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Although parents and educators have identified student social and emotional development as an important educational outcome, this domain has not received as much emphasis in educational policy or practice as academic achievement. Recognition of the contributions of social and emotional learning (SEL) to students’ social and academic success, however, has increased interest in promoting SEL in schools over the last decade. This chapter begins with a brief introduction to SEL constructs and definitions, followed by a synopsis of current SEL assessment and intervention practices. We also highlight the current state of empirical evidence for these practices and then turn to several important necessary future directions to advance school-based SEL practices.
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to physical distancing measures in numerous countries in an attempt to control the spread. However, these measures are not without cost to the health and economies of the nations in which they are enacted. Nations are now looking for methods to remove physical distancing measures and return to full functioning. To prevent a massive second wave of infections, this must be done with a data-driven methodology. The purpose of this article is to propose an algorithm for COVID-19 testing that would allow for physical distancing to be scaled back in a stepwise manner, which limits ensuing infections and protects the capacity of the health care system.
Colombia is the fourth largest country in South America. It is an upper middle-income country with an estimated population of 49.2 million people, and road traffic collisions (RTCs) are the second most common cause of traumatic death. The United Nations (UN) proclaimed 2011 to 2020 as the “Decade of Action for Road Safety.” In this context, the government of Colombia established the National Road Safety Plan (PNSV) for the period 2011-2021, aiming to reduce RTC-related deaths by 26%. Some road safety laws (RSLs) were implemented before the PNSV, but their impact on deaths and injuries is still not known.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether these RSLs have had a long-term effect on road safety in the country.
Data on RTC casualties, deaths, and injuries from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2017 were collated from official Colombian governmental publications. Three different periods were considered for analysis: 2001-2010 to evaluate the Transit Code; 2011-2017 to evaluate the PNSV; and 2001-2017 to evaluate a composite of the full study period. Analyses of trends in deaths and injuries were related to dates of new RSLs.
A total of 102,723 deaths (12.7%) and 707,778 injuries (87.3%) were reported from 2001 through 2017. The Transit Code period (2001-2010) showed a 10.1% decline in deaths, 16.6% decline in injuries, and rates per 100,000 inhabitants and per 10,000 registered vehicles also declined. During the period of the PNSV (2011-2017), there was an increase in the number of deaths by 16.6%, injuries decreased by 1.7%, and death rates per 100,000 inhabitants also increased. During the total study period, a 12.4% reduction in the total number of casualties was achieved, and death and injury rates per 100,000 inhabitants decreased by 12.4% and 27.5%, respectively.
Despite the introduction of the PNSV, RTCs remain the second most common cause of preventable death in Colombia. Overall, while the absolute number of RTCs and deaths has been increasing, the rate of RTCs per 10,000 registered vehicles has been decreasing. This suggests that although the goals of the PNSV may not be realized, some of the laws emanating from it may be having a beneficial effect. Further study is required over a protracted period to determine the longer-term impact of these initiatives.
Juvenile sex offending all too often is the reason of public commotion and concern. About 20% of all rapes and 20–50% of cases of child abuse are perpetrated by juveniles. However little is known on the psychiatric characteristics and recidivism rates of these youths. In the present study the prevalence of psychopathology in (subgroups of) juvenile sex offenders and its relation with criminal recidivism two to four years later were investigated.
Semi-structured psychiatric interviews (K-SADS-PL) and a parent-report questionnaire (CSBQ) were carried out with 106 adolescent sex offenders (mean age 15.0 ± 1.5 years, 60 group offenders, 27 solo rapists, and 19 child molesters) referred to the Dutch child protection agency and juvenile justice institutions. Recidivism was ascertained from registration systems.
Three quarters of juvenile sex offenders met criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder and comorbidity was found in more than half of the subjects. Child molesters showed the highest rates of internalizing disorders and showed most pronounced autism spectrum disorder core symptomatology. Forty percent of juvenile sex offenders had committed multiple sexual offenses, but none recidivated sexually within the 2–4 years after the study. Compared to one time sex offenders, multiple sex offenders were higher in DBD and anxiety disorder.
Child and adolescent psychiatric care should be given to juvenile sex offenders, with particular attention to multiple sex offenders and child molesters. However, the predictive value of psychopathology for sexual recidivism remains unclear and warrants further research.
Disasters are high-acuity, low-frequency events which require medical providers to respond in often chaotic settings. Due to this infrequency, skills can atrophy, so providers must train and drill to maintain them. Historically, drilling for disaster response has been costly, and thus infrequent. Virtual Reality Environments (VREs) have been demonstrated to be acceptable to trainees, and useful for training Disaster Medicine skills. The improved cost of virtual reality training can allow for increased frequency of simulation and training.
The problem addressed was to create a novel Disaster Medicine VRE for training and drilling.
A VRE was created using SecondLife (Linden Lab; San Francisco, California USA) and adapted for use in Disaster Medicine training and drilling. It is easily accessible for the end-users (trainees), and is adaptable for multiple scenario types due to the presence of varying architecture and objects. Victim models were created which can be role played by educators, or can be virtual dummies, and can be adapted for wide ranging scenarios. Finally, a unique physiologic simulator was created which allows for dummies to mimic disease processes, wounds, and treatment outcomes.
