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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our objective is to understand the influence of the features comprising metabolic syndrome (central obesity, raised fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, blood pressure, and decreased HDL cholesterol) on brain structure in men and women. With the understanding that MetS is a strong predictor of gray matter volume loss in specific brain regions, in this study we sought to quantify the influence of each of the metabolic syndrome biometric variables on the structures involved in the neural signature of metabolic syndrome. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted multiple linear regression analyses on a cross-sectional sample of 800 individuals from the Genetics of Brian Structure (GOBS) image archive (352 men and 448 women). GOBS is an offshoot of the San Antonio Heart Study involving an extended pedigree of Mexican Americans from the greater San Antonio area. Its goal is to localize, identify, and characterize genes/quantitative trait loci associated with variations in brain structure and function (Winkler, 2010). The archive has continuously added participants from approximately 40 families since 2006. Neuroanatomic (T1-weighted MRI scans obtained on a Siemens 3T scanner and processed using FSL), neurocognitive, and biometric phenotypes have been obtained for each subject (including blood lipids). Linear regressions were run using SPSS and incorporated biometric and gray matter volume values obtained from 800 GOBS participants. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Linear regressions incorporating metabolic syndrome variables as dependent variables and gray matter volume from regions involved in the neural signature of metabolic syndrome as predictors show significant predictive patterns that are largely similar between men and women, with some differences. Another linear regression conducted with gray matter volume from the neural signature of metabolic syndrome as the dependent variable and metabolic syndrome variables as predictors show that waist circumference and triglycerides are the greatest predictors of gray matter volume loss in men, and fasting plasma glucose and waist circumference are the greatest predictors of gray matter volume loss in women. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Significant sex differences in the relationships between metabolic syndrome variables and gray matter volume changes between brain regions comprising the neural signature of metabolic syndrome were identified. waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides are the most reliable predictors of gray matter volume loss. The variance in gray matter volume of the neural signature of metabolic syndrome in men is more significantly explained by waist circumference and triglycerides (when accounting for age) and in women is more significantly explained by waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose (when accounting for age). A model of metabolic syndrome that emphasizes a risk of neurodegeneration should focus on waist circumference for both men and women and weigh the remaining variables accordingly by sex (triglycerides in men and fasting plasma glucose in women).
Our 2015-2016 ALMA 1.3 to 0.87 mm observations (resolution ~200 au) of the massive protocluster NGC6334I revealed that an extraordinary outburst had occurred in the dominant millimeter dust core MM1 (luminosity increase of 70×) when compared with earlier SMA data. The outburst was accompanied by the flaring of ten maser transitions of three species. We present new results from our recent JVLA observations of Class II 6.7 GHz methanol masers and 6 GHz excited OH masers in this region. Class II masers had not previously been detected toward MM1 in any interferometric observations recorded over the past 30 years that targeted the bright masers toward other members of the protocluster (MM2 and MM3=NGC6334F). Methanol masers now appear both toward and adjacent to MM1 with the strongest spots located in a dust cavity ~1 arcsec (1300 au) north of the MM1B hypercompact HII region. In addition, new excited OH masers appear on the non-thermal source CM2. These data reveal the dramatic effects of episodic accretion onto a deeply-embedded high mass protostar and demonstrate its ongoing impact on the surrounding protocluster.
We present subarcsecond resolution pre- and post-outburst JVLA continuum and water maser observations of the massive protostellar outburst source NGC6334I-MM1. The continuum data at 5 and 1.4 cm reveal that the free-free emission powered by MM1B, modeled as a hypercompact HII region from our 2011 JVLA data, has dropped by a factor of 5.4. Additionally, the water maser emission toward MM1, which had previously been strong (500 Jy) has dramatically reduced. In contrast, the water masers in other locations in the protocluster have flared, with the strongest spots associated with CM2, a non-thermal radio source that appears to mark a shock in a jet emanating 2″ (2600 au) northward from MM1. The observed quenching of the HCHII region suggests a reduction in uv photon production due to bloating of the protostar in response to the episodic accretion event.
Policy-makers and practitioners have a need to assess community resilience in disasters. Prior efforts conflated resilience with community functioning, combined resistance and recovery (the components of resilience), and relied on a static model for what is inherently a dynamic process. We sought to develop linked conceptual and computational models of community functioning and resilience after a disaster.
We developed a system dynamics computational model that predicts community functioning after a disaster. The computational model outputted the time course of community functioning before, during, and after a disaster, which was used to calculate resistance, recovery, and resilience for all US counties.
The conceptual model explicitly separated resilience from community functioning and identified all key components for each, which were translated into a system dynamics computational model with connections and feedbacks. The components were represented by publicly available measures at the county level. Baseline community functioning, resistance, recovery, and resilience evidenced a range of values and geographic clustering, consistent with hypotheses based on the disaster literature.
