not associated with altered inflammatory markers in either group after multiple testing correction. Body mass index (BMI) exerted strong effects on interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in those with MDD.
Childhood maltreatment did not exert effects on inflammatory marker levels in either the participants with MDD or the control group in our study. Our results instead highlight the more pertinent influence of BMI.
Declaration of interest
D.A.C. and H.W. work for Eli Lilly Inc. R.N. has received speaker fees from Sunovion, Jansen and Lundbeck. G.B. has received consultancy fees and funding from Eli Lilly. R.H.M.-W. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Ferrer, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Pulse, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovian. I.M.A. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with Alkermes, Lundbeck, Lundbeck/Otsuka, and Servier. S.W. has sat on an advisory board for Sunovion, Allergan and has received speaker fees from Astra Zeneca. A.H.Y. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, Sunovion; honoraria for consulting from Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck, Sunovion, Janssen; and research grant support from Janssen. A.J.C. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, honoraria for consulting with Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck and research grant support from Lundbeck.
We present λ7mm multi-epoch and polarization VLBA maps of the gravitational lens PKS 1830–211. The maps suggest that the radio structure of both images evolves rapidly. The offset between the polarized intensity and the total intensity may be used to constrain the magnification matrix.
Most empirical studies into the covariance structure of psychopathology have been confined to adults. This work is not developmentally informed as the meaning, age-of-onset, persistence and expression of disorders differ across the lifespan. This study investigates the underlying structure of adolescent psychopathology and associations between the psychopathological dimensions and sex and personality risk profiles for substance misuse and mental health problems.
This study analyzed data from 2175 adolescents aged 13.3 years. Five dimensional models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis and the external validity was examined using a multiple-indicators multiple-causes model.
A modified bifactor model, with three correlated specific factors (internalizing, externalizing, thought disorder) and one general psychopathology factor, provided the best fit to the data. Females reported higher mean levels of internalizing, and males reported higher mean levels of externalizing. No significant sex differences emerged in liability to thought disorder or general psychopathology. Liability to internalizing, externalizing, thought disorder and general psychopathology was characterized by a number of differences in personality profiles.
This study is the first to identify a bifactor model including a specific thought disorder factor. The findings highlight the utility of transdiagnostic treatment approaches and the importance of restructuring psychopathology in an empirically based manner.
To determine the prognostic value of laryngoscopy in predicting the recovery of unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
A prospective study was carried out of all patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis without a progressive lesion or arytenoid dislocation.
Among the 66 candidates, 15 recovered. Patients with interarytenoid paralysis (p < 0.001) or posterolateral tilt of the arytenoid (p = 0.028) had less chance of recovery. Among 51 patients who did not recover, 25.49 per cent regained phonatory function by compensatory movement of the normal side; the rest required an intervention. Intervention requirement was significantly less for those patients who had isolated glottic level compensation. The paralysed vocal fold was at the same level in 32.35 per cent of patients, higher in 38.23 per cent and lower in 29.42 per cent. In those in whom vocal folds were in the abducted position (46.67 per cent), the affected vocal fold was at a lower position on phonation. Inter-observer reliability assessment revealed excellent to good agreement for all criteria.
Interarytenoid paralysis and posterolateral tilt of the arytenoid were predictors of poor recovery.
Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age <15 weeks) in urban Vadodara, Gujarat. n = 256 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were selected. The thyroid hormone was estimated by RIA, UIE using simple microplate technique and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration by acid hematin method. Median thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4) and UIE concentrations were 1.88 μIU/ml, 0.83 ng/dl, 10.24 μg/dl and 297.14 mcg/l, respectively. There was a significant correlation between TSH, FT4 and month of gestation. Mean Hb concentration was 9.27 ± 1.09 g/dl. The prevalence of iodine insufficiency (based on UI) was 16.79% and iron deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women.
Morinda reticulata Gamble and Morinda umbellata Linn. (Rubiaceae) are medicinally important climbers distributed as a mixed population in southern Western Ghats of India. A close morphological resemblance of these two species misleads the harvester in the identification of plant parts for preparation of herbal medicines. Though both species contain anthraquinone derivatives and share common medicinal properties for treating stomach disorders, each of these species has unique curative properties for treating selective diseases. Conventional methods are not reliable for identification of these species due to similarities in morphology. Thus, misidentification often leads to the deterioration of the quality of medicines. Thus, authentication utilizing conserved gene sequences in the chloroplast genome of these two Morinda spp. has been attempted for precise identification. Here we report the use of two barcoding genes (maturase kinase and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit) to distinguish M. reticulata and M. umbellata based on single nucleotide polymorphism. The present findings can be used for authenticating leaf samples of M. reticulata and M. umbellata.
