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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Rhinoptera steindachneri is a commercially important, medium-sized, pelagic migratory batoid fish with benthic feeding habits. It has been considered a specialized predator that feeds on molluscs as well as benthic ophiurids and arthropods off the Mexican Pacific coast. Most biological aspects of this species in La Paz Bay are unknown, despite its being a commercially important species of conservation interest. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the feeding habits of R. steindachneri based on specimens caught in artisanal fisheries. The stomach contents of 310 specimens (146 females and 164 males) were analysed, all captured from 2013 to 2015. The vacuity index was 97.1%, and the most important prey species were Mysidium spp. and Cylichna spp. Because of the high frequency of empty stomachs recorded, it was not possible to describe with precision the general diet of the species. Three hypotheses were developed to try to explain why this characteristic occurred in this species, ranging from eating habits to physiology and prey digestion and geographic location of the study. However, considering the mechanical process of prey handling of R. steindachneri, several hypotheses were formulated, with the hour of capture, chemical processes and physiology and prey digestion being the most probable to explain this high vacuity index reported in this study.
We assessed self-reported drives for alcohol use and their impact on clinical features of alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients. Our prediction was that, in contrast to “affectively” (reward or fear) driven drinking, “habitual” drinking would be associated with worse clinical features in relation to alcohol use and higher occurrence of associated psychiatric symptoms.
Fifty-eight Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol abuse patients were assessed with a comprehensive battery of reward- and fear-based behavioral tendencies. An 18-item self-report instrument (the Habit, Reward and Fear Scale; HRFS) was employed to quantify affective (fear or reward) and non-affective (habitual) motivations for alcohol use. To characterize clinical and demographic measures associated with habit, reward, and fear, we conducted a partial least squares analysis.
Habitual alcohol use was significantly associated with the severity of alcohol dependence reflected across a range of domains and with lower number of detoxifications across multiple settings. In contrast, reward-driven alcohol use was associated with a single domain of alcohol dependence, reward-related behavioral tendencies, and lower number of detoxifications.
These results seem to be consistent with a shift from goal-directed to habit-driven alcohol use with severity and progression of addiction, complementing preclinical work and informing biological models of addiction. Both reward-related and habit-driven alcohol use were associated with lower number of detoxifications, perhaps stemming from more benign course for the reward-related and lack of treatment engagement for the habit-related alcohol abuse group. Future work should further explore the role of habit in this and other addictive disorders, and in obsessive-compulsive related disorders.
This paper describes a model of electron energization and cyclotron-maser emission applicable to astrophysical magnetized collisionless shocks. It is motivated by the work of Begelman, Ergun and Rees [Astrophys. J. 625, 51 (2005)] who argued that the cyclotron-maser instability occurs in localized magnetized collisionless shocks such as those expected in blazar jets. We report on recent research carried out to investigate electron acceleration at collisionless shocks and maser radiation associated with the accelerated electrons. We describe how electrons accelerated by lower-hybrid waves at collisionless shocks generate cyclotron-maser radiation when the accelerated electrons move into regions of stronger magnetic fields. The electrons are accelerated along the magnetic field and magnetically compressed leading to the formation of an electron velocity distribution having a horseshoe shape due to conservation of the electron magnetic moment. Under certain conditions the horseshoe electron velocity distribution function is unstable to the cyclotron-maser instability [Bingham and Cairns, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3089 (2000); Melrose, Rev. Mod. Plasma Phys. 1, 5 (2017)].