The work is transparent, motivates ongoing refinements, and identifies areas for improved measurements. After validation, such a model can be used to identify effective investments to enhance community resilience. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:127–137)
I am honored to participate on this plenary and I want to extend my thanks to the conference planning committee for the invitation. I come to this gathering as a civil rights scholar who has an interest in black education in the South. I do not consider it hyperbole on this the fiftieth anniversary of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) to say that the legislation was the most important federal government action on black education since the second Morrill Act of 1890. Surely, some in this room would disagree with my assessment and make a strong case for the 1954 Brown decision. Indeed, the Supreme Court declaring segregation in public schools unconstitutional was significant. The ruling, however, had a lot of bark but very little bite, and the recalcitrant South needed bite. We know the states of the former Confederacy needed a get-tough “if-then approach”—as in, if you don't do X, then you won't get Y.
Despite decades of research aimed at identifying the causes of postpartum depression (PPD), PPD remains common, and the causes are poorly understood. Many have attributed the onset of PPD to the rapid perinatal change in reproductive hormones. Although a number of human and nonhuman animal studies support the role of reproductive hormones in PPD, several studies have failed to detect an association between hormone concentrations and PPD. The purpose of this review is to examine the hypothesis that fluctuations in reproductive hormone levels during pregnancy and the postpartum period trigger PPD in susceptible women. We discuss and integrate the literature on animal models of PPD and human studies of reproductive hormones and PPD. We also discuss alternative biological models of PPD to demonstrate the potential for multiple PPD phenotypes and to describe the complex interplay of changing reproductive hormones and alterations in thyroid function, immune function, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function, lactogenic hormones, and genetic expression that may contribute to affective dysfunction. There are 3 primary lines of inquiry that have addressed the role of reproductive hormones in PPD: nonhuman animal studies, correlational studies of postpartum hormone levels and mood symptoms, and hormone manipulation studies. Reproductive hormones influence virtually every biological system implicated in PPD, and a subgroup of women seem to be particularly sensitive to the effects of perinatal changes in hormone levels. We propose that these women constitute a “hormone-sensitive” PPD phenotype, which should be studied independent of other PPD phenotypes to identify underlying pathophysiology and develop novel treatment targets.
All antipsychotic medications carry warnings of increased mortality for older adults, but little is known about comparative mortality risks between individual agents.
To estimate the comparative mortality risks of commonly prescribed antipsychotic agents in older people living in the community.
A retrospective, claims-based cohort study was conducted of people over 65 years old living in the community who had been newly prescribed risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, haloperidol, aripiprazole or ziprasidone (n = 136 393). Propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models assessed the 180-day mortality risk of each antipsychotic compared with risperidone.
Risperidone, olanzapine and haloperidol showed a dose–response relation in mortality risk. After controlling for propensity score and dose, mortality risk was found to be increased for haloperidol (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.18, 95% CI 1.06–1.33) and decreased for quetiapine (HR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73–0.89) and olanzapine (HR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.74–0.90).
Significant variation in mortality risk across commonly prescribed antipsychotics suggests that antipsychotic selection and dosing may affect survival of older people living in the community.
We present the case of a newborn with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia, with a right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta, and a left pulmonary artery arising from the right coronary artery via an indirect aortopulmonary collateral. The embryogenesis of this unusual combination of pulmonary blood supply has significant implications when considering normal migration of the aortopulmonary septum.
Secondary pharmacological interventions have shown promise at reducing the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) in preclinical studies. The present study examined the preliminary efficacy of a 10-day low-dose (20 mg bid) course of hydrocortisone at preventing PTSS in traumatic injury victims.
Sixty-four traumatic injury patients (34% female) were randomly assigned in a double-blind protocol to receive either a 10-day course of hydrocortisone or placebo initiated within 12 hours of the trauma. One-month and 3-months posttrauma participants completed an interview to assess PTSS and self-report measures of depression and health-related quality of life.
Hydrocortisone recipients reported fewer PTSD and depression symptoms, and had greater improvements in health-related quality of life during the first 3 months posttrauma than did placebo recipients. Hydrocortisone recipients who had never received prior mental health treatment had the lowest PTSD scores.
Low-dose hydrocortisone may be a promising approach to the prevention of PTSD in acutely injured trauma patients, and may be particularly efficacious in acutely injured trauma victims without a history of significant psychopathology.
Objective. The study examined the evidence for the influence of chronic pain on proximal work participation behaviours important for job retention such as presenteeism, absenteeism and job satisfaction.
Method. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken using various databases including PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus and other sources which resulted in the identification of 353 articles of which 15 articles were chosen for analysis and inclusion. Eligibility was based on a mixed methodological framework using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist.
Results. There is evidence to suggest that chronic pain influences work participation qualities including absenteeism, presenteeism and job satisfaction. Personality and work content factors mediate the relationship between chronic pain and the proximal work participation variables.
Conclusion. Interventions targeting proximal work context behaviours appear to hold promise for long-term work participation by people with chronic pain. Rehabilitation interventions for job retention with chronic pain will likely be successful with attention to ongoing, changeable work participation behaviours that predict job retention.