Previously we reported on a theoretical treatment of the influence on freezing rate of sudden changes in translation rate in the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique . This has now been extended to consideration of a linear ramped translation rate and an oscillatory freezing rate. Oscillations above a few hertz are found to be highly damped in smalldiameter apparatus.
An experimental test was made of the theoretical predictions for a sudden change of translation rate. MnBi-Bi eutectic was solidified with current induced interface demarcation.The experimental results correspond reasonably well with theory if the silica ampoule wall is assumed either (1) to contribute only a resistance to heat exchange of sample with the furnace wall, or (2) to transmit heat effectively in the axial direction by radiation.
In an attempt to explain the fact that a finer microstructure is obtained in space, MnBi-Bi microstructure is being determined when the freezing rate is rapidly increased or decreased. Preliminary results indicate that fiber branching does not occur as readily as does fiber termination.
Chemical bath deposition is a thin film technique in which semiconductor thin films of typically 0.02 – 1 μm thickness are deposited on substrates immersed in dilute baths containing metal ions and a source of sulfide or selenide ions. Many I–VI, II–VI, IV–VI, and V–VI semiconductors are included in the list of materials deposited by this technique, II–VI compounds CdS, CdSe, ZnS and ZnSe being the most investigated. However, a mathematical model describing the growth mechanism of these films still remains to be established. The deposition process consists of a nucleation phase, growth phase, and a terminal phase, each of which depends on the concentration of the ions in the deposition bath, its temperature, dissociation constants of the metal complex ions, etc. In this paper we propose a mathematical model, which can qualitatively account for most of the features of the experimental growth curves of chemically deposited semiconductor films.
Selenium thin films (350 nm) deposited from a 0.01 M solution of Na2SeSO3 of pH 4.5 maintained at 10 °C for 13 h, have been used as a source of selenium vapour for reaction with vacuum deposited Ag thin film on chemically deposited Sb2S3+Ag layers. When a stack of Sb2S3+Ag is heated in contact with Se film, AgSbSe2 is formed through solid state reaction of Sb2S3 and Ag2Se. The latter is formed at 80°C through the reaction of Ag-film in Se-vapour. This thin film is photoconductive and p-type. The optical band gap is nearly 1 eV and dark conductivity, 10-3 Ω-1cm-1. This thin film has been incorporated to form a photovoltaic structure, SnO2:F-(n)CdS:In-(i)Sb2S3-(p)AgSbSe2-silver print. Voc> 400 mV and Jsc>12 mA/cm2 have been observed in this under an illumination intensity of 1 kWm-2.
Ge nanocrystals (NCs) of diameter 4–13 nm are grown embedded in a thermally grown SiO2 layer by Ge ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies are performed on these embedded Ge nanocrystals to understand the origin of the PL emission at room temperature. Steady state PL spectra show a broad peak consisting of a peak at ∼2.1 eV originating from Ge NCs and another peak at ∼2.3 eV arising from ion-beam induced defects in the Ge/SiO2 interface. Time-resolved PL studies reveal double exponential decay dynamics of the PL emission on the nanoseconds time scale. The faster component of the decay with large amplitude and having a time constant τ1∼3.1 ns is attributed to the nonradiative lifetime, since the time constant reduces with increasing defect density. The slower component with time constant τ2∼10 ns is attributed to radiative recombination at the Ge NCs. These results are in close agreement with the theoretically predicted radiative lifetime for small Ge NCs.