Spineless cactus is a useful feed for various animal species in arid and semiarid regions due to its adaptability to dry and harsh soil, high efficiency of water use and carbohydrates storage. This meta-analysis was carried out to assess the effect of spineless cactus on animal performance, and develop and evaluate equations to predict dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) in meat lambs. Equations for predicting DMI and ADG as a function of animal and diet characteristics were developed using data from eight experiments. The dataset was comprised of 40 treatment means from 289 meat lambs, in which cactus was included from 0 to 75% of the diet dry matter (DM). Accuracy and precision were evaluated by cross-validation using the mean square error of prediction (MSEP), which was decomposed into mean bias, systematic bias and random error; concordance correlation coefficient, which was decomposed into accuracy (Cb) and precision (ρ); and coefficient of determination (R2). In addition, the data set was used to evaluate the predicting accuracy and precision of the main lamb feeding systems (Agricultural and Food Research Council, Small Ruminant Nutritional System, National Research Council and Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) and also two Brazilian studies. The DMI, CP intake (CPI), metabolizable energy (ME) intake and ADG increased when cactus was included up to 499 g/kg DM (P<0.001). In contrast, animals fed high levels of cactus (>500 g/kg DM) had a decreased DMI, CPI and NDF intake, but increased feed efficiency (P<0.001) and similar ADG compared with those without cactus addition. The DMI was positively correlated with initial BW, final BW, concentrate and ADG, while it was negatively correlated with cactus inclusion and ME of the diet. On other hand, ADG was positively correlated with DMI, initial and mean BW and concentrate, and it was negatively correlated with cactus inclusion. The two developed equations had high accuracy (Cb of 0.95 for DMI and 0.94 for ADG) and the random error of MSEP was 99% for both equations. The precision of both equations was moderate, with R2 values of 0.53 and 0.50 and ρ values of 0.73 and 0.71 for DMI and ADG, respectively. In conclusion, the developed equation to predict DMI had moderate precision and high accuracy, nonetheless, it was more efficient than those reported in the literature. The proposed equations can be a useful alternative to estimate intake and performance of lambs fed cactus.
Crop wild relatives (CWR) are valuable resources for crop breeding due to their close genetic relationship to the cultivated plants and their wide genetic variation, allowing the introgression of desirable traits into the crops, such as resistance to plant pests and diseases or adaptability to climate change. Mexico is a centre of agrobiodiversity, including CWR, but climate change, and other factors, are contributing to the loss of important Mexican CWR genetic diversity. The in situ and ex situ conservation status of Mexican priority CWR were assessed through a gap analysis as part of a national CWR conservation strategy for Mexico, to ensure the long-term preservation and improve the availability of these genetic resources. A set of 310 priority CWR taxa, previously identified as part of the national CWR inventory for Mexico, were analysed. Species distribution modelling and ecogeographic diversity analyses were used to detect gaps in in situ and ex situ conservation at taxon and ecogeographic levels. Priority target sites were identified throughout the country for complementary in situ and ex situ conservation of these taxa. The results obtained allow us to make recommendations for immediate conservation actions, thus helping to mitigate the threats to Mexican agrobiodiversity and enhance both national and global food security.
The alpaca fiber diameter (FD) varies from 18 to 36 μm, being the finer fiber categories highly appreciated. However, the alpaca fiber presents some limitations in the textile industry due to the high incidence of fiber medullation and diameter variability, both reduces the comfort feeling of the garments. Decreasing or even removing medullation could be a possible selection objective in alpaca breeding programs for increasing economic value of the alpaca fiber. Therefore, the present work aimed to estimate genetic parameters regarding medullation traits, as well as the genetic correlations with other economical important traits, to be able to select the appropriate criteria to reduce or remove medullation on alpaca fiber and help to reduce the prickle factor in the garments. The data was collected from 2000 to 2017 and belonged to the Pacomarca experimental farm. There were 3698 medullation records corresponding to 1869 Huacaya and 414 Suri genetic types. The fiber samples were taken from the mid side, and were analyzed in an OFDA 100® device. The traits analyzed were percentage of medullation (PM), medullated fiber diameter (MFD), FD, standard deviation of FD, greasy fleece weight as fiber traits; density, crimp in Huacaya and lock structure in Suri, head conformation, leg coverage as morphological traits; weaning weight and age at first calving as secondary and functional traits. Genetic parameters were estimated via a multitrait restricted maximum likelihood. The heritabilities for PM and MFD were 0.225 and 0.237 in Huacaya genetic type and 0.664 and 0.237 in Suri genetic type, respectively; heritabilities for other traits were moderate for productive and morphological traits, and low to moderate for secondary and functional traits. The genetic correlations PM–FD and MFD–FD were high and favorable in both genetic types, between 0.531 and 0.975; the genetic correlation PM–MFD was 0.121 in Huacaya and 0.427 in Suri. The rest of genetic correlations with other traits were in general moderate and favorable. The repeatabilities were 0.556 and 0.668 for PM, and 0.322 and 0.293 for MFD in Huacaya and Suri genetic types, respectively. As a conclusion, PM was identified to be a good selection criterion, probably combined in an index with FD to reduce prickling factor.