The success of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention programs in intensive care units (ICUs) has led to the expansion of surveillance at many hospitals. We sought to compare non-ICU CLABSI (nCLABSI) rates with national reports and describe methods of surveillance at several participating US institutions.
Design and Setting.
An electronic survey of several medical centers about infection surveillance practices and rate data for non-ICU Patients.
Ten tertiary care hospitals.
In March 2011, a survey was sent to 10 medical centers. The survey consisted of 12 questions regarding demographics and CLABSI surveillance methodology for non-ICU patients at each center. Participants were also asked to provide available rate and device utilization data.
Hospitals ranged in size from 238 to 1,400 total beds (median, 815). All hospitals reported using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions. Denominators were collected by different means: counting patients with central lines every day (5 hospitals), indirectly estimating on the basis of electronic orders (n = 4), or another automated method (n = 1). Rates of nCLABSI ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 infections per 1,000 catheter-days (median, 2.5). The national rate reported by the CDC using 2009 data from the National Healthcare Surveillance Network was 1.14 infections per 1,000 catheter-days.
Only 2 hospitals were below the pooled CLABSI rate for inpatient wards; all others exceeded this rate. Possible explanations include differences in average central line utilization or hospital size in the impact of certain clinical risk factors notably absent from the definition and in interpretation and reporting practices. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether the national benchmarks are low or whether the hospitals surveyed here represent a selection of outliers.
We have used the recently-upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in A-configuration to observe the water masers in the massive protostellar cluster NGC6334I with broad bandwidth and high spectral resolution. Four groups of maser spots are found. The two groups with the broadest velocity span (40 km/s) are towards the UCHII region and the hot core SMA1. The spatial kinematics of the SMA1 masers are consistent in sense and orientation with the large-scale CO outflow and appear to trace the base of the outflow from a protostar at the dust peak of SMA1. Additional masers at the southern end of SMA1 provide evidence for a second protostar. The highest intensity maser lies about 2″ north of SMA1. Interestingly, no water masers are seen on the equally impressive hot core SMA2. Finally, we have detected maser emission toward the enigmatic source SMA4, which shows no millimeter molecular lines despite having strong, compact submillimeter continuum and may trace another protostar.
Large-scale Spitzer surveys of the Galactic plane have yielded a new diagnostic for massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) that are actively accreting and driving outflows: extended emission in the IRAC 4.5 μm band, believed to trace shocked molecular gas. Maser studies of these extended 4.5 μm sources (called EGOs, Extended Green Objects, for the common coding of 3-color IRAC images) have been and remain crucial for understanding the nature of EGOs. High detection rates in VLA CH3OH maser surveys provided the first proof that EGOs were indeed MYSOs driving outflows; our recent Nobeyama 45-m survey of northern EGOs shows that the majority are associated with H2O masers. Maser studies of EGOs also provide important constraints for the longstanding goal of a maser evolutionary sequence for MYSOs, particularly in combination with high resolution (sub)mm data. New SMA results show that Class I methanol masers can be excited by both young (hot core) and evolved (ultracompact HII region) sources within the same massive star-forming region.
We have used the recently-upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) to conduct a K-band (~24 GHz) study of 22 massive young stellar objects in 1.3 cm continuum and a comprehensive set of diagnostic lines. This survey is unique in that it samples a wide range of massive star formation signposts simultaneously for the first time. In this proceeding we present preliminary results for the 11 sources in the 2-4 kpc distance bin. We detect compact NH3 cores in all of the fields, with many showing emission up through the (6,6) transition. Maser emission in the 25 GHz CH3OH ladder is present in 7 of 11 sources. We also detect non-thermal emission in the NH3 (3,3) transition in 7 of 11 sources.
Currently, there are over 90 companies that offer HPLC hardware and accessories, and more than 30 that offer complete systems. Given the myriad choices available in the marketplace, the discerning chromatographer needs to approach equipment purchases with a critical mindset and a clear understanding of what they require from an HPLC system or component. This appendix covers some of the features available in HPLC autosamplers, pumps, detectors and ovens. It is not meant to be a definitive catalog of available HPLC hardware components and design elements. Instead, it is designed to call attention to some of the features available in specific HPLC hardware that the authors of this appendix have researched in the context of how these decisions can affect one's ability to produce consistent, high quality pigment results. A thorough review of the basics and advancements in HPLC hardware is covered in the third edition of Introduction to Modern Liquid Chromatography (Snyder et al., 2010).
To make informed decisions regarding one's needs in HPLC hardware, one must understand the component design (and software control thereof) from the perspective of its contribution to combined uncertainty. Uncertainties in pigment results related to hardware characteristics are most often associated with injectors and detectors, and to a lesser extent, column oven design and pump capabilities. The uncertainties of the latter are often related to implementation of a method (e.g. baseline disturbance).