The VRE was created and has been used extensively in an academic setting to train medical students, as well as to train and drill disaster responders.
This manuscript presents a new VRE for the training and drilling of Disaster Medicine scenarios in an immersive, interactive experience for trainees.
Treatment enactment, a final stage of treatment implementation, refers to patients’ application of skills and concepts from treatment sessions into everyday life situations. We examined treatment enactment in a two-arm, multicenter trial comparing two psychoeducational treatments for persons with chronic moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and problematic anger.
Seventy-one of 90 participants from the parent trial underwent a telephone enactment interview at least 2 months (median 97 days, range 64–586 days) after cessation of treatment. Enactment, quantified as average frequency of use across seven core treatment components, was compared across treatment arms: anger self-management training (ASMT) and personal readjustment and education (PRE), a structurally equivalent control. Components were also rated for helpfulness when used. Predictors of, and barriers to, enactment were explored.
More than 80% of participants reported remembering all seven treatment components when queried using a recognition format. Enactment was equivalent across treatments. Most used/most helpful components concerned normalizing anger and general anger management strategies (ASMT), and normalizing traumatic brain injury-related changes while providing hope for improvement (PRE). Higher baseline executive function and IQ were predictive of better enactment, as well as better episodic memory (trend). Poor memory was cited by many participants as a barrier to enactment, as was the reaction of other people to attempted use of strategies.
Treatment enactment is a neglected component of implementation in neuropsychological clinical trials, but is important both to measure and to help participants achieve sustained carryover of core treatment ingredients and learned material to everyday life.
Exposure to adverse events is prevalent among youths and robustly associated with risk for depression, particularly during adolescence. The Dimensional Model of Adversity and Psychopathology (DMAP) distinguishes between adverse events that expose youths to deprivation versus threat, positing unique mechanisms of risk (cognitive functioning deficits for deprivation, and altered fear and emotion learning for threat) that may require different approaches to intervention. We examined whether deprivation and threat were distinctly associated with behavioral measures of cognitive processes and autonomic nervous system function in relation to depression symptom severity in a community sample of early adolescents (n = 117; mean age 12.73 years; 54.7% male). Consistent with DMAP, associations between threat and depression symptoms, and between economic deprivation and depression symptoms, were distinctly moderated by physiological and cognitive functions, respectively, at baseline but not follow-up. Under conditions of greater cognitive inhibition, less exposure to deprivation was associated with lower symptom severity. Under conditions of blunted resting-state autonomic response (electrodermal activity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia), greater exposure to threat was associated with higher symptom severity. Our findings support the view that understanding risk for youth depression requires parsing adversity: examining distinct roles played by deprivation and threat, and the associated cognitive and biological processes.
Twin studies are one of the main tools for studying the interaction between genes and the environment in the development of complex diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The Isfahan Twin Registry (ITR) was launched in Isfahan in 2017 as a pilot study to establish a nationwide twin registry in Iran and aims to obtain comprehensive information about complex diseases and their risk factors from twins and multiples living in Isfahan. ITR will continue to recruit twins and multiples until all twins residing in Isfahan are registered in the registry. Twins are identified from welfare agencies, public health homes, maternity hospitals, Persian Twins Association and the local media. Demographic information, twin similarities, lifestyle, family history of diseases and past medical history are collected using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure are measured by health professionals. Hematology panel, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and quantitative C-reactive protein are measured by an automated analyzer. Extra samples are obtained for future studies. For twins aged under 6 years, parents complete the questionnaires for their children and a brief questionnaire for themselves. Currently, 998 persons (395 pairs and 67 multiples) are registered in the ITR and have provided their data. Results of preliminary data analysis are discussed in this article. We plan to carry out longitudinal assessments. ITR can play an important role in future epigenetic, biomarkers and omics studies using the biobank materials.
The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA) is a longitudinal behavioral genetic study with a primary focus on cognitive and brain aging in men, particularly early identification of risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It comprises a subset of over 1600 twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Twins live all over the USA. Assessments began when participants were in their 50s. Follow-ups were conducted every 5–6 years, and wave 3 has been completed as of this writing. The age range of participants is narrow (about 10 years). An extensive neurocognitive test battery has added precision in assessing differences in middle-aged adults, and predicting progression to MCI. Young adult cognitive test data (at an average age of 20 years) provide a means of disentangling aging effects from longstanding differences. Genome wide genotyping and plasma assays of AD biomarkers from waves 1 and 3 were conducted in wave 3. These features make the VETSA ideal for studying the heterogeneity of within-individual trajectories from midlife to old age, and for early detection of risk factors for cognitive decline.