The objective of the current experiment was to determine the effects of increasing levels of palm kernel cake in a finishing diet on feed intake, digestibility, performance, ingestive behaviour and carcass traits in zebu bulls. Thirty-two Nellore bulls (420 ± 25.0 kg initial body weight [BW] and 24-months-old), were assigned randomly to individual pens with four treatments (0, 70, 140 and 210 g/kg of palm kernel cake by total dry matter [DM]) and eight replicates per treatment. The inclusion of palm kernel cake linearly decreased DM, crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake and increased ether extraction intake and digestibility. There was a linear decrease in final BW and hot carcass weight (HCW) associated with palm kernel cake inclusion in the bull diet. However, the gain : feed ratio was similar among the diets. Eating and rumination rates (g DM or neutral detergent fibre/h) were reduced, whereas the total chewing time and idling (min/day) were not affected by palm kernel cake inclusion. There were no effects of palm kernel cake inclusion on most quantitative carcass characteristics and qualitative carcass attributes (subcutaneous fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, colour, texture and marbling). The inclusion of palm kernel cake (up to 210 g/kg total DM) in beef cattle finishing diets decreased eating and rumination rates, thereby decreasing average daily gain and, consequently, final BW and HCW. However, qualitative carcass attributes were not affected by the use of palm kernel cake.
Bovine brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease that still burdens several countries in the Mediterranean, Asia, Africa and Latin America. Although the disease is present in Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands seem to be free from the disease based on a survey conducted in 1997 where all tested animals showed negative results. This study aimed at estimating the probability of freedom from brucellosis in this Ecuadorian province in 2014. A survey was implemented on the three main cattle-producing islands of the province: Santa Cruz, Isabela and San Cristóbal. Thirty-three cattle farms and 410 cattle were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal test and indirect ELISA. All animals showed negative results for both tests. Probability of freedom was estimated at 98%, 91% and 88% for Santa Cruz, Isabela and San Cristóbal, respectively, considering a herd-level design seroprevalence of 20% and animal-level design seroprevalence of 15%, and assuming a perfect specificity of the survey. The negative results found in 1997 and present surveys suggest that the Galapagos Islands are free from bovine brucellosis.
Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) is a weed that frequently infests winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields in Golestan province, Iran. Tribenuron-methyl (TM) has been used recurrently to control this species, thus selecting for resistant S. arvensis populations. The objectives were: (1) to determine the resistance level to TM of 14 putatively resistant (PR) S. arvensis populations, collected from winter wheat fields in Golestan province, Iran, in comparison to one susceptible (S) population; and (2) to characterize the resistance mechanisms and the potential evolution of cross-resistance to other classes of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in three populations (AL-3, G-5, and Ag-Sr) confirmed as being resistant (R) to TM. The TM doses required to reduce the dry weight of the PR populations by 50% were between 2.2 and 16.8 times higher than those needed for S plants. The ALS enzyme activity assays revealed that the AL-3, G-5, and Ag-Sr populations evolved cross-resistance to the candidate ALS-inhibiting herbicides from the sulfonylureas (SU), triazolopyrimidines (TP), pyrimidinyl-thiobenzoates (PTB), sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinone (SCT), and imidazolinones (IMI) classes. No differences in absorption, translocation, or metabolism of [14C]TM between R and S plants were observed, suggesting that these non-target mechanisms were not responsible for the resistance. The ALS gene of the R populations contained the Trp-574-Leu mutation, conferring cross-resistance to the SU, SCT, PTB, TP, and IMI classes. The Trp-574-Leu mutation in the ALS gene conferred cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in S. arvensis from winter wheat fields in Golestan province. This is the first TM resistance case confirmed in this species in Iran.