Antimony sulfide thin films (300 nm) have been deposited on glass substrates at 1–10°C from chemical bath. When heated these become crystalline and photoconductive with optical band gap (direct) of 1.7 eV. Thin films formed from chemical baths containing SbCl3 and sodium selenosulfate are of mixed phase Sb2O3/Sb2Se3, which when heated in the presence of Se-vapor converts to single phase Sb2Se3 film with optical band gap of 1.1 eV. Such films possess dark conductivity of 10-8 ohm-1cm-1 and show photosensitivity of two orders. Reaction of Sb2S3-CuS in nitrogen at 400°C produces crystalline, photoconductive p-type CuSbS2 with optical band gap (direct) of 1.5 eV. By controlling the deposition and heating condition, (i)Sb2S3-(p)CuSbS2 layer is formed, which is utilized in a photovoltaic structure, (n)CdS:In-(i)Sb2S3-(p)CuSbS2, with a Voc of 345 mV and Jsc 0.18 mA/cm2 under 1 kW m-2 tungsten halogen illumination. In the case of a structure, CdS:Cl-Sb2S3-Cu2-xSe, Voc of 350 mV and Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2 are observed.
Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) and bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) thin films of 200 nm thickness each were deposited from aqueous baths on glass substrates. Subsequently, thin films of thallium sulfide (Tl2S) with thickness around 120 nm were deposited on to these films from a bath containing thallium nitrate, sodium citrate, sodium hydroxide and thiourea. The multilayer films of Sb2S3-Tl2S, Bi2S3-Tl2S and Bi2S3-Sb2S3-Tl2S, thus produced, were heated in a nitrogen atmosphere around 300°C. XRD studies confirmed the formation of TlSbS2, TlBiS2, Tl4Bi2S5 and TlSb3S5 compounds. Optical band gaps of these materials are 1.85 eV (TlSbS2), 0.15 eV (TlBiS2), and about 1 eV for the composite film (Tl4Bi2S5 + TlSb3S5). In the visible spectral region, the optical absorption coefficients of these materials are about 105 cm-1. Values of dark conductivity are 10-7 Ωcm-1 (TlSbS2), 10-4 Ωcm-1 for TlBiS2 and 10-6 Ωcm-1 for the composite film. All the films are photoconductive.
Ecological changes observed in cloud forests in the Monteverde area, northern Costa Rica, including disappearance of anuran populations and expansion of bird and bat ranges to higher elevations, have been linked to an increasing trend in dry-season mist-free days. Prior studies suggest that this trend may be influenced by both large-scale processes of climate change and regional-scale changes in land cover. Preliminary investigations exploring the impact of land use on cloud formation indicated that drying and warming of boundary layer air in response to lowland deforestation leads to increased cloud base heights. In the present study, numerical model experiments utilizing realistic land-use scenarios and atmospheric conditions are used to further explore the impact of land-use change on orographic cloud formation. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was used to simulate orographic cloud formation during the time period of 1–14 March 2003 in the Monteverde region for pristine, current, and future land-use scenarios. The simulations were initiated from the same atmospheric conditions and subject to similar lateral boundary conditions. Comparisons against observations showed that RAMS was capable of realistically simulating the nature of orographic cloud formation and boundary-layer thermodynamics. Numerical simulations indicated that deforestation in the lowlands and adjacent pre-montane areas results in an increase in average cloud base height and a consequent decrease in the areal extent of montane forests immersed in clouds. In the current and future land-use scenarios, warmer and drier air is found over the lowlands and pre-montane areas. […]
Sites described as tropical montane cloud forests differ greatly, in part because observers tend to differ in their opinion as to what constitutes “frequent and prolonged” immersion in cloud. This definitional difficulty interferes with hydrological analyses, assessments of environmental impacts on ecosystems, and biogeographical analyses of cloud forest communities and species. Quantitative measurements of cloud immersion can be obtained on site, but the observations are necessarily spatially limited, although well-placed observers can examine 10–50 km of a mountain range under rainless conditions. Regional analyses, however, require observations at a broader scale. This chapter discusses remote sensing and modeling approaches that can provide quantitative measures of the spatio-temporal patterns of cloud cover and cloud immersion in tropical mountain ranges. These approaches integrate remote sensing tools of various spatial resolutions and frequencies of observation, digital elevation models, regional atmospheric models, and ground-based observations to provide measures of cloud cover, cloud base height, and the intersection of cloud and terrain. This combined approach was applied to the Monteverde region of northern Costa Rica to illustrate how the proportion of time the forest is immersed in cloud may vary spatially and temporally. The observed spatial variation was largely due to patterns of airflow over the mountains. The temporal variation reflected the diurnal rise and fall of the orographic cloud base, which was influenced in turn by synoptic weather conditions, the seasonal movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the north-easterly trade winds. […]