The Project Talent Twin and Sibling (PTTS) study includes 4481 multiples and their 522 nontwin siblings from 2233 families. The sample was drawn from Project Talent, a U.S. national longitudinal study of 377,000 individuals born 1942–1946, first assessed in 1960 and representative of U.S. students in secondary school (Grades 9–12). In addition to the twins and triplets, the 1960 dataset includes 84,000 siblings from 40,000 other families. This design is both genetically informative and unique in facilitating separation of the ‘common’ environment into three sources of variation: shared by all siblings within a family, specific to twin-pairs, and associated with school/community-level factors. We term this the GIFTS model for genetics, individual, family, twin, and school sources of variance. In our article published in a previous Twin Research and Human Genetics special issue, we described data collections conducted with the full Project Talent sample during 1960–1974, methods for the recent linking of siblings within families, identification of twins, and the design of a 54-year follow-up of the PTTS sample, when participants were 68–72 years old. In the current article, we summarize participation and data available from this 2014 collection, describe our method for assigning zygosity using survey responses and yearbook photographs, illustrate the GIFTS model applied to 1960 vocabulary scores from more than 80,000 adolescent twins, siblings and schoolmates and summarize the next wave of PTTS data collection being conducted as part of the larger Project Talent Aging Study.
The South Korean Twin Registry (SKTR) is an ongoing nationwide volunteer registry of South Korean twins and their families. Since its inception, from preschooler to young adult, twins have been registered with the SKTR and have demonstrated that relative influences of genetic and environmental factors explaining individual differences in various psychological, mental health and physical traits in South Koreans are similar to those found in many Western twin studies. Currently, studies at the SKTR focus on identification of the process of gene-by-environment interactions as well as developmental differences in genetic and environmental influences on psychological and mental health traits in South Koreans. This report provides a brief overview, recruitment strategies, current samples, zygosity assessment, measures and future directions of the SKTR.
The Arizona Twin Project is an ongoing longitudinal study designed to elucidate gene–environment interplay underlying the development of risk and resilience to common mental and physical health problems during infancy, childhood and adolescence. Specificity of risk is carefully examined across mental and physical health and how these influences vary across socioeconomic and sociocultural environments. Participants are a sample of approximately 700 twins (31% Latinx) recruited from birth records in the state of Arizona, USA. Twins are 32% monozygotic twins, 36% same-sex dizygotic (DZ), 32% opposite-sex DZ, currently 10–11 years of age. Primary caregivers were interviewed on twins’ development and early physical and social environments when twins were 1, 2 and 5 years of age. In-depth objective measurement commenced in middle childhood, with in-person assessments at 8–11 years of age, with plans to continue to follow the sample across adolescence. Middle childhood measures focus on children’s physical and mental health, including diurnal cortisol, actigraphy-based measures of sleep and activity, cold pressor task assessing acute pain, and reaction time tasks assessing executive functioning. Preliminary findings illustrate that objective assessments of children’s health are highly heritable, but they do not always share genetic etiology with more commonly used subjective assessments. Exposure to early adversity moderates genetic influences on both executive functioning and health, with higher heritability typically seen under adverse conditions. Future directions include an examination of how pubertal stage affects genetic and environmental influences on diurnal cortisol, sleep, chronic pain, and mental health.
This article explores the justification for providing separate experiences for twins. The focus is on Dorothy Burlingham’s (1952; Twins: A study of three sets of identical twins with 30 charts. London, UK: Imago) classic, in-depth study of three identical twin-pairs. Implications for how twins are raised currently will be examined. Reviews are presented of twin research concerning monozygotic twins with maturity-onset diabetes, gene editing of fetal Chinese twins, educational disadvantage of early-born twins, and developmental trajectories of twins’ prenatal movements. Some unusual experiences and situations involving twins that warrant media attention are also summarized. They include twins with nearly identical license plates, a rare case of fetus-in-fetu, twin brothers killed at Pearl Harbor, the death of a 96-year-old twin Holocaust survivor, the accidental death of male–female twin toddlers in a heated car and confusion over identical twin politicians.
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolescence in 2012 and 2013 and three independent anonymous cross-sectional twin surveys (ToTcross) before 2012 — the ToTCross, the Junior and Senior High School Survey and the High School Survey. This article introduces the recent research designs of KoTReC and its publications.
The Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research (MCTFR) comprises multiple longitudinal, community-representative investigations of twin and adoptive families that focus on psychological adjustment, personality, cognitive ability and brain function, with a special emphasis on substance use and related psychopathology. The MCTFR includes the Minnesota Twin Registry (MTR), a cohort of twins who have completed assessments in middle and older adulthood; the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) of twins assessed from childhood and adolescence into middle adulthood; the Enrichment Study (ES) of twins oversampled for high risk for substance-use disorders assessed from childhood into young adulthood; the Adolescent Brain (AdBrain) study, a neuroimaging study of adolescent twins; and the Siblings Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS), a study of adoptive and nonadoptive families assessed from adolescence into young adulthood. Here we provide a brief overview of key features of these established studies and describe new MCTFR investigations that follow up and expand upon existing studies or recruit and assess new samples, including the MTR Study of Relationships, Personality, and Health (MTR-RPH); the Colorado-Minnesota (COMN) Marijuana Study; the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study; the Colorado Online Twins (CoTwins) study and the Children of Twins (CoT) study.
